[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All of oral hamartomas has been previously found in mandibular gingiva in younger calves, and were histologically diagnosed as a vascular hamartoma. This is the first case report describing a calf with a mass in the maxillary gingiva that was histologically diagnosed as a nasal tissue-derived hamartoma.
A 13-day-old male Holstein calf presented with a horn-like mass in the left rostral maxillary gingiva. Surgical removal revealed that the mass had a dual structure composed of cartilaginous and soft tissues and extended deeply toward the nasal cavity. Excised tissues mainly consisted of two types of mature cells without mitotic figures and atypia: 1) the cartilage-like structures consisted of an island and a meandering massive focus of mature cartilaginous tissues, and 2) tubular structures consisting of stratified ciliated mucosal columnar cells with gland-like structures and aggregated goblet cells. The mass was diagnosed as a nasal tissue-derived hamartoma because these two types of structures were histologically identical to nasal structures. The present case had no recurrence at 1 year after surgery.
To our knowledge, this is the first description of the calf with nasal tissue-derived hamartoma in the maxillary gingiva.
Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT), or ultrasound combined with sonosensitization, is a promising approach because it is noninvasive and penetrates deeper than light does in photodynamic therapy. We examined whether bleomycin (BLM) could improve the efficacy of SDT. We performed an in vitro study using Colon-26 cells, which are derived from mouse colon cancer. SDT with BLM was significantly more cytotoxic than SDT alone both in vitro and in vivo. We also observed an ultrasound intensity-dependent cytotoxic effect of SDT with BLM. These findings suggest that SDT with BLM might provide a novel noninvasive treatment for deep-seated tumors.
No preview · Article · Jul 2016 · Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) levels are a useful metric for diagnosing cancer and providing a prognosis. However, the use of analysis of PFAA levels has been limited in the veterinary medicine field. We addressed the application of liquid chromatography (LC) using a pre-column labeling technique for analysis of canine PFAA levels. This method significantly shortened the analysis time relative to conventional methods. No diurnal fluctuations were detected at 9:00 AM in most PFAA levels, and food intake increased the levels of some PFAAs, including valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and proline. These results indicate that LC with pre-column labeling is useful for measuring canine PFAA levels, for which time of day and interval after food intake must be taken into consideration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) kills tumor cells through the synergistic effects of ultrasound and a sonosensitizer agent. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based SDT at 1 or 3 MHz could enhance the cytotoxicity of bleomycin (BLM) toward mouse mammary tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. At 1 MHz, cell viability in the 5-ALA-based SDT group at 1, 2, and 3 W/cm2 was 34.30%, 50.90%, and 60.16%, respectively. Cell viability in the 5-ALA-based SDT + BLM group at 1, 2, and 3 W/cm2 was 0.09%, 0.32%, and 0.17%, respectively. In contrast, at 3 MHz, 5-ALA-based SDT + BLM did not show pronounced cytotoxicity. In the in vivo study, 5-ALA-based SDT + BLM was significantly more cytotoxic than 5-ALA-based SDT at 1 MHz and 3 MHz. These findings suggest that the mechanism of tumor shrinkage induced by 5-ALA-based SDT + BLM might involve not only direct cell killing, but also vascular shutdown. Thus, we show here that 5-ALA-based SDT enhances the efficacy of BLM both in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs) are the most common neoplasms in sexually intact female dogs. CMGTs have been suggested as a model for studying human breast cancer because of several similarities, including the relative age of onset, risk factors, incidence, histological and molecular features, biological behavior, metastatic pattern, and responses to therapy. In the present study, we established a new cell line, the SNP cell line, from a CMGT. A tumor formed in each NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J mouse at the site of subcutaneous SNP cell injection. SNP cells are characterized by proliferation in a tubulopapillary pattern and are vimentin positive. Moreover, we examined miRNA expression in the cultured cells and found that the expression values of miRNA-143 and miRNA-138a showed the greatest increase and decrease, respectively, of all miRNAs observed. These miRNAs might therefore play a significant role in the malignancy of SNP cells. SNP cells might serve as a model for future genetic analysis and clinical treatments of human breast tumors.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of veterinary science (Suwŏn-si, Korea)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm²), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ozonated water is easier to handle than ozone gas. However, there have been no previous reports on the biological effects of ozonated water. We conducted a study on the safety of ozonated water and its anti-tumor effects using a tumor-bearing mouse model and normal controls. Local administration of ozonated water (208 mM) was not associated with any detrimental effects in normal tissues. On the other hand, local administration of ozonated water (20.8, 41.6, 104, or 208 mM) directly into the tumor tissue induced necrosis and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells. There was no significant difference in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells following administration of ozonated water. The size of the necrotic areas was dependent on the concentration of ozonated water. These results indicate that ozonated water does not affect normal tissue and damages only the tumor tissue by selectively inducing necrosis. There is a possibility that it exerts through the production of reaction oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the induction of necrosis rather than apoptosis is very useful in tumor immunity. Based on these results, we believe that administration of ozonated water is a safe and potentially simple adjunct or alternative to existing antineoplastic treatments.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some tumor-specific near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes such as indocyanine green (ICG), IDRye800CW, and 5-aminolevulinic acid have been used clinically for detecting tumor margins or micro-cancer lesions. In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties of liposomally formulated phospholipid-conjugated ICG, denoted by LP-iDOPE, as a clinically translatable NIR imaging nanoparticle for brain tumors. We also confirmed its brain-tumor-specific biodistribution and its characteristics as the intra-operative NIR imaging nanoparticles for brain tumor surgery. These properties of LP-iDOPE may enable neurosurgeons to achieve more accurate identification and more complete resection of brain tumor.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of chitin nanofibers (CNFs) and surface-deacetylated (SDA) CNFs on plasma metabolites using metabolome analysis. Furthermore, we determined the changes in gut microbiota and fecal organic acid concentrations following oral administrations of CNFs and SDACNFs. Healthy female mice (six-week-old) were fed a normal diet and administered tap water with 0.1% (v/v) CNFs or SDACNFs for 28 days. Oral administration of CNFs increased plasma levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Oral administration of SDACNFs affected the metabolisms of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids. The fecal organic level analysis indicated that oral administration of CNFs stimulated and activated the functions of microbiota. These results indicate that oral administration of CNFs increases plasma levels of ATP and 5-HT via activation of gut microbiota.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of oral administration of surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (SDACNFs) on hypercholesterolemia using an experimental model. All rats were fed a high cholesterol diet with 1% w/w cholesterol and 0.5% w/w cholic acid for 28 days. Rats were divided equally into four groups: the control group was administered 0.05% acetic acid dissolved in tap water, and the SDACNF, chitosan (CS), and cellulose nanofiber (CLNF) groups were administered 0.1% CNF, CS, or CLNF dissolved in the tap water, respectively, during the experimental period. Changes in body weight, intake of food and water, and organ weight were measured. Serum blood chemistry and histopathological examination of the liver were performed. Administration of SDACNF did not affect body weight change, food and water intake, or organ weights. Administration of SDACNF and CS decreased the diet-induced increase in serum total cholesterol, chylomicron, very-low-density lipoprotein, and phospholipid levels on day 14. Moreover, oral administration of SDACNFs suppressed the increase of alanine transaminase levels on day 29 and suppressed vacuolar degeneration and accumulation of lipid droplets in liver tissue. These data indicate that SDACNF has potential as a functional food for patients with hypercholesterolemia.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4)-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-month-old male Japanese Black calf was presented with a 30-day history of progressive ataxia. Antemortem examination using computed tomography (CT) revealed narrowing of the disc spaces due to destruction of intervertebral structures between the first and second thoracic vertebrae and between the second and third thoracic vertebrae. Osteolysis was evident as irregular hypoattenuating lesions within the opposing end plates of the first, second and third thoracic vertebrae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected as the causative bacteria, and discospondylitis was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first bovine case report describing the application of CT for the diagnosis of discospondylitis.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticancer effects of photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy (PHCT), which consists of a combination of indocyanine green photodynamic hyperthermal therapy and local chemotherapy, have previously been reported. The present study investigated the effect of PHCT in six cases of feline vaccine-associated sarcoma (FVAS) following conservative surgical resection. No recurrence was observed in three out of six (50%) cases, while recurrence was observed in the remaining three cases. Of note, each feline with recurrences had previously undergone surgical resection more than three times, whereas those without recurrence had undergone no or one previous resection. In addition, the three animals in which there was no recurrence survived between 893 and 1,797 days following surgery. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PHCT may be a candidate as a novel adjuvant cancer therapy for FVAS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports indicate that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomers (chitin oligosaccharide; NACOS) and d-glucosamine oligomers (chitosan oligosaccharide; COS) have various biological activities, especially against cancer and inflammation. In this review, we have summarized the findings of previous investigations that have focused on anticancer or anti-inflammatory properties of NACOS and COS. Moreover, we have introduced recent evaluation of NACOS and COS as functional foods against cancer and inflammatory disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel biological adhesives made from chitin derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their adhesive properties and biocompatibility. Chitin derivatives with acrylic groups, such as 2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropylated carboxymethyl chitin (HMA-CM-chitin), were synthesized and cured by the addition of an aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution as a radical initiator. The adhesive strength of HMA-CM-chitin increased when it was blended with chitin nanofibers (CNFs) or surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (S-DACNFs). HMA-CM-chitin/CNFs or HMA-CM-chitin/S-DACNFs have almost equal adhesive strength compared to that of a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive. Moreover, quick adhesion and induction of inflammatory cells migration were observed in HMA-CM-chitin/CNF and HMA-CM-chitin/S-DACNF. These findings indicate that the composites prepared in this study are promising materials as new biological adhesives.KeywordsChitin2-Hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropylated carboxymethyl chitinAdhesionChitin nanofiber