[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the simplified method for judging visual function of the cynomolgus monkey that was established by the present authors (Suzuki et al., 1988), forty-four cynomolgus monkeys with normal ophthalmoscopic findings, eleven monkeys with macula degeneration and thirteen monkeys with peripheral retinal degeneration were examined for their visual function. It was demonstrated that the monkeys with macula degeneration were inferior in their visual function to the monkeys with normal fundus. In addition, the degree of visual function varied with the degree of macula degeneration. The monkeys with peripheral retinal degeneration showed about the same degree in their visual function as the monkeys with normal fundus.
No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the rate of naturally occurring abortion and fetal death that were diagnosed by the use of an ultrasonographical device in 683 pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) of which 542 were wild-imported monkeys and 141 were colony-bred monkeys. All of these animals had become pregnant by the 3-day timed mating system. The combined rate of abortion and fetal death was 7.0% in the wild-imported animals and 7.8% in the colony-bred animals. There were no significant differences in the rate with respect to different ages and to different period of feeding at Tsukuba Primate Center. Seventy-eight per cent (38 monkeys) of the total cases occurred during the first 5 to 9 pregnancy-weeks.
No preview · Article · May 1990 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report dealt with the change of body temperature (rectal temperature) in the newborn cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with a view to take it as an index for their health conditions. The body temperatures of 183 newborn babies which were well cared for by their mothers was 33.0 to 37.7 degrees C about 10 hr after birth. On the other hand, the body temperatures of 21 newborn babies which were not well cared for by their mothers was very low, ranging from 24.1 to 34.8 degrees C. In five newborn monkeys which were well cared for, the body temperature averaged about 36 degrees C just after birth and then declined rapidly by 32 to 33 degrees C at 40 to 50 minutes after birth. Then it gradually began to rise, reaching 36 to 37 degrees C at 180 to 240 min after birth. In the other four newborn monkeys which were delivered by Caesarean section, the temperature was 37 to 38 degrees C just after birth. Then it decreased to 29 to 32 degrees C at 120 minutes after birth when the newborns remained singly in a cage without warming.
No preview · Article · Nov 1989 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daily food- and water- intake, and urinary and fecal output were determined with 253 wild-originated cynomolgus monkeys kept in individual cages. In addition, urinalysis was done for freshly collected urine. A statistically significant correlation was observed between total water intake and urinary output as well as between urinary output and urinary specific gravity (p less than 0.01).
No preview · Article · Feb 1989 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anterior part of the eye was examined with 1,531 newborn cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). A male (about 0.07%) of those newborns was noticed to have white opacities in his both eyes (Fig. 1). This finding was diagnosed to be bilateral congenital cataract by observing with a slit-lamp biomicroscope. Partial resorption of the white opaque part occurred one week after birth in the right eye (Fig. 2) and three weeks after birth in the left eye (Fig. 3). As a result of the resorption, observation of the ocular fundus by an ophthalmoscope became possible at two and seven weeks of age in the right and left eyes, respectively (Figs. 6 and 7), even though the ophthalmoscopic figures were not complete. White opacities occupied again nearly the whole area of the lens at 10 months of age in the left eye (Fig. 4) and at 14 months of age in the right eye (Fig. 5). Breeding studies are needed to determine if this case has any genetic background.
No preview · Article · May 1986 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ocular fundi of 1,151 apparently healthy colony-born cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) ranging in age from newborn to 19 years were examined using an ophthalmoscope. Two hundred and thirty-eight abnormal findings were recorded in 219 of the 1,151 monkeys. Of these, 23 were related to the optic disc and 115 to the retinal vessels. Of the remaining 100 abnormal findings, 91 were retinal degenerations and 9 were retinal hemorrhages. The 23 optic disc abnormalities consisted of 3 cases of micropapilla, 4 of ectasia and 16 of myelination of the retinal nerve fibers. Of the 115 retinal vascular abnormalities, 87 were arterial tortuosity, one was venous tortuosity, 2 were tortuosity of both artery and vein, 2 were artery-vein crossing, 20 were copper-wire artery, one was inosculation of the artery, one was vascularization of the vein and one was persistent hyaloid artery. Of the 91 retinal degenerations, one was degeneration of the periphery of the macular and the optic disc, 8 were macular degeneration and 82 were peripheral degeneration. Nine cases of retinal hemorrhages appeared under 6 years of age.
No preview · Article · May 1985 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three thousand and five apparently healthy cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were examined for the finding of the anterior part of the oculi by using an ophthalmoscope. One drop of the mixed solution of 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride was instilled into each eye of the animal. Then, those monkeys were anesthetized with ketamine-HC1 at the dose level of 10 mg/kg B. W.. One monkey had opaque membranes of tan to brown color, extending from some part of collarette of the iris to the other part of collarette like the network over the pupil. This finding was diagnosed to be bilateral persistent pupillary membranes. Further breeding studies will be carried to determine if this case in hereditary.
No preview · Article · Feb 1985 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retrospective analyses were made on the relationship between fetal position and stillbirth, using 703 pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. Incidence of the breech position was 59.1% to 12 weeks of gestation. The rate decreased stepwise to 10.4% on the day before delivery. Twenty-one (65.6%) of 32 monkeys who were in the breech position on the day before delivery had stillbirths, whereas only one stillbirth occurred among 275 monkeys whose fetuses were in the cephalic position.
No preview · Article · Feb 1985 · Journal of Medical Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apparently healthy 242 colony-born cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) aged from 0 day to 90 days were examined for the findings of ocular fundus by using ophthalmoscope. One drop of mixed solution of 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride was instilled into each eye of the monkey. Then, those monkeys were anesthetized with ketamine-HC1 at the dose level of 10mg/kg B. W. Regular and fluorescein photographs were taken with Kowa RC-II ophthalmoscope-camera by using daylight typed color film. Following findings were obtained in each age class: Retinal color was salmon pink with 0 to 3-days-old neonates, salmon pink and blue to green with 7 days to 14-days-old animals and blue to green with 60-days to 90-days-old monkeys. As regards optic disc, 0- to 14-days-old animals were observed to be light orange in color, and the infant aged more than 28-days showed orange color. Retinal arteries and veins were lightly reddish in color with every age class. Macular color was salmon pink in 0-day-old cases, slightly dark in 3-days-old neonates and very dark after 14-days of age. Lightly retinal reflex was noted in 0- and 7-days-old animals. The reflex was observable in 14-days-old animals without any case of exception. Retinal hemorrhages were recorded in 22 (67%) of 36 neonates born in natural condition and 10 (33%) of 30 neonates born by cesarean section. These findings will be useful as the criteria for ophthalmoscopic observations of the cynomolgus monkeys as laboratory use.
No preview · Article · May 1984 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apparently healthy 45 newborn cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were examined for the persistence and disappearance of the hyaloid artery by using an ophthalmoscope. On the day of birth, the hyaloid artery was observed in all the newborn animals. Between 21 and 45 days of age, the hyaloid artery faded without exception. The persistence of the hyaloid artery in the newborns and its disappearance during an early period of life can be regarded as a normal phenomenon in the developmental process of infant cynomolgus monkeys.
No preview · Article · May 1984 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Establishing of an efficient system for the judgement of an optimal mating time is an important prerequisite for the successful development of a large scale breeding of macaques as laboratory animals. In general, an optimal mating time has been judged on the basis of individual records of menstruation. The length of the previous menstrual cycle has usually been used for the prediction of the next cycle length. In the present study, the lengths of 240 menstrual cycles of 60 cynomolgus monkeys of our breeding colony were statistically analysed. The mean and the standard deviation of those cycle-lengths were 29.4 and 4.3 days, respectively. Correlationship between the length of a menstrual cycle and the length of its previous cycle was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). However, practically the correlation was not meaningful because the correlation coefficient (r) was very small even if the length of the second one of two successive cycles (r = 0.26) or the average length of three successive cycles (r = 0.36) is selected as a reference length. In other words, a cycle length can not be predicted on the basis of the length of the previous menstrual cycle. However, a marked increase of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was observed from 8 to 15 days after menstruation. In 60 per cent of the animals observed, FSH increased 10 to 11 days after menstruation. Ovulation was observed one or two days later than the day of FSH increase. Therefore, the optimal mating time is judged to be between 11 and 14 days after menstruation regardless of the menstrual cycle length.
No preview · Article · Aug 1982 · Jikken dobutsu. Experimental animals