Orlin D. Velev

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (228)1325.34 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colloids with anisotropic shape and charge distribution can assemble into a variety of structures that could find use as novel materials for optical, photonic, electronic and structural applications. Because experimental characterization of the many possible types of multi-shape and multipolar colloidal particles that could form useful structures is difficult, the search for novel colloidal materials can be enhanced by simulations of colloidal particle assembly. We have simulated a system of dipolar colloidal rods at fixed aspect ratio using discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) to investigate how the charge separation of an embedded dipole affects the types of assemblies that occur. Each dipolar rod is modeled as several overlapping spheres fixed in an elongated shape to represent excluded volume and two smaller, embedded spheres to represent the charges that make up the extended dipole. Large charge separations predominately form structures where the rods link head-to-tail while small charge separations predominately form structures where the rods stack side-by-side. Rods with small charge separations tend to form dense aggregates while rods with large charge separations tend to form coarse gel-like structures. Structural phase boundaries between fluid, string-fluid, and "gel" (networked) phases are mapped out and characterized as to whether they have global head-to-tail or global side-by-side order. A structural coarsening transition is observed for particles with large charge separations in which the head-tail networks thicken as temperature is lowered due to an increased tendency to form side-by-side structures. Triangularly connected networks form at small charge separations; these may be useful for encapsulating smaller particles.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Soft Matter
  • No preview · Article · May 2016 · Advanced Materials Interfaces
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a new class of organic-inorganic patchy particles for efficient stabilization of Pickering foams and emulsions. Using solvent-based heterogeneous precipitation, we decorate inorganic silica particles with discrete domains of water insoluble plant protein (zein). By varying the extent of protein coverage on the silica surface, we tune the pH-dependent interactions of the particles and the interfaces. We observe an optimum foam stabilization, which is attributed to creation of slightly positive low effective surface potential from positively charged protein patches and negatively charged silcia surface. The effect of surface coverage on foam stability is in line with the predicted low interfacial potential of the patchy particles in water, which determines the energy of particle adsorption. In emulsions, the increase of the protein amount on the silica particles causes a progressive bridging of the oil droplets into a close-packing configuration due to gelation of the protein patches. Protein-based organic-inorganic surface heterogeneous particles represent a new versatile platform for stabilization of fluid-in-fluid dispersions and as precursors for assembly of advanced functional materials.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Faraday Discussions
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogel composites that respond to stimuli can form the basis of new classes of biomimetic actuators and soft robotic components. Common latex microspheres can be assembled and patterned by AC electric fields within a soft thermoresponsive hydrogel. The field-oriented particle chains act as endoskeletal structures, which guide the macroscopic bending pattern of the actuators.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Small
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3–6 but slightly soluble at pH < 2 and pH > 8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5–8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8–10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016
  • Nicholas L. Abbott · Orlin D. Velev
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report selective and directional actuation of elastomer films utilizing magnetic anisotropy introduced by chains of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Under uniform magnetic fields or field gradients, dipolar interactions between the MNPs favor magnetization along the chain direction and cause selective lifting. This mechanism is described using a simple model.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nanoscale
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oil foams are composed of gas bubbles dispersed in an oil phase. These systems are scarcely studied despite their great potential in diverse fields such as the food and cosmetic industries. Contrary to aqueous foams, the production of oil foams is difficult to achieve due to the inefficiency of surfactant adsorption at oil-air interfaces. Herein, we report a simple way to produce oil foams from oleogels, whose liquid phase is a mixture of sunflower oil and fatty alcohols. The temperature at which the oleogel formed was found to depend on both fatty alcohol chain length and concentration. The air bubbles in the oleogel foam were stabilized by fatty alcohol crystals. Below the melting temperature of the crystals, oleogel foams were stable for months. Upon heating, these ultrastable foams collapsed within a few minutes due to the melting of the crystal particles. The transition between crystal formation and melting was reversible, leading to thermoresponsive non-aqueous foams. The reversible switching between ultrastable and unstable foam depended solely on the temperature of the system. We demonstrate that these oleogel foams can be made to be photoresponsive by using internal heat sources such as carbon black particles, which can absorb UV light and dissipate the absorbed energy as heat. This simple approach for the formulation of responsive oil foams could be easily extended to other oleogel systems and could find a broad range of applications due to the availability of the components in large quantities and at low cost.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Langmuir
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a fully biomimetic leaf-like device for hydrogen production which allows incorporated fabric-immobilised microalgae culture to be simultaneously hydrated with media and harvested from the produced hydrogen in a continuous flow regime without the need to replace the algal culture. Our leaf device produces hydrogen by direct photolysis of water resulting from redirecting the photosynthetic pathways in immobilised microalgae due to the lack of oxygen. In contrast to the many other reports in the literature on batch photobioreactors producing hydrogen from suspension culture of microalgae, we present the first report where this is done in a continuous manner from a fabric-immobilised microalgae culture. The reported artificial leaf device maximises the sunlight energy utilisation per gram of algae and can be upscaled cheaply and easily to cover large areas. We compared the production of hydrogen from both immobilised and suspended cultures of C. reinhardtii microalgae under sulphur, phosphorus
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Materials Chemistry A
  • Brittany S Mertens · Orlin D Velev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding of the colloidal interactions of Norovirus particles in aqueous medium could provide insights on the origins of the notorious stability and infectivity of these widespread viral agents. We characterized the effects of solution pH and surfactant type and concentration on the aggregation, dispersion, and disassembly of Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Owing to net negative surface charge of the VLPs at neutral pH, low concentrations of cationic surfactant tend to aggregate the VLPs, whereas low concentrations of anionic surfactant tend to disperse the particles. Increasing the concentration of these surfactants beyond their critical micelle concentration leads to virus capsid disassembly and breakdown of aggregates. Non-ionic surfactants, however, had little effect on virus interactions and likely stabilized them additionally in suspension. The data were interpreted on the basis of simple models for surfactant binding and re-charging of the virus capsid. We used zeta potential data to characterize virus surface charge and interpret the mechanisms behind these demonstrated surfactant-virus interactions. The fundamental understanding and control of these interactions will aid in practical formulations for virus inactivation and removal from contaminated surfaces.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Soft Matter
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fabrication of multifunctional materials with tunable structure and properties requires programmed binding of their building blocks. For example, particles organized in long-ranged structures by external fields can be bound permanently into stiff chains through electrostatic or van der Waals attraction, or into flexible chains through soft molecular linkers such as surface-grafted DNA or polymers. Here, we show that capillarity-mediated binding between magnetic nanoparticles coated with a liquid lipid shell can be used for the assembly of ultraflexible microfilaments and network structures. These filaments can be magnetically regenerated on mechanical damage, owing to the fluidity of the capillary bridges between nanoparticles and their reversible binding on contact. Nanocapillary forces offer opportunities for assembling dynamically reconfigurable multifunctional materials that could find applications as micromanipulators, microbots with ultrasoft joints, or magnetically self-repairing gels.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Materials
  • Rachita Sharma · Orlin D. Velev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The principles and design of “active” self-propelling particles that can convert energy, move directionally on their own, and perform a certain function is an emerging multidisciplinary research field, with high potential for future technologies. A simple and effective technique is presented for on-demand steering of self-propelling microdiodes that move electroosmotically on water surface, while supplied with energy by an external alternating (AC) field. It is demonstrated how one can control remotely the direction of diode locomotion by electronically modifying the applied AC signal. The swimming diodes change their direction of motion when a wave asymmetry (equivalent to a DC offset) is introduced into the signal. The data analysis shows that the ability to control and reverse the direction of motion is a result of the electrostatic torque between the asymmetrically polarized diodes and the ionic charges redistributed in the vessel. This novel principle of electrical signal-coded steering of active functional devices, such as diodes and microcircuits, can find applications in motile sensors, MEMs, and microrobotics.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Advanced Functional Materials
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties, but their use has been a cause for concern because they persist in the environment. Here, we show that lignin nanoparticles infused with silver ions and coated with a cationic polyelectrolyte layer form a biodegradable and green alternative to silver nanoparticles. The polyelectrolyte layer promotes the adhesion of the particles to bacterial cell membranes and, together with silver ions, can kill a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and quaternary-amine-resistant Ralstonia sp. Ion depletion studies have shown that the bioactivity of these nanoparticles is time-limited because of the desorption of silver ions. High-throughput bioactivity screening did not reveal increased toxicity of the particles when compared to an equivalent mass of metallic silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate solution. Our results demonstrate that the application of green chemistry principles may allow the synthesis of nanoparticles with biodegradable cores that have higher antimicrobial activity and smaller environmental impact than metallic silver nanoparticles.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Nature Nanotechnology
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Faraday Discussions
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Faraday Discussions
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    Coralie Siebman · Orlin D Velev · Vera I Slaveykova
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alternative current (AC) dielectrophoretic lab-on-chip setup was evaluated as a rapid tool of capture and assembly of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in two-dimensional (2D) close-packed arrays. An electric field of 100 V·cm-1, 100 Hz applied for 30 min was found optimal to collect and assemble the algae into single-layer structures of closely packed cells without inducing cellular oxidative stress. Combined with oxidative stress specific staining and fluorescence microscopy detection, the capability of using the 2D whole-cell assembly on-chip to follow the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress during short-term exposure to several environmental contaminants, including mercury, methylmercury, copper, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), and diuron was explored. The results showed significant increase of the cellular ROS when C. reinhardtii was exposed to high concentrations of methylmercury, CuO-NPs, and 10-5 M Cu. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of combining AC-dielectrophoretically assembled two-dimensional algal structures with cell metabolic analysis using fluorescence staining, as a rapid analytical tool for probing the effect of contaminants in highly impacted environment.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on Brownian Dynamics computer simulations in two dimensions we investigate aggregation scenarios of colloidal particles with directional interactions induced by multiple external fields. To this end we propose a model which allows continuous change in the particle interactions from point-dipole-like to patchy-like (with four patches). We show that, as a result of this change, the non-equilibrium aggregation occurring at low densities and temperatures transforms from conventional diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) to slippery DLCA involving rotating bonds; this is accompanied by a pronounced change of the underlying lattice structure of the aggregates from square-like to hexagonal ordering. Increasing the temperature we find a transformation to a fluid phase, consistent with results of a simple mean-field density functional theory.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Soft Matter
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Biomicrofluidics
  • Bhuvnesh Bharti · Anne-Laure Fameau · Orlin D Velev
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The directed assembly of colloidal particles into linear chains and clusters is of fundamental and practical importance. In this study we characterize and analyse the mechanism of the magnetic field driven assembly of lipid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles into flexible microfilaments. Recently we showed that nanocapillary lipid binding can form a new class of magnetic nanoparticle-lipid microfilaments with unprecedented flexibility and self-healing properties. In the presence of a uniform magnetic field, the magnetophoretic attraction of the particles combined with interparticle dipole-dipole attraction drives the microfilament assembly. The fluid like lipid layer on the particles leads to stickiness on the surface of the filaments and the magnetic field concentration overcomes the potential electrostatic repulsion in the water phase. The lipid capillary bridges formed between the particles facilitate their permanent binding and sustain the flexible microfilament structure. We demonstrate that this surface stickiness combined with the magnetic response of the filaments can be used further to twist, bend and bundle the microfilaments into unusual structures.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Faraday Discussions
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple process for batch or continuous formation of polymer nanofibers and other nanomaterials in the bulk of a sheared fluid medium is introduced. The process could be of high value to commercial nanotechnology as it can be easily scaled up to the fabrication of staple nanofibers at rates that could exceed tens of kilograms per hour. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Advanced Materials

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,325.34 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2002-2014
    • North Carolina State University
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007
    • The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2006
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1997-2005
    • University of Delaware
      • Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics
      Delaware, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Hull
      Kingston upon Hull, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992-1999
    • Medical University of Sofia
      • Department of Chemistry
      Ulpia Serdica, Sofia-Capital, Bulgaria
  • 1995
    • University of Patras
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Patrís, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece