[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes; yet, heterogeneity in CVD risk has been suggested in diabetes, providing a compelling rationale for improving diabetes risk stratification. We hypothesized that N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T may enhance CVD risk stratification beyond commonly used markers of risk and that CVD risk is heterogeneous in diabetes.
Research design and methods:
Among 8,402 participants without prevalent CVD at visit 4 (1996-1998) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study there were 1,510 subjects with diabetes (mean age 63 years, 52% women, 31% African American, and 60% hypertensive).
Over a median follow-up of 13.1 years, there were 540 incident fatal/nonfatal CVD events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke). Both troponin T ≥14 ng/L (hazard ratio [HR] 1.96 [95% CI 1.57-2.46]) and NTproBNP >125 pg/mL (1.61 [1.29-1.99]) were independent predictors of incident CVD events at multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Addition of circulating cardiac biomarkers to traditional risk factors, abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG), and conventional markers of diabetes complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral arterial disease significantly improved CVD risk prediction (net reclassification index 0.16 [95% CI 0.07-0.22]). Compared with individuals without diabetes, subjects with diabetes had 1.6-fold higher adjusted risk of incident CVD. However, participants with diabetes with normal cardiac biomarkers and no conventional complications/abnormal ECG (n = 725 [48%]) were at low risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 0.92-1.31]), while those with abnormal cardiac biomarkers, alone (n = 186 [12%]) or in combination with conventional complications/abnormal ECG (n = 243 [16%]), were at greater risk (1.99 [1.59-2.50] and 2.80 [2.34-3.35], respectively).
Abnormal levels of NTproBNP and troponin T may help to distinguish individuals with high diabetes risk from those with low diabetes risk, providing incremental risk prediction beyond commonly used markers of risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The extent to which the relative contributions of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) may have changed over time remains unclear.
Methods and results:
We studied 13 541 participants (56% women, 26% black) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, aged 52 to 66 years and free of CVD at exams in 1987 through 1989, 1990 through 1992, 1993 through 1995, or 1996 through 1998. At each examination, we estimated the population attributable risks (PAR) of traditional risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) for the 10-year incidence of CVD. Overall, the PAR of all risk factors combined appeared to decrease from the late 1980s to the late 1990s (0.58 to 0.53). The combined PAR was higher in women than men in 1987 through 1989 (0.68 versus 0.51, P<0.001) but not by the late 1990s (0.58 versus 0.48, P=0.08). The combined PAR was higher in blacks than whites in the late 1980s (0.67 versus 0.57, P=0.049), and this difference was more pronounced by the late 1990s (0.67 versus 0.48, P=0.002). By the late 1990s, the PAR of hypertension had become higher in women than men (P=0.02) and also appeared higher in blacks than whites (P=0.08). By the late 1990s, the PAR of diabetes mellitus remained higher in women than men (P<0.0001) and in blacks than whites (P<0.0001).
The contribution to CVD of all traditional risk factors combined is greater in blacks than whites, and this difference may be increasing. The contributions of hypertension and diabetes mellitus remain especially high, in women as well as blacks. These findings underscore the continued need for individual as well as population approaches to CVD risk factor modification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited data on acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) that develops after hospital admission. This study sought to compare patient characteristics, co-morbidities, mortality, and length of stay by timing of ADHF onset. The surveillance component of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (2005 to 2011) sampled, abstracted, and adjudicated hospitalizations with select International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification discharge codes from 4 United States communities among those aged ≥55 years. We included 5,602 validated ADHF hospitalizations further classified as preadmission or postadmission onset. Vital status was assessed up to 1 year since admission. We estimated multivariate-adjusted associations of in-hospital mortality and 28- and 365-day case fatalities with timing of ADHF onset (postadmission vs preadmission). All analyses were weighted to account for the stratified sampling design. Of 25,862 weighted ADHF hospitalizations, 7% had postadmission onset of ADHF. Patients with postadmission ADHF were more likely to be older, white, and women. The most common primary discharge diagnosis codes for those with postadmission ADHF included diseases of the circulatory or digestive systems or infectious diseases. Short-term mortality among postadmission ADHF was almost 3 times that of preadmission ADHF (in-hospital mortality: odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 3.9; 28-day case fatality: odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 3.7). The average hospital stay was almost twice as long among postadmission as preadmission ADHF (9.6 vs 5.0 days). In conclusion, postadmission onset of ADHF is characterized by differences in co-morbidities and worse short-term prognosis, and opportunities for reducing postadmission ADHF occurrence and associated risks need to be studied.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance
Studies document a progressive increase in heart disease risk as systolic blood pressure (SBP) rises above 115 mm Hg, but it is unknown whether an SBP lower than 120 mm Hg among adults with hypertension (HTN) lowers heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction risk.Objective
To examine the risk of incident cardiovascular (CV) events among adults with HTN according to 3 SBP levels: 140 mm Hg or higher; 120 to 139 mm Hg; and a reference level of lower than 120 mm Hg.Design, Setting, and Participants
A total of 4480 participants with HTN but without prevalent CV disease at baseline (years 1987-1989) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study were included. Measurements of SBP were taken at baseline and at 3 triennial visits; SBP was treated as a time-dependent variable and categorized as elevated (≥140 mm Hg), standard (120-139 mm Hg), and low (<120 mm Hg). Multivariable Cox regression models included baseline age, sex, diabetes status, BMI, high cholesterol level, smoking status, and alcohol intake.Main Outcomes and Measures
Incident composite CV events (heart failure, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death related to coronary heart disease).Results
After a median follow-up of 21.8 years, a total of 1622 incident CV events had occurred. Participants with elevated SBP developed incident CV events at a significantly higher rate than those in the low BP group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.26-1.69). However, there was no difference in incident CV event-free survival among those in the standard vs low SBP group (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.85-1.17). Further adjustment for BP medication use or diastolic BP did not significantly affect the results.Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients with HTN, having an elevated SBP carries the highest risk for cardiovascular events, but in this categorical analysis, once SBP was below 140 mm Hg, an SBP lower than 120 mm Hg did not appear to lessen the risk of incident CV events.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · JAMA Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most population-based estimates of incident hospitalized heart failure (HF) have not differentiated acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) from chronic stable HF nor included racially diverse populations. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study conducted surveillance of hospitalized HF events (age ≥55 years) in 4 US communities. We estimated hospitalized ADHF incidence and survival by race and gender. Potential 2005 to 2009 HF hospitalizations were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes; 6,168 records were reviewed to validate ADHF cases. Population estimates were derived from US Census data; 50% of eligible hospitalizations were classified as ADHF, of which 63.6% were incident ADHF and 36.4% were recurrent ADHF. The average incidence of hospitalized ADHF was 11.6 per 1,000 persons, aged ≥55 years, per year, and recurrent hospitalized ADHF was 6.6 per 1,000 persons/yr. Age-adjusted annual ADHF incidence was highest for black men (15.7 per 1,000), followed by black women (13.3 per 1,000), white men (12.3 per 1,000), and white women (9.9 per 1,000). Of incident ADHF events with heart function assessment (89%), 53% had reduced the ejection fraction (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]) and 47% had preserved ejection fraction (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF]). Black men had the highest proportion of acute HFrEF events (70%); white women had the highest proportion of acute HFpEF (59%). Age-adjusted 28-day and 1-year case fatality after an incident ADHF was 10.4% and 29.5%, respectively. Survival did not differ by race or gender. In conclusion, ADHF hospitalization and HF type varied by both race and gender, but case fatality rates did not. Further studies are needed to explain why black men are at higher risk of hospitalized ADHF and HFrEF.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Heart failure (HF) is an important public health concern particularly among persons over 65 years of age. Women and African Americans are critically understudied populations that carry a sizeable portion of the HF burden. Limited normative and prognostic data exist regarding measures of cardiac structure, diastolic function, and novel measures of systolic deformation in older adults living in the community.
-The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is a large, predominantly biracial NHLBI-sponsored epidemiologic cohort study. Between 2011 and 2013, approximately 6,000 surviving participants, now in their seventh to ninth decade of life, are expected to return for a 5(th) study visit during which comprehensive 2D, Doppler, tissue Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography will be performed uniformly in all cohort clinic visit participants. The following objectives will be addressed: (1) to characterize cardiac structural and functional abnormalities among the elderly and determine how these differ by gender and race/ethnicity, (2) determine the relationship between ventricular and vascular abnormalities, and (3) prospectively examine the extent to which these non-invasive measures associate with incident HF.
-We describe the design, imaging acquisition and analysis methods, and quality assurance metrics for echocardiography in Visit 5 of the ARIC cohort. A better understanding of the differences in cardiac structure and function through the spectrum of HF stages in the elderly generally, and between genders and racial/ethnic groups specifically, will deepen our understanding of the pathophysiology driving HF progression in these at-risk populations and may inform novel prevention or therapeutic strategies.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
US birth and longer length of US residence among the foreign-born have been linked to higher anthropometric measures. However, previous studies have been cross sectional and few have examined heterogeneity by ethnic group. Cross-sectional findings that show immigrant weight converging to US-born levels with longer time in the United States imply that immigrants' weight is increasing at a faster rate relative to US-born individuals. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this pattern.
Design and methods:
Using longitudinal data from 1,486 Hispanic and 802 Chinese adults aged 45-84 years in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined whether foreign-born participants experienced greater increases in BMI and waist circumference (WC) than the US-born over a median follow-up of 5 years. We also investigated heterogeneity in these associations by Hispanic subgroup.
Among Hispanics and Chinese, the foreign-born had a lower adjusted mean BMI and WC at baseline than the US-born, but there were no significant differences in BMI or WC change over time. There was heterogeneity by Hispanic subgroup: despite small baseline nativity differences in WC, foreign-born Mexican Hispanics had a greater annual mean increase in WC over time compared to US-born Mexican Hispanics (mean difference in annual change = 0.28 cm, P = 0.03). There were no nativity differences in the rate of WC increase over time among non-Mexican Hispanics. Foreign-born Mexican Hispanics also experienced a faster rate of WC increase compared to foreign-born non-Mexican Hispanics (mean difference in annual change = 0.24 cm, P = 0.01).
Longer time in the United States, examined prospectively, may only be linked to adverse anthropometric changes in some immigrant groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13 340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women and 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure to risk for coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log-likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 coronary heart disease events, 1669 heart failure events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during 18±5 years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were the following: systolic BP for coronary heart disease (AUC=0.74); pulse pressure for heart failure (AUC=0.79); systolic BP for stroke (AUC=0.74); and pulse pressure for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
An algorithm to classify heart failure (HF) end points inclusive of contemporary measures of biomarkers and echocardiography was recently proposed by an international expert panel. Our objective was to assess agreement of HF classification by this contemporaneous algorithm with that by a standardized physician reviewer panel, when applied to data abstracted from community-based hospital records.
Methods and results:
During 2005-2007, all hospitalizations were identified from 4 US communities under surveillance as part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Potential HF hospitalizations were sampled by International Classification of Diseases discharge codes and demographics from men and women aged ≥ 55 years. The HF classification algorithm was automated and applied to 2729 (n=13854 weighted hospitalizations) hospitalizations in which either brain natriuretic peptide measures or ejection fraction were documented (mean age, 75 years). There were 1403 (54%; n=7534 weighted) events classified as acute decompensated HF by the automated algorithm, and 1748 (68%; n=9276 weighted) such events by the ARIC reviewer panel. The chance-corrected agreement between acute decompensated HF by physician reviewer panel and the automated algorithm was moderate (κ=0.39). Sensitivity and specificity of the automated algorithm with ARIC reviewer panel as the referent standard were 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.69) and 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.76), respectively.
Although the automated classification improved efficiency and decreased costs, its accuracy in classifying HF hospitalizations was modest compared with a standardized physician reviewer panel.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · Circulation Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and effective heart failure (HF) risk score would facilitate the primary prevention and early diagnosis of HF in general practice. We examined the external validity of existing HF risk scores, optimized a 10-year HF risk function, and examined the incremental value of several biomarkers, including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.
During 15.5 years (210 102 person-years of follow-up), 1487 HF events were recorded among 13 555 members of the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort. The area under curve from the Framingham-published, Framingham-recalibrated, Health ABC HF recalibrated, and ARIC risk scores were 0.610, 0.762, 0.783, and 0.797, respectively. On addition of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, the optimism-corrected area under curve of the ARIC HF risk score increased from 0.773 (95% CI, 0.753-0.787) to 0.805 (95% CI, 0.792-0.820). Inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide improved the overall classification of recalibrated Framingham, recalibrated Health ABC, and ARIC risk scores by 18%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. In contrast, cystatin C or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein did not add toward incremental risk prediction.
The ARIC HF risk score is more parsimonious yet performs slightly better than the extant risk scores in predicting 10-year risk of incident HF. The inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide markedly improves HF risk prediction. A simplified risk score restricted to a patient's age, race, sex, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide performs comparably to the full score (area under curve, 0.745) and is suitable for automated reporting from laboratory panels and electronic medical records.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Circulation Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of trends in the incidence of and survival after myocardial infarction (MI) in a community setting is important to understanding trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates.
We estimated race- and gender-specific trends in the incidence of hospitalized MI, case fatality, and CHD mortality from community-wide surveillance and validation of hospital discharges and of in- and out-of-hospital deaths among 35- to 74-year-old residents of 4 communities in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Biomarker adjustment accounted for change from reliance on cardiac enzymes to widespread use of troponin measurements over time. During 1987-2008, a total of 30 985 fatal or nonfatal hospitalized acute MI events occurred. Rates of CHD death among persons without a history of MI fell an average 4.7%/y among men and 4.3%/y among women. Rates of both in- and out-of-hospital CHD death declined significantly throughout the period. Age- and biomarker-adjusted average annual rate of incident MI decreased 4.3% among white men, 3.8% among white women, 3.4% among black women, and 1.5% among black men. Declines in CHD mortality and MI incidence were greater in the second decade (1997-2008). Failure to account for biomarker shift would have masked declines in incidence, particularly among blacks. Age-adjusted 28-day case fatality after hospitalized MI declined 3.5%/y among white men, 3.6%/y among black men, 3.0%/y among white women, and 2.6%/y among black women.
Although these findings from 4 communities may not be directly generalizable to blacks and whites in the entire United States, we observed significant declines in MI incidence, primarily as a result of downward trends in rates between 1997 and 2008.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Greater time in the USA has been associated with a higher risk of obesity among immigrants. Few studies have examined this pattern longitudinally or considered measures of the neighbourhood environment in evaluating weight-related change among immigrants the longer they live in the USA.
Methods Using prospective data from 883 Hispanic and 688 Chinese foreign-born subjects aged 45–84 in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we used linear mixed models to examine whether neighbourhood environments characterised by greater healthy food availability and greater walkability are associated with baseline waist circumference (WC) and with change in WC over a median follow-up of 5 years.
Results Neighbourhoods were characterised using survey items; higher scores represented better environments. Adjusting for age, sex, education, income, years lived in the US at baseline, and neighbourhood poverty, among Hispanics, only greater healthy food availability was associated with lower mean baseline WC (mean difference per SD higher neighbourhood score=−0.98 cm, p=0.028). There was no association between neighbourhood context and WC change over time. Among Chinese, greater walkability was associated with lower mean baseline WC (β=−1.06 cm, p=0.007) and with smaller increases in WC over time (mean difference in annual change per SD higher walkability=−0.12 cm, p=0.003). Associations with walkability also differed for long-term vs more recent immigrants among Chinese. (p heterogeneity=0.001) (effect modification by baseline length of US residence)
Conclusion Where immigrants reside may have implications for the health patterns that emerge with greater time in the USA.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Racial and gender disparities in out-of-hospital deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) have been well-documented, yet disparities by neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) have been less systematically studied in US population-based surveillance efforts.
We examined the association of nSES, classified into tertiles, with 3,743 out-of-hospital fatal CHD events, and a subset of 2,191 events classified as sudden, among persons aged 35 to 74 years in four US communities under surveillance by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC). Poisson generalized linear mixed models generated age-, race- (white, black) and gender-specific standardized mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (RR, 95% CI).
Regardless of nSES measure used, inverse associations of nSES with all out-of-hospital fatal CHD and sudden fatal CHD were seen in all race-gender groups. The magnitude of these associations was larger among women than men. Further, among blacks, associations of low nSES (vs. high nSES) were stronger for sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) than for all out-of-hospital fatal CHD.
Low nSES was associated with an increased risk of out-of-hospital CHD death and SCD. Measures of the neighborhood context are useful tools in population-based surveillance efforts for documenting and monitoring socioeconomic disparities in mortality over time.
Preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Annals of epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies document racial variation, gender differences, and socioeconomic status (SES) patterning in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors but few studies have investigated heterogeneity in SES differences by race/ethnicity or gender. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N=6,814) and stratified regression models, we investigated race/ethnic differences in the SES patterning of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and BMI were observed in White and Black women but associations were weaker or absent in Hispanic and Chinese women (except in the case of diabetes for Hispanic women). Even greater heterogeneity in social patterning of risk factors was observed in men. In White men all four risk factors were inversely associated with socioeconomic position, although often associations were only present or were stronger for education than for income. The inverse socioeconomic patterning was much less consistent in men of other races/ethnic groups, and higher SES was associated with higher BMI in non-White men. These findings have implications for understanding the causes of social patterning, for the analysis of SES adjusted race/ethnic differences, and for the targeting of interventions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nativity and years living in the U.S. have been linked to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among immigrants. Few have examined heterogeneity in this relationship. Doing so may inform how social processes that relate to different immigrant integration patterns impact obesity. Using baseline data from 802 Mexican-Americans, 694 Non-Mexican-American Hispanics, and 803 Chinese-Americans aged 45-84 in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002), we investigated whether the association of nativity (U.S. vs. foreign-birth) and years of U.S. residence (<10, ≥ 10 years) with clinically-measured BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) varied first by race/ethnicity, then by gender or education within race/ethnic groups. Controlling for age, gender, education, and income, U.S. birth was significantly associated with a higher mean BMI and WC among non-Mexican-American Hispanics (mean differences (95% confidence intervals) (BMI: 2.57 (1.27-3.87); WC: 7.76 (4.35-11.16)), Chinese-Americans (BMI: 1.67 (0.44-2.89); WC: 4.75 (1.10-8.40)), and Mexican-Americans only for BMI (0.95 (0.05-1.84)) (p-interaction=0.01 (WC)). Among the foreign-born, greater time in the U.S. was only significantly associated with higher mean BMI and WC among Mexican-Americans (BMI: 1.80 (0.45-3.14); WC: 3.95 (0.70-7.21)). The association of nativity with BMI/WC varied significantly by education and gender only among non-Mexican-Americans. Specifically, foreign birth was no longer protective against higher BMI/WC among males (p-interaction=0.06) and the less educated (p-interaction=0.02). These results confirm that greater acculturation is related to higher BMI and WC but the strength and presence of this relationship differs by ethnicity, gender, and education. This heterogeneity should be considered in research on health consequences of immigration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and latent trajectory class modeling to determine patterns of neighborhood poverty over 20 years (1980-2000 residential history questionnaires were geocoded and linked to US Census data). Using these patterns, the authors examined 1) whether trajectories of neighborhood poverty were associated with differences in the amount of subclinical atherosclerosis (common carotid intimal-media thickness) and 2) associated risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking) at baseline (January 2000-August 2002). The authors found evidence of 5 stable trajectory groups with differing levels of neighborhood poverty ( approximately 6%, 12%, 20%, 30%, and 45%) and 1 group with 29% poverty in 1980 and approximately 11% in 2000. Mostly for women, higher cumulative neighborhood poverty was generally significantly associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Trends generally persisted after adjustment for adulthood socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity, although they were no longer statistically significant. Among women who had moved during the 20 years, the long-term measure had stronger associations with outcomes (except smoking) than a single, contemporaneous measure. Results indicate that cumulative 20-year exposure to neighborhood poverty is associated with greater cardiovascular risk for women. In residentially mobile populations, single-point-in-time measures underestimate long-term effects.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · American journal of epidemiology