Satoshi Nishimura

Jichi Medical University, Totigi, Tochigi, Japan

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Publications (60)389.15 Total impact

  • Toshihiro Fujii · Asuka Sakata · Satoshi Nishimura · Koji Eto · Shigekazu Nagata
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of activated platelets requires the action of a phospholipid scramblase(s), and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of the tenase and prothrombinase complexes involved in blood coagulation. Here, we found that the activation of mouse platelets with thrombin/collagen or Ca(2+) ionophore at 20 °C induces PtdSer exposure without compromising plasma membrane integrity. Among five transmembrane protein 16 (TMEM16) members that support Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scrambling, TMEM16F was the only one that showed high expression in mouse platelets. Platelets from platelet-specific TMEM16F-deficient mice exhibited defects in activation-induced PtdSer exposure and microparticle shedding, although α-granule and dense granule release remained intact. The rate of tissue factor-induced thrombin generation by TMEM16F-deficient platelets was severely reduced, whereas thrombin-induced clot retraction was unaffected. The imaging of laser-induced thrombus formation in whole animals showed that PtdSer exposure on aggregated platelets was TMEM16F-dependent in vivo. The phenotypes of the platelet-specific TMEM16F-null mice resemble those of patients with Scott syndrome, a mild bleeding disorder, indicating that these mice may provide a useful model for human Scott syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We compared the frequency of peripheral blood Treg cells in women with pre-eclampsia (PE) and in those without, and investigated whether the frequency of Treg cells in women with high-risk factor for PE changed during pregnancy. Methods: We examined the frequency of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry. Eleven women with PE and 10 women without PE (controls) were included. Every control had any risk factors for PE, such as high blood pressure, bilateral notching or a past history of PE or gestational hypertension. Blood sampling was conducted 1-3 times in the controls. Results: No significant differences were observed in the frequency of Treg cells between women with PE and the controls [mean ± SE (%): 5.74 ± 0.91 versus 5.48 ± 0.94, p = 0.843]. In five controls with serial sampling, the frequency of Treg cells significantly decreased from 5.83 ± 1.20 to 2.99 ± 0.54 (p = 0.046) (week of the first sampling to that of the last sampling [mean ± SD]: 21.5 ± 1.6 weeks to 31.2 ± 2.5 weeks). Conclusion: The frequency of Treg cells in women with PE was almost identical to that in the controls. The frequency of Treg cells in the controls was reduced by half from the second trimester to the third trimester. These results suggested that the levels of Treg cells in a high-risk pregnant cohort were decreased to those in women with PE in the third trimester irrespective of the occurrence of PE.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Hypertension in Pregnancy
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    ABSTRACT: Intravital visualization of thrombopoiesis revealed that formation of proplatelets, which are cytoplasmic protrusions in bone marrow megakaryocytes (MKs), is dominant in the steady state. However, it was unclear whether this is the only path to platelet biogenesis. We have identified an alternative MK rupture, which entails rapid cytoplasmic fragmentation and release of much larger numbers of platelets, primarily into blood vessels, which is morphologically and temporally different than typical FasL-induced apoptosis. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1α were acutely elevated after platelet loss or administration of an inflammatory stimulus to mice, whereas the MK-regulator thrombopoietin (TPO) was not elevated. Moreover, IL-1α administration rapidly induced MK rupture-dependent thrombopoiesis and increased platelet counts. IL-1α-IL-1R1 signaling activated caspase-3, which reduced plasma membrane stability and appeared to inhibit regulated tubulin expression and proplatelet formation, and ultimately led to MK rupture. Collectively, it appears the balance between TPO and IL-1α determines the MK cellular programming for thrombopoiesis in response to acute and chronic platelet needs. © 2015 Nishimura et al.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Nature Communications
  • Satoshi Nishimura
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    ABSTRACT: The thrombotic cellular mechanisms associated with cardiovascular events remain unclear, largely because of an inability to visualize thrombus formation in vivo. In this chapter, bio-imaging approach is introduced, mainly using in vivo imaging technique based on single-photon and multiphoton microscopy. Recent progress in optics enabled us to identify single-platelet behavior in the developing thrombus in living animals. In the physiological and pathological conditions, complex cellular interplay takes place, and bio-imaging can directly elucidate cross talks among multiple cell types. We visualized that rapidly developing thrombi composed of discoid platelets were triggered by reactive oxygen species photochemically induced by laser irradiation, and developed thrombi occluded blood vessels. Inflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecules dynamically control these processes. Intravital imaging can be a powerful tool to analyze thrombus formation and evaluate the therapeutic strategies against thrombotic diseases.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is manifested by fibrosis, vasculopathy and immune dysregulation. So far, a unifying hypothesis underpinning these pathological events remains unknown. Given that SSc is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors, we focus on the two transcription factors, which modulate the fibrotic reaction and are epigenetically suppressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts, Friend leukaemia integration 1 (Fli1) and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5). In addition to the Fli1 silencing-dependent collagen induction, the simultaneous knockdown of Fli1 and KLF5 synergistically enhances expression of connective tissue growth factor. Notably, mice with double heterozygous deficiency of Klf5 and Fli1 mimicking the epigenetic phenotype of SSc skin spontaneously recapitulate all the three features of SSc, including fibrosis and vasculopathy of the skin and lung, B-cell activation and autoantibody production. These studies implicate the epigenetic downregulation of Fli1 and KLF5 as a central event triggering the pathogenic triad of SSc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: In obesity, a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages augments chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, thereby inducing systemic insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation. Obese adipose tissue contains a unique histological structure termed crown-like structure (CLS), where adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk is known to occur in close proximity. Here we show that Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a pathogen sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is localized to macrophages in CLS, the number of which correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Mincle induces obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis, thereby leading to steatosis and insulin resistance in liver. We further show that Mincle in macrophages is crucial for CLS formation, expression of fibrosis-related genes and myofibroblast activation. This study indicates that Mincle, when activated by an endogenous ligand released from dying adipocytes, is involved in adipose tissue remodelling, thereby suggesting that sustained interactions between adipocytes and macrophages within CLS could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced ectopic lipid accumulation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Despite the increasing commercial use of nanoparticles, little is known about their effects on placental inflammation and pregnancy complications. In this study, nanosilica (NS) particles upregulated the inflammasome component nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and induced placental inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, resulting in pregnancy complications. Furthermore, NS-induced pregnancy complications were markedly improved in Nlrp3(-/-) mice but not in component apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-deficient (Asc(-/-)) mice, indicating the independence of NLRP3 inflammasomes. Pregnancy complications in Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) mice phenotypes were dependent on the balance between interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10. NS-induced pregnancy complications were completely prevented by either inhibition of ROS generation or forced expression of IL-10. Our findings provide important information about NS-induced placental inflammation and pregnancy complications and the novel pathophysiological roles of NLRP3 and ASC in pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Nanotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Stretch-induced arrhythmias are multi-scale phenomena in which alterations in channel activities and/or calcium handling lead to the organ level derangement of the heart rhythm. To understand how cellular mechano-electric coupling (MEC) leads to stretch-induced arrhythmias at the organ level, we developed stretching devices and optical voltage/calcium measurement techniques optimized to each cardiac level. This review introduces these experimental techniques of (1) optical voltage measurement coupled with a carbon-fiber technique for single isolated cardiomyocytes, (2) optical voltage mapping combined with motion tracking technique for myocardial tissue/whole heart preparations and (3) real-time calcium imaging coupled with a laser optical trap technique for cardiomyocytes. Following the overview of each methodology, results are presented. We conclude that individual MEC in cardiomyocytes can be heterogeneous at the ventricular level, especially when moderate amplitude mechanical stretches are applied to the heart, and that this heterogeneous MEC can evoke focal excitation that develops into re-entrant arrhythmias.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Body weight is tightly regulated by food intake and energy dissipation, and obesity is related to decreased energy expenditure (EE). Herein, we show that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieseterase 2 (ENPP2, autotaxin) is an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that controls adipose expansion, brown adipose tissue (BAT) function, and EE. In mice, Enpp2 was highly expressed in visceral white adipose tissue and BAT, and is downregulated in hypertrophied adipocytes/adipose tissue. Enpp2(+/-) mice and adipocyte-specific Enpp2 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet showed smaller body weight gains and less insulin resistance than control mice fed the same diet. BAT was functionally more active, and EE was increased in Enpp2-deficient mice. In humans, ENPP2 expression in subcutaneous fat and ENPP2 levels in serum were reduced in obese subjects. Taken together, our results establish ENPP2 as an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that regulates adipose obesity and systemic metabolism. They also suggest ENPP2 could be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism by which hepatic I/R induces inflammatory responses remains unclear. Recent evidence indicates that a sterile inflammatory response triggered by I/R is mediated through a multiple-protein complex called the inflammasome. Therefore, we investigated the role of the inflammasome in hepatic I/R injury and found that hepatic I/R stimuli upregulated the inflammasome-component molecule, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), but not apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). NLRP3(-/-) mice, but not ASC(-/-) and caspase-1(-/-) mice, had significantly less liver injury after hepatic I/R. NLRP3(-/-) mice showed reduced inflammatory responses, reactive oxygen species production, and apoptosis in I/R liver. Notably, infiltration of neutrophils, but not macrophages, was markedly inhibited in the I/R liver of NLRP3(-/-) mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments showed that NLRP3 not only in bone marrow-derived cells, but also in non-bone marrow-derived cells contributed to liver injury after I/R. In vitro experiments revealed that keratinocyte-derived chemokine-induced activation of heterotrimeric G proteins was markedly diminished. Furthermore, NLRP3(-/-) neutrophils decreased keratinocyte-derived chemokine-induced concentrations of intracellular calcium elevation, Rac activation, and actin assembly formation, thereby resulting in impaired migration activity. Taken together, NLRP3 regulates chemokine-mediated functions and recruitment of neutrophils, and thereby contributes to hepatic I/R injury independently of inflammasomes. These findings identify a novel role of NLRP3 in the pathophysiology of hepatic I/R injury.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiological characteristics of chronic kidney disease; however, the inflammatory mechanisms underlying the chronic kidney disease process remain unclear. Recent evidence indicates that sterile inflammation triggered by tissue injury is mediated through a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome. Therefore, we investigated the role of the inflammasome in the development of chronic kidney disease using a murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Inflammasome-related molecules were up-regulated in the kidney after UUO. Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain deficiency significantly reduced inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine expression, and improved subsequent renal injury and fibrosis. Furthermore, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain was specifically up-regulated in collecting duct (CD) epithelial cells of the UUO-treated kidney. In vitro experiments showed that extracellular ATP induced inflammasome activation in CD epithelial cells through P2X7-potassium efflux and reactive oxygen species-dependent pathways. These results demonstrate the molecular basis for the inflammatory response in the process of chronic kidney disease and suggest the CD inflammasome as a potential therapeutic target for preventing chronic kidney disease progression.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · American Journal Of Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The donor-dependent supply of platelets is frequently insufficient to meet transfusion needs. To address this issue, we developed a clinically applicable strategy for the derivation of functional platelets from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). This approach involves the establishment of stable immortalized megakaryocyte progenitor cell lines (imMKCLs) from PSC-derived hematopoietic progenitors through the overexpression of BMI1 and BCL-XL to respectively suppress senescence and apoptosis and the constrained overexpression of c-MYC to promote proliferation. The resulting imMKCLs can be expanded in culture over extended periods (4-5 months), even after cryopreservation. Halting the overexpression of c-MYC, BMI1, and BCL-XL in growing imMKCLs led to the production of CD42b(+) platelets with functionality comparable to that of native platelets on the basis of a range of assays in vitro and in vivo. The combination of robust expansion capacity and efficient platelet production means that appropriately selected imMKCL clones represent a potentially inexhaustible source of hPSC-derived platelets for clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Cell stem cell
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    ABSTRACT: Paxillin is a LIM domain protein localized at integrin-mediated focal adhesions. Although paxillin is thought to modulate the functions of integrins, little is known about the contribution of paxillin to signaling pathways in platelets. Here, we studied the role of paxillin in platelet activation in vitro and in vivo.Methods and results: We generated paxillin knockdown (Pxn-KD) platelets in mice by transplanting bone marrow cells transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying a short hairpin RNA sequence, and confirmed that paxillin expression was significantly reduced in platelets derived from the transduced cells. Pxn-KD platelets showed a slight increased in size and augmented integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation following stimulation of multiple receptors including glycoprotein VI and G protein-coupled receptors. Thromboxane A2 biosynthesis and the release of alpha-granules and dense granules in response to agonist stimulation were also enhanced in Pxn-KD platelets. However, Pxn-KD did not increase tyrosine phosphorylation or intracellular calcium mobilization. Intravital imaging confirmed that Pxn-KD enhanced thrombus formation in vivo. Our findings suggest that paxillin negatively regulates several common platelet signaling pathways, resulting in the activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and release reactions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Thrombosis Journal
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes a family with TUBB1-associated macrothrombocytopenia diagnosed based on abnormal platelet β1-tubulin distribution. A circumferential marginal microtubule band was undetectable, whereas microtubules were frayed and disorganized in every platelet from the affected individuals. Patients were heterozygous for novel TUBB1 p.F260S that locates at the α- and β-tubulin intradimer interface. Mutant β1-tubulin was not incorporated into microtubules with endogenous α-tubulin and α-tubulin expression was decreased in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Transduction of mutant β1-tubulin into mouse fetal liver-derived megakaryocytes demonstrated no incorporation of mutant β1-tubulin into microtubules with endogenous α-tubulin and diminished proplatelet formation, leading to the production of fewer, but larger, proplatelet tips. Furthermore, mutant β1-tubulin was not associated with endogenous α-tubulin in the proplatelets. Deficient functional microtubules might lead to defective proplatelet formation and abnormal protrusion-like platelet release, resulting in congenital macrothrombocytopenia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Distinct B cell populations, designated regulatory B (Breg) cells, are known to restrain immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Additionally, obesity is known to induce local inflammation within adipose tissue that contributes to systemic metabolic abnormalities, but the underlying mechanisms that modulate adipose inflammation remain poorly understood. We identified Breg cells that produce interleukin-10 constitutively within adipose tissue. B cell-specific Il10 deletion enhanced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, whereas adoptive transfer of adipose tissue Breg cells ameliorated those effects. Adipose environmental factors, including CXCL12 and free fatty acids, support Breg cell function, and Breg cell fraction and function were reduced in adipose tissue from obese mice and humans. Our findings indicate that adipose tissue Breg cells are a naturally occurring regulatory B cell subset that maintains homeostasis within adipose tissue and that Breg cell dysfunction contributes pivotally to the progression of adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Cell metabolism
  • Satoshi Nishimura · Mika Nagasaki · Ryozo Nagai

    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Thrombosis Research
  • Satoshi Nishimura
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor of cardiovascular events, and obese visceral adipose tissue remodeling based on chronic inflammation plays a central role. To assess dynamic interplay between multiple cell types in obese adipose tissue, a visualization technique in vivo was developed. By this technique we identified inflammatory cell clusters associated with angiogenesis and adipogenesis in obese adipose tissue. We also found increased leukocyte-platelet-endothelial cell interactions in obese adipose tissue microcirculation, which were indicative of local chronic inflammation. Moreover, we found that large numbers of CD8(+) effector T cells infiltrated into obese adipose tissue. Immunological and genetic depletion of CD8(+) T cells reduced inflammatory (M1) macrophage infiltration and adipose tissue inflammation, and ameliorated systemic insulin resistance. Infiltration of CD8(+) T cells is essential for inflammatory macrophage recruitment into obese adipose tissue, and the initiation and development of inflammation therein. Our results clearly demonstrate the power of our imaging technique to analyze complex cellular interplay in vivo, especially parenchymal and stromal cell crosstalk, and to evaluate new therapeutic interventions against conditions arising from these interactions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · YAKUGAKU ZASSHI
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    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been implicated in the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. However, most previous studies were conducted on extracellular matrix or pericellular HA, and the role of circulating HA in vivo has not been studied. HA is rapidly cleared from the bloodstream. The scavenger receptor Stabilin-2 (Stab2) is considered a major clearance receptor for HA. Here we report a dramatic elevation in circulating HA levels in Stab2-deficient mice without any overt phenotype. Surprisingly, the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells to the lungs was markedly suppressed in the Stab2-deficient mice, whereas cell proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, administration of an anti-Stab2 antibody in Stab2(+) mice elevated serum HA levels and prevented the metastasis of melanoma to the lung, and also suppressed spontaneous metastasis of mammary tumor and human breast tumor cells inoculated in the mammary gland. Administration of the antibody or high-dose HA in mice blocked the lodging of melanoma cells to the lungs. Furthermore, HA at high concentrations inhibited the rolling/tethering of B16 cells to lung endothelial cells. These results suggest that blocking Stab2 function prevents tumor metastasis by elevating circulating HA levels. Stab2 may be a potential target in antitumor therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Satoshi Nishimura · Mika Nagasaki · Junichi Sugita

    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Inflammation and Regeneration