[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Since avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) was first identified in South Korea in 2008, the novel influenza virus has been reported in several countries in Asia. Reverse zoonotic transmission of pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus (pH1N1) has been observed in a broad range of animal species. Viral dominance and characterization of the reassortants of both viruses was undertaken in the present study.
Here we describe the viral dominance of 23 CIV reassortants between pH1N1 and canine H3N2 influenza viruses from a naturally co-infected dog. These results indicate that the M gene of pandemic H1N1 and the HA gene of canine H3N2 are predominant in the reassortants. Furthermore, unlike the original canine H3N2 virus, some reassortants showed high pathogenicity in mice.
This study suggests that continuous monitoring of influenza infection in companion animals may be necessary to investigate the potential of the emergence of novel influenza viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H3N8 Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes respiratory diseases in horse population, and it has been demonstrated that EIV can transmit into dogs due to its availability on receptors of canine respiratory epithelial cells. Recently, we isolated H3N8 EIV from EIV vaccinated horse that showed symptoms of respiratory disease, and which has partially truncated nonstructural gene (NS). However, it is not clear that the NS-truncated EIV has an ability to cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs as well. Here, we experimentally infect the NS-truncated H3N8 EIV into dogs, and monitored their clinical signs and viral load in respiratory organs to determine its transmissibility.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the infectivity and transmissibility of the human seasonal H3N2, pandemic (pdm) H1N1 (2009), and B influenza viruses in dogs. Dogs inoculated with human seasonal H3N2 and pdm H1N1 influenza viruses exhibited nasal shedding and were seroconverted against the viruses; this did not occur in the influenza B virus-inoculated dogs. Transmission of human H3N2 virus between dogs was demonstrated by observing nasal shedding and seroconversion in naïve dogs after contact with inoculated dogs. The seroprevalence study offered evidence of human H3N2 infection in dogs since 2008. Further, serological evidence of pdm H1N1 influenza virus infection alone and in combination with canine H3N2 virus was found in the serum samples collected from field dogs during 2010 and 2011. Our results suggest that dogs may be hosts for human seasonal H3N2 and pdm H1N1 influenza viruses.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study.
The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decreased. Both the H1N1 and H1N2 infected pigs lacked gross lesions at PID 2, but they showed moderate to severe pneumonia on PID 4, 7 and 14. The pigs infected with H1N1 had significant scores of gross and histopathological lesions when compared with the other pigs infected with H1N2, H3N2, and mock at PID 14. Mean SIV antigen-positive scores were rarely detected for pigs infected with H1N2 and H3N2 from PID 7, whereas a significantly increased amount of viral antigens were found in the bronchioles and alveolar epithelium of the H1N1infected pigs at PID 14.
We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza A virus (CIV) that showed high sequence similarities in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes with those of non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses was isolated in our routine surveillance program in South Korea. We previously reported that the pathogenicity of this strain could be reproduced in dogs and cats. In the present study, the host tropism of H3N2 CIV was examined by experimental inoculation into several host species, including chickens, pigs, mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. The CIV infection resulted in no overt symptoms of disease in these host species. However, sero-conversion, virus shedding, and gross and histopathologic lung lesions were observed in guinea pig and ferrets but not in pigs, or mice. Based on the genetic similarity of our H3N2 CIV with currently circulating avian influenza viruses and the presence of α-2,3-linked rather than α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors in the respiratory tract of dogs, we believed that this strain of CIV would have avian virus-like receptor specificity, but that seems to be contrary to our findings in the present study. Further studies are needed to determine the co-receptors of hemagglutinin or post-attachment factors related to virus internalization or pathogenesis in other animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the complete genome sequence containing the 3′ and 5′ noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 canine influenza virus
(CIV) with the matrix gene from the pandemic A/H1N1 virus, which will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis,
transmission, and evolution of variant CIV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sublingual (SL) administration of influenza vaccine would be non-invasive and effective way to give human populations protective immunity against the virus, especially when pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this study, the efficacy of pandemic influenza virus-based subunit vaccines was tested after sublingual (SL) adjuvant administration in pigs. Eight specific pathogen-free Yucatan pigs were divided into 4 groups: nonvaccinated but challenged (A) and vaccinated and challenged (B, C, and D). The vaccinated groups were subdivided by vaccine type and inoculation route: SL subunit vaccine (hemagglutinin antigen 1 [HA1] + wild-type cholera toxin [wtCT], B); IM subunit vaccine (HA1 + aluminum hydroxide, C); and IM inactivated vaccine (+ aluminum hydroxide, D). The vaccines were administered twice at a 2-week interval. All pigs were challenged with pandemic influenza virus (A/swine/GCVP-KS01/2009 [H1N1]) and monitored for clinical signs, serology, viral shedding, and histopathology. After vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titre was higher in group D (320) than in the other vaccinated groups (40-80) at the time of challenge. The mobility and feed intake were reduced in group C. Both viral shedding and histopathological lesions were reduced in groups B and D. Although this study has limitation due to the limited number of pigs (2 pigs per a group), the preliminary data in this study provided the protective potential of SL administration of bacteria-expressed pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in pigs. There should be additional animal studies about effective adjuvant system and vaccine types for the use of SL influenza vaccination.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Journal of Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the complete genome sequence containing the 3′ and 5′ noncoding regions (NCRs) of the Korean H3N8 equine influenza
virus (EIV), which will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of EIV.
Preview · Article · May 2014 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the advantages of DNA vaccines, overcoming their lower efficacy relative to that of conventional vaccines remains a challenge. Here, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope-coated, nonreplicable, baculovirus-based HA vaccine against swine influenza A/California/04/2009(H1N1) hemagglutin (HA) (AcHERV-sH1N1-HA) as an alternative to conventional vaccines and evaluated its efficacy in two strains of mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6. A commercially available, killed virus vaccine was used as a positive control. Mice were intramuscularly administered AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine and subsequently given two booster injections. Compared with the commercial vaccine, AcHERV-sH1N1-HA induced significantly higher levels of cellular immune responses in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Unlike cellular immune responses, humoral immune responses depended on the strain of mice. Following immunization with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA, C57BL/6 mice showed HA-specific IgG titers 10- to 100-fold lower than those of BALB/c mice. In line with the different levels of humoral immune responses, the survival of immunized mice after intranasal challenge with sH1N1 virus (A/California/04/2009) depended on the strain. After challenge with 10-times the median lethal dose (MLD50) of sH1N1 virus, 100% of BALB/c mice immunized with the commercial vaccine or AcHERV-sH1N1-HA survived. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA or the commercial vaccine showed 60% and 70% survival respectively, after challenge with sH1N1 virus. In all mice, virus titers and results of histological analyses of lung tissues were consistent with the survival data. Our results indicate the importance of humoral immune response as a major defense system against influenza viral infection. Moreover, the complete survival of BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-sH1N1-HA after challenge with sH1N1 virus suggests the potential of baculoviral vector-based vaccines to achieve an efficacy comparable to that of killed virus vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A canine-origin Korean H3N2 feline influenza virus (FIV), A/feline/Korea/01/2010 (H3N2), was isolated in 2010 from a dead
cat with severe respiratory disease. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of this virus, containing 3′ and 5′
noncoding regions, which will help elucidate the molecular basis of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of FIV.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The avian origin canine influenza virus H3N2 has been recently isolated and found to be currently in dog population in South Korea and China. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between immunosuppressive glucocorticoids used in veterinary clinical practice and viral shedding pattern of influenza in dogs.
Eight conventional beagle dogs were divided into control infection group and immunocompromised group. Dogs of both groups were infected with H3N2 canine influenza virus (2×10(6.0) EID50/0.1 mL). Dogs in immunocompromised group were given orally 3.0 mg/kg prednisolone for 7 days. Virus shedding was monitored using real-time polymerase chain reaction. After necropsy, histopathologic lesions were compared.
We found that immunocompromised dogs exhibited more prolonged (8 days vs. 13 days) and higher magnitude viral shedding than control group (peak titer of viral shedding 4.6 vs. 5.5 EID50).
Restricted use of immunosuppressive drugs in the clinical setting might help control the rapid spread of H3N2 through local dog populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An avian-origin Korean H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strain, designated A/canine/Korea/01/2007 (H3N2), was isolated from
nasal swabs of pet dogs exhibiting severe respiratory syndrome in 2007. In the present study, we report the first complete
genome sequence containing 3′ and 5′ noncoding regions (NCRs) of H3N2 CIV, which will provide important insights into the
molecular basis of pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of CIV.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Please cite this paper as: Kim et al. (2012) Inter- and intraspecies transmission of canine influenza virus (H3N2) in dogs, cats, and ferrets. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00379.x. Background The emergence of zoonotic viruses in domestic animals is a significant public health concern. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 is a virus that can infect companion animals and is, therefore, a potential public health concern. Objective This study investigated the inter- and intraspecies transmission of CIV among dogs, cats, and ferrets, under laboratory conditions, to determine whether transmission of the virus was possible between as well as within these domestic animal species. Method The transmission routes for inter- and intraspecies transmission were airborne and direct contact, respectively. Transmission was conducted through intranasal infection of dogs followed by exposure to either cats or ferrets and by comingling infected and naïve animals of the same species. Results The interspecies transmission of CIV H3N2 via airborne was only observed from dogs to cats and not from dogs to ferrets. However, direct intranasal infection of either cats or ferrets with CIV could induce influenza-like clinical signs, viral shedding, and serological responses. Additionally, naïve cats and ferrets could be infected by CIV via direct contact with infected animals of the same species. Conclusion Cats appear to be another susceptible host of CIV H3N2, whereas ferrets are not likely natural hosts. The molecular-based mechanism of interspecies and intraspecies transmission of CIV H3N2 should be further studied.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity, a risk factor for increased severity of diverse diseases, is believed to have negative impact on vaccine efficacy. Recently, mortality has emerged as an outcome of pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1, necessitating development of effective vaccine strategies. Here we investigated effects of diet-induced obesity on vaccine-induced immune responses and protective efficacy against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.
Diet-induced obese and lean C57BL/6J mice were immunized with commercial monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccine, and antigen-specific antibody responses and neutralizing activities were observed. Following vaccination, mice were challenged with homologous H1N1 virus, and pathogenesis and mortality were examined.
Vaccine-induced H1N1-specific antibody responses and neutralizing activities were markedly reduced in obese mice. Consistent with antibody responses, lung virus titers were significantly higher in obese mice than in lean controls after challenge. In addition, obese group showed greatly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in lung tissue, severe lung inflammation, and higher eventual mortality rate (100%) compared with that among lean control mice (14%).
Our results show that prophylactic immune responses and protectiveness induced by 2009 H1N1 vaccine could be extremely compromised in diet-induced obesity. These results suggest that novel vaccination strategies for high-risk groups, including the obese population, are required.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The migratory waterfowl of the world are considered to be the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. Of the 16 hemagglutinin subtypes of avian influenza viruses, the H6 subtype is commonly perpetuated in its natural hosts and is of concern due to its potential to be a precursor of highly pathogenic influenza viruses by reassortment. During routine influenza surveillance, we isolated an unconventional H6N5 subtype of avian influenza virus. Experimental infection of mice revealed that this isolate replicated efficiently in the lungs, subsequently spread systemically, and caused lethality. The isolate also productively infected ferrets, with direct evidence of contact transmission, but no disease or transmission was seen in pigs. Although the isolate possessed the conserved receptor-binding site sequences of avian influenza viruses, it exhibited relatively low replication efficiencies in ducks and chickens. Our genetic and molecular analyses of the isolate revealed that its PB1 sequence showed the highest evolutionary relationship to those of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses and that its PA protein had an isoleucine residue at position 97 (a representative virulence marker). Further studies will be required to examine why our isolate has the virologic characteristics of mammalian influenza viruses but the archetypal receptor binding profiles of avian influenza viruses, as well as to determine whether its potential virulence markers (PB1 analogous to those of H5N1 viruses or isoleucine residue at position 97 within PA) could render it highly pathogenic in mice.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During recent canine influenza surveillance in South Korea, a novel H3N1 canine influenza virus (CIV) that is a putative reassortant between pandemic H1N1 2009 and H3N2 CIVs was isolated. Genetic analysis of eight genes of the influenza virus revealed that the novel H3N1 isolate presented high similarities (99.1-99.9 %) to pandemic influenza H1N1, except for in the haemagglutinin (HA) gene. The HA gene nucleotide sequence of the novel CIV H3N1 was similar (99.6 %) to that of CIV H3N2 isolated in Korea and China. Dogs infected with the novel H3N1 CIV did not show any notable symptoms, in contrast to dogs infected with H3N2 CIV. Despite no visible clinical signs of disease, nasal shedding of virus was detected and the infected dogs presented mild histopathological changes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The continued spread of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among wild birds and poultry has posed a potential threat to human public health. In the present study, we report the isolation of HPAI H5N1 viruses (A/Md/Korea/W401/11 and A/Md/Korea/W404/11) from fecal samples of migratory birds. Genetic and phlyogenetic analyses demonstrated that these viruses are genetically identical possessing gene segments from avian virus origin and showing highest sequence similarities (as high as 99.8%) to A/Ws/Hokkaido/4/11 and 2009-2010 Mongolian-like clade 2.3.2 isolates rather than previous Korean H5N1 viruses. Both viruses possess the polybasic motif (QRERRRK/R) in HA but other genes did not bear additional virulence markers. Pathogenicity of A/Md/Korea/W401/11 was assessed and compared with a 2006 clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 migratory bird isolate (A/EM/Korea/W149/06) in chickens, ducks, mice and ferrets. Experimental infection in these hosts showed that both viruses have high pathogenic potential in chickens (2.3-3.0 LD(50)s) and mice (3.3-3.9 LD(50)s), but A/Md/Korea/W401/11 was less pathogenic in duck and ferret models. Despite recovery of both infection viruses in the upper respiratory tract, efficient ferret-to-ferret transmission was not observed. These data suggest that the 2011 Korean HPAI wild bird H5N1 virus could replicate in mammalian hosts without pre-adaptation but could not sustain subsequent infection. This study highlights the role of migratory birds in the perpetuation and spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses in Far-East Asia. With the changing pathobiology caused by H5N1 viruses among wild and poultry birds, continued surveillance of influenza viruses among migratory bird species remains crucial for effective monitoring of high-pathogenicity or pandemic influenza viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 (HPV16 E6) protein is important for eradication of HPV16 E6-expressing cancer cells in the cervical mucosa, the HPV16 E6 protein may be a target for the mucosal immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Here, we expressed the HPV16 E6 antigen on Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and investigated E6-specific CMI following oral administration of the L. casei-PgsA-E6 to mice. Surface expression of HPV16 E6 antigens was confirmed and mice were orally inoculated with the L. casei-PgsA or the L. casei-PgsA-E6. Compared to the L. casei-PgsA-treated mice, significantly higher levels of serum IgG and mucosal IgA were observed in L. casei-PgsA-E6-immunized mice; these differences were significantly enhanced after boost. Consistent with this, systemic and local CMI were significantly increased after the boost, as shown by increased counts of IFN-gamma-secreting cells in splenocytes, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and vaginal samples. Furthermore, in the TC-1 tumor model, animals receiving the orally administered L. casei-PgsA-E6 showed reduced tumor size and increased survival rate versus mice receiving control (L. casei-PgsA) immunization. We also found that L. casei-PgsA-E6-induced antitumor effect was decreased by in vivo depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these results indicate that the oral administration of lactobacilli bearing the surface-displayed E6 protein induces T cell-mediated cellular immunity and antitumor effects in mice.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Egypt, efforts to control highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in poultry and in humans have failed despite increased biosecurity, quarantine, and vaccination at poultry farms. The ongoing circulation of HP H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt has caused >100 human infections and remains an unresolved threat to veterinary and public health. Here, we describe that the failure of commercially available H5 poultry vaccines in Egypt may be caused in part by the passive transfer of maternal H5N1 antibodies to chicks, inhibiting their immune response to vaccination. We propose that the induction of a protective immune response to H5N1 is suppressed for an extended period in young chickens. This issue, among others, must be resolved and additional steps must be taken before the outbreaks in Egypt can be controlled.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the role of sparrows as intermediate hosts of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, we assessed shedding
and interspecies waterborne transmission of A/duck/Laos/25/06 in sparrows and chickens. Inoculated birds shed virus at high
titers from the oropharynx and cloaca, and infection was fatal. Waterborne transmission from inoculated sparrows to contact
chickens was absent, while 25% of sparrows were infected via waterborne transmission from chickens. The viral shedding and
susceptibility to infection we observed in sparrows, coupled with their presence in poultry houses, could facilitate virus
spread among poultry and wild birds in the face of an H5N1 influenza virus outbreak.
Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Virology