[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal brain tumors with a short survival time. EGFR amplification and mutation is the most significant genetic signature in GBM. About half of the GBMs with EGFR amplification express a constitutively autophosphorylated variant of EGFR, known as EGFRvIII. Our in vitro data demonstrated further enhanced EGFRvIII activity and tumor cell invasion in the tumor microenvironment of hypoxia plus extracellular matrix (ECM) vitronectin, in which EGFRvIII and integrin β3 tended to form complexes. The treatment with ITGB3 siRNA or the integrin antagonist cilengetide preferentially interrupted the EGFRvIII/integrin β3 complex, effectively reduced tumor cell invasion and activation of downstream signaling effectors. Cilengitide is recently failed in Phase III CENTRIC trial in unselected patients with GBM. However, we found that cilengitide demonstrated efficacious tumor regression via inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in EGFRvIII orthotopic xenografts. Bioinformatics analysis emphasized key roles of integrin β3, hypoxia and vitronectin and their strong correlations with EGFRvIII expression in malignant glioma patient samples in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that EGFRvIII/integrin β3 complexes promote GBM progression and metastasis in the environment of hypoxia and vitronectin-enrichment, and cilengitide may serve as a promising therapeutics for EGFRvIII-positive GBMs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are able to function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in tumorigenesis, and have been proposed as novel targets for anticancer treatment. It has previously been suggested that miRNAs have important roles in the initiation and progression of glioblastoma; however, the effects of miR‑566 in glioblastoma are currently unclear. The present study aimed to demonstrate that miR-566 can modulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by targeting Von Hippel‑Lindau (VHL) in glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the expression of miR-566. Glioblastoma is a highly vascularized tumor, which exhibits increased expression of angiogenic factors, including VEGF, which are crucial in the process of glioblastoma angiogenesis. Existing research has demonstrated that VHL is a tumor suppressor gene that is associated with various tumors. In addition, VHL is able to regulate the expression of VEGF by promoting the degradation of hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α via ubiquitination. It has been predicted, using bioinformatics, that the VHL gene is regulated by miR‑566. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that miR‑566 may regulate VEGF expression by targeting VHL during the angiogenic process of glioblastoma multiforme. The results of the present study demonstrated that inhibition of miR‑566 expression increases the expression levels of VHL, decreases the expression levels of VEGF, and inhibits the invasive and migratory abilities of glioblastoma. In addition, VHL was identified as a functional target of miR‑566.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EZH2 is a negative prognostic factor and is overexpressed or activated in most human cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNSCC data indicated that EZH2 over-expression was associated with high tumor grade and conferred poor prognosis. EZH2 inhibition triggered cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and decreased cell growth in vitro. MICU1 (mitochondrial calcium uptake1) was shown to be down regulated when EZH2 expression was inhibited in HNSCC. When the EZH2 and MICU1 were inhibited, HNSCC cells became susceptible to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration analysis suggested that EZH2 and MICU1 were required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential stability. A xenograft tumor model was used to confirm that EZH2 depletion inhibited HNSCC cell growth and induced tumor cell apoptosis. In summary, EZH2 is a potential anti-tumor target in HNSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homeobox (HOX) genes, including HOXA13, are involved in human cancer. We found that HOXA13 expression was associated with glioma grade and prognosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of the HOXA13-associated genes were enriched in cancer-related signaling pathways and mainly involved in the regulation of transcription. We transfected four glioma cell lines with Lenti-si HOXA13. HOXA13 increased cell proliferation and invasion and inhibited apoptosis. HOXA13 decreased β-catenin, phospho-smad2, and phospho-smad3 in the nucleus and increased phospho-β-catenin in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, downregulation of HOXA13 in orthotopic tumors decreased tumor growth. We suggest that HOXA13 promotes glioma progression in part via Wnt- and TGF-β-induced EMT and is a potential diagnostic biomarker for glioblastoma and an independent prognostic factor in high-grade glioma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) are no longer deemed small pieces of RNA "trash" in the human transcriptome but are considered to be master regulators of gene expression that are critical in maintaining cellular homeostasis post-transcriptionally. The concept triggers great interest in studying miRNA dysregulations in human diseases, especially in cancers. Glioblastoma (GBM) has long been the leading cause of the high mortality and morbidity of CNS tumors in adults, which is a consequence of the lack of strategies to reverse the hallmark features of GBM (e.g., borderless expansion and diffuse infiltration). In the past decade, dissecting the molecular architecture of GBM has led to a better understanding of the molecular basis of the hallmarks, generating many promising pharmacological protein targets. However, few clinical responses have been highlighted, suggesting the demand for new therapeutic strategies and targets. In this review, we systemically summarize the context-dependently validated miRNAs with one or more functional targets in the development of GBM hallmarks and review the current miRNA-targeting strategies. We note that only a few miRNA-based therapeutics are trialed for clinical significance, and none of them is tailored to GBM, thereby urging us to bring miRNA therapeutics to the front line either alone or in combination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution plays a role in cancer risk, particularly in lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality worldwide. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a component of diesel exhaust products, is a complex mixture of particle compounds that include a large number of known and suspected human carcinogens. Historically, lung cancer, which is associated with DEPs, has been the focus of attention as a health risk in human and animal studies. However, the mechanism by which DEPs cause lung cancer remains unclear. The present study reports that DEPs increased miR‑21 expression and then activated the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, which may serve as an important carcinogenic mechanism. However, the data revealed that short‑term exposure to a high DEP concentration did not cause evident cell carcinogenesis in HBE cells.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Molecular Medicine Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and is overexpressed in multiple human cancers including glioblastoma multiform (GBM). Survival analysis of Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) patient data indicated that high HOTAIR expression was associated with poor outcome in GBM patients. NLK (Nemo-like kinase), a negative regulator of the β-catenin pathway, was negatively correlated with HOTAIR expression. When the β-catenin pathway was inhibited, GBM cells became susceptible to cell cycle arrest and inhibition of invasion. Introduction of the HOTAIR 5' domain in human glioma-derived astrocytoma induced β-catenin. An intracranial animal model was used to confirm that HOTAIR depletion inhibited GBM cell migration/invasion. In the orthotopic model, HOTAIR was required for GBM formation in vivo. In summary, HOTAIR is a potential therapeutic target in GBM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with disproportionately high morbidity and mortality, reflecting the need to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for this disease. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are gaining prominence and are more actively involved in tumorigenesis than previously thought. However, no report concerning the implication of snoRNAs in glioma has been published to date. In our study, SNORD76 was first found to be inversely associated with Hox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) knockdown, and surprisingly, forcibly expressed SNORD76 inhibited proliferation and growth of glioma cells. Moreover, downregulation of SNORD76 led to a more malignant phenotype. The pleiotropy of SNORD76 overexpression could be achieved at least partially through inducing cell cycle arrest at S phase by affecting the Rb-associated cell cycle regulation. Enforced SNORD76 expression in orthotopic tumors resulted in decreased tumor growth and the reduction of tumor volume. Additionally, in surgically resected glioma tissues, SNORD76, not its host gene, was associated with the WHO classification and was selectively downregulated in GBM (WHO grade IV). Collectively, our study adds to a growing body of evidence for the participation of snoRNAs in gliomagenesis and is the first to implicate a snoRNA in glioblastoma.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (Res), a natural polyphenolic compound, has anticancer activity in a variety of cancers. In the present study, the antitumor effect and underlying molecular mechanism of Res on rat C6 glioma growth was studied. The results demonstrated that Res inhibited glioma cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle in S phase and induced apoptosis in vitro. Res also suppressed intracranial C6 tumor growth in vivo and prolonged survival in a fraction of the rats bearing intracranial gliomas. Res significantltly downregulated the specific miRs, including miR‑21, miR‑30a-5p and miR‑19, which have been identified as oncomiRs in our previous studies, and altered the expression of their targeting and crucial genes for glioma formation and progression such as p53, PTEN, EGFR, STAT3, COX-2, NF-κB and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore, the anti-glioma effect of Res, at least in part, is through the regulation of oncogenic miRNAs. The effect of Res on non-coding RNAs should be studied further. Res is a potential multi-targeting drug for the treatment of gliomas.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a key chemotherapeutic drug for cancer treatment. The antitumor mechanism of DOX is its action as a topoisomerase II poison by preventing DNA replication. Our study shows that DOX can be involved in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription through downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) then reactivation of DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes in glioblastoma (GBM). Recent evidence demonstrated that microRNA (miR or miRNA) can mediate expression of genes through post-transcriptional regulation and modulate sensitivity to anticancer drugs. As one of the first miRNAs detected in the human genome, miR-21 has been validated to be overexpressed in GBM. Combination treatment of a chemotherapeutic and miRNA showed synergistically increased anticancer activities which has been proven to be an effective strategy for tumor therapy. In our study, co-treatment of DOX and miR-21 inhibitor (miR-21i) resulted in remarkably increased expression of tumor suppressor genes compared with DOX or the miR-21i treatment alone. Moreover, we demonstrate that combining DOX and miR-21i significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro. Our study concludes that combining DOX and miR-21i is a new strategy for the therapy of GBM.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long non-coding RNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) was recently implicated in breast cancer metastasis and is predictive of poor prognosis in colorectal and pancreatic cancers. We recently discovered that HOTAIR is a cell cycle-related lncRNA in human glioma, and its expression is closely associated with glioma staging and poor prognosis. Although lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) have been demonstrated to be functional targets of HOTAIR, how HOTAIR regulates glioma cell cycle progression remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that EZH2 (predominant PRC2 complex component) inhibition blocked cell cycle progression in glioma cells, consistent with the effects elicited by HOTAIR siRNA. However, the inhibition of LSD1 did not affect cell cycle progression in glioma cells. These results suggest that HOTAIR might regulate cell cycle progression through EZH2. Our intracranial mice model also revealed delayed tumor growth in HOTAIR siRNA- and EZH2 inhibitor-treated groups. Moreover, in HOTAIR knock-down cell lines, the expression of the PRC2-binding domain of HOTAIR (5' domain) but not of the LSD1-binding domain of HOTAIR (3' domain) resulted in accelerated cell cycle progression. In conclusion, HOTAIR promotes cell cycle progression in glioma as a result of the binding of its 5' domain to the PRC2 complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous results demonstrated that ZIP4 was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer samples and down-regulation of ZIP4 inhibited
pancreatic cancer growth and increased the survival of nude mice bearing orthotopic xenografts through IL6/STAT3 pathway.
Only recently did we discover that high ZIP4 was significantly associated with higher glioma grade and worse prognosis of
patients. However, the exact role of ZIP4 in glioma progression remains totally unknown. We transfected U87, LN229 and U251
GBM cells with ZIP4 knockdown and overexpression vectors to obtain stable GBM cell lines with different ZIP4 expression profiles.
Western blot was used to confirm ZIP4 expression in these screened cell lines. Cell proliferation and invasion were examined
by colony formation assay and transwell experiments. Then intracranial mouse GBM model were established to detect the orthotopic
tumor growth and survival. Results showed that GBM-shV/shZIP4/V/ZIP4 cells were successfully obtained. ZIP4 inhibition decreased
the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. Moreover, ZIP4 inhibition slowed down tumor growth and prolonged the survival
in vivo. Our results showed that aberrant expression of ZIP4 may contribute to GBM progression. ZIP4 might be a very promising
target for GBM therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: miRNA nanocapsules are synthesized with enhanced stability for miRNA delivery with high transduction efficiency, offering a novel class of miRNA vectors for cancer therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Advanced Materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant progression of astrocytoma is a multistep process with the integration of genetic abnormalities including grade progression and subtypes transition. Established biomarkers of astrocytomas, like IDH1 and TP53 mutation, were not associated with malignant progression. To identify new biomarker(s) contributing to malignant progression, we collected 252 samples with whole genome mRNA expression profile [34 normal brain tissue (NBT), 136 grade II astrocytoma (AII) and 82 grade III astrocytoma (AIII)]. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EMT-associated pathways were most significantly altered along with tumor grades progress with up-regulation of 17 genes. Up-regulation of these genes was further confirmed by RNA-sequencing in 128 samples. Survival analysis revealed that high expression of these genes indicates a poor survival outcome. We focused on TGFB1I1 (TGF-β1 induced transcript 1) whose expression correlation with WHO grades was further validated by qPCR in 6 cell lines of different grades and 49 independent samples (36 AIIs and 13 AIIIs). High expression of TGFB1I1 was found associated with subtype transition and EMT pathways activation. The conclusion was confirmed using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays. Studies in vitro and vivo using TGF-β1 and TGFB1I1 shRNA demonstrated that TGFB1I1 is required for TGF-β stimulated EMT that contributes to malignant progression of astrocytomas.