Yasufumi Shirasaki

Daiichi Sankyo Company, Edo, Tokyo, Japan

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Publications (32)98.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Medical Primatology
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    ABSTRACT: A method for blood collection from the jugular vein of mice without anesthesia was compared with a tail-incision technique. Jugular vein blood collection allowed withdrawal of almost 15% of the circulating blood volume at a time in less than 1 min. Hemolysis, hematocrit, and plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes (a marker of blood coagulation) were higher in samples collected from the tail vein than the jugular vein. Mice produced similar plasma corticosterone levels after serial blood collection by either method. Tail incision led to a slight but significant increase in C-reactive protein levels. Using the jugular venipuncture technique, we then performed a pharmacokinetic study and an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma concentrations of levofloxacin, an antimicrobial agent, were dose-dependently elevated after oral administration, and linear increases in C(max) and AUC were observed. We also confirmed that overall glucose excursion is significantly decreased in mice treated with exendin 4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 agonist. These results indicate that the jugular venipuncture is a useful technique from the point of view of no requirement for anesthetics, serial blood collection at short intervals, large volume of blood collection, quality of sample and animal welfare. This technique is of particular interest for studies that examine time-dependent changes in blood variables.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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    ABSTRACT: Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δB (CaMKIIδB) is one of the predominant isoforms of CaMKII in the heart. The precise role of CaMKIIδB in the transcriptional cross-talk of Ca²⁺-handling proteins during heart failure remains unclear. In this work, we aim to determine the mechanism of CaMKIIδB in modulating the expression of sarcolemmal Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchange (NCX1). We also aim to address the potential effects of calmodulin antagonism on the imbalance of NCX1 and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase (SERCA) during heart failure. Eight weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced heart failure in mice, we found that the heart weight/tibia length (HW/TL) ratio and the lung weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio increased by 59% and 133%, respectively. We further found that the left ventricle-shortening fraction decreased by 40% compared with the sham-operated controls. Immunoblotting revealed that the phosphorylation of CaMKIIδB significantly increased 8 weeks after TAC-induced heart failure. NCX1 protein levels were also elevated, whereas SERCA2 protein levels decreased in the same animal model. Moreover, transfection of active CaMKIIδB significantly increased NCX1 protein levels in adult mouse cardiomyocytes via class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC)/myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2)-dependent signaling. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of calmodulin/CaMKIIδB activity improved cardiac function in TAC mice, which partially normalized the imbalance between NCX1 and SERCA2. These data identify NCX1 as a cellular target for CaMKIIδB. We also suggest that the CaMKIIδB-induced imbalance between NCX1 and SERCA2 is partially responsible for the disturbance of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and the pathological process of heart failure.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    Dataset: Figure S2
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of calmodulin antagonist on phosphorylation of PLB in TAC mice. Representative immunoblots from heart tissue lysates of control and TAC mice with or without [DY-9836, 10 and 20 mg/kg (DY1 or DY2)] treatment, assayed with phospho-PLB antibody (Thr17 or Ser16). ββ-tubulin was used as the loading control. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2011
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    Dataset: Figure S1
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII and HDAC on NCX1 expression. (A) The NCX1 overexpression induced by ET is associated with CaMKIIδB phosphorylation. (B) Effect of HDAC inhibitor on NCX1 expression following ET treatment. β-tubulin was used as the loading control. Con, control; ET, endothelin-1; TSA, Trichostatin A. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2011
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    Dataset: Table S1
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    ABSTRACT: Echocardiographic measurements in mice with aortic banding. HR: heart rate; LV: left ventricular; LVIDd: LV end-diastolic internal diameter; LVIDs, LV end-systolic internal diameter; FS: LV fractional shortening. **P<0.01 vs Sham; #P<0.05, ##P<0.01 vs TAC. (DOC)
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2011
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    Dataset: Figure S3
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    ABSTRACT: The calmodulin antagonist inhibited cleavage of caspase-3 following TAC. Representative immunoblots of cleaved caspase-3 in sham and TAC mice with or without [DY-9836, 20 mg/kg (DY)] treatment. β-tubulin was used as the loading control. (TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Sep 2011
  • Yasufumi Shirasaki · Masunobu Sugimura · Toshiyuki Sato
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    ABSTRACT: Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, has widely been used for patients with Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine on glutamate transporter. Since the astroglial glutamate transporter GLT-1 (EAAT2) is the predominant isoform in the forebrain, we generated EAAT2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells and immortalized mouse astrocytes. In the present studies, we observed a GLT-1-immunoreactive band and significant Na(+)-dependent d-[(3)H] aspartate uptake. Furthermore, the glutamate transporter inhibitors, dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) and dihydrokainate (DHK), displayed a dose-dependent reduction of d-[(3)H] aspartate uptake in both types of cells. In contrast, cells exposed to either chemical anoxia or high KCl elicited a marked release of d-[(3)H] aspartate, and the release was inhibited by TBOA and DHK, implying the contribution of glutamate transporter reversal. Interestingly, we found that bromocriptine dose-dependently inhibits d-[(3)H] aspartate release elicited by chemical anoxia or high KCl, while no changes occurred in the uptake. The inhibitory action of bromocriptine was not affected by sulpiride, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist. On the other hand, bromocriptine had no effect on swelling-induced d-[(3)H] aspartate release, which is mediated by volume-regulated anion channels. In vivo studies revealed that bromocriptine suppresses the excessive elevation of glutamate levels in gerbils subjected to transient forebrain ischemia in a manner similar to DHK. Taken together, these results provide evidence that bromocriptine inhibits excitatory amino acid release via reversed operation of GLT-1 without altering forward transport.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · European journal of pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Using a heart ischemia/reperfusion model in rats, we recently demonstrated that 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), a calmodulin inhibitor, is a cardioprotective drug. Here, we examined cardioprotective mechanisms of DY-9760e in hypertrophy and heart failure using a mouse transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model. Mice were subjected to TAC and 2 weeks later they were administered DY-9760e for another 6 weeks (at 10 or 20 mg/kg/day p.o.). Chronic administration inhibited TAC-induced increased heart-to-body weight ratio dose-dependently. Consistent with inhibition of hypertrophy, fraction shortening, an indicator of heart contractile function, assessed by echocardiography was completely restored by DY-9760e (20 mg/kg/day) administration. Inhibition of TAC-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) up-regulation further confirmed an antihypertrophic effect of DY-9760e. It is noteworthy that we found that breakdown of dystrophin and spectrin by calpain was associated with heart failure in TAC mice. Caveolin-3 breakdown was closely associated with endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) dissociation from the plasma membrane and its subsequent uncoupling. Uncoupled monomeric eNOS formation was associated with increased protein tyrosine nitration, suggesting peroxynitrite production and NO and superoxide formation. It is important to note that 6 weeks of DY-9760e treatment significantly blocked hypertrophic responses, such as increased heart weight and ANP induction. Overall, we show that inhibition of both dystrophin/spectrin breakdown and uncoupling of eNOS probably underlies the cardioprotective mechanisms of DY-9760e. The observed protection of sarcolemmal proteins and eNOS by DY-9760e during pressure overload suggests a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue the heart from hypertrophy-induced failure.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) have pivotal roles in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We here tested whether a novel CaM antagonist, DY-9760e inhibits ET-1-induced hypertrophy through inhibition of CaMKII and ERK activities. We first confirmed that Ca(2+) oscillation induced by ET-1 treatment elicits transient activation of CaMKII and ERK in cultured cardiomyocytes. DY-9760e treatment with 3 microM totally and partially inhibited the ET-1-induced CaMKII and ERK activation, respectively. The ET-1-induced ERK activation was also partially blocked by a CaMKII inhibitor, KN93. To confirm involvement of CaMKII activity in the ERK activation by ET-1 and A23187, cultured cardiomyocytes were transfected with a constitutively active CaMKII. The transfection with the active CaMKII elicited ERK activation in cultured cardiomyocytes and cotransfection with dominant negative CaMKII eliminated its ERK activation. Consistent with inhibitory actions of DY-9760e on the ET-1-induced CaMKII and ERK activation, induction of hypertrophy-related genes including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was significantly inhibited by DY-9760e treatment. Combination treatment with DY-9760e and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, totally blocked the ET-1-induced ANP and BNP expression. DY-9760e treatment (3 microM) significantly inhibited the ET-1-induced hypertrophy and combination treatment with DY-9760e and U0126 totally blocked the ET-1-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that DY-9760e elicits antihypertrophic action on ET-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of CaMKII and ERK activation and that CaMKII activity in part mediates ET-1-induced ERK activation.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological relevance of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS)-induced superoxide production in cardiomyocyte injury after prolonged phenylephrine (PE) exposure remains unclear. The aims of this study were to define the mechanism of O2(*) production by uncoupled eNOS and evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel calmodulin antagonist 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxyindazole (DY-9836) to rescue hypertrophied cardiomyocytes from PE-induced injury. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, prolonged exposure for 96 h to PE led to translocation from membrane to cytosol of eNOS and breakdown of caveolin-3 and dystrophin. When NO and O2(*) production were monitored in PE-treated cells by 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein and dihydroethidium, respectively, Ca(2+)-induced NO production elevated by 5.7-fold (p < 0.01) after 48-h PE treatment, and the basal NO concentration markedly elevated (16-fold; p < 0.01) after 96-h PE treatment. On the other hand, the O2(*) generation at 96 h was closely associated with an increased uncoupled eNOS level. Coincubation with DY-9836 (3 microM) during the last 48 h inhibited the aberrant O2(*) generation nearly completely and NO production by 72% (p < 0.01) after 96 h of PE treatment and inhibited the breakdown of caveolin-3/dystrophin in cardiomyocytes. PE-induced apoptosis assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining was also attenuated by DY-9836 treatment. These results suggest that O2(*) generation by uncoupled eNOS probably triggers PE-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Inhibition of abnormal O2(*) and NO generation by DY-9836 treatment represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for PE/hypertrophy-induced cardiomyocyte injury.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Molecular pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and, subsequently, hyperactivation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent processes might play an important role in the pathologic events following cerebral ischemia. PEP-19 is a neuronally expressed polypeptide that acts as an endogenous negative regulator of calmodulin by inhibiting the association of calmodulin with enzymes and other proteins. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of PEP-19 overexpression on cell death triggered by Ca2+ overload and how the polypeptide levels are affected by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia. Expression of PEP-19 in HEK293T cells suppressed calmodulin-dependent signaling and protected against cell death elicited by Ca2+ ionophore. Likewise, primary cortical neurons overexpressing PEP-19 became resistant to glutamate-induced cell death. In immunoprecipitation assay, wild type PEP-19 associated with calmodulin, whereas mutated PEP-19, which contains mutations within the calmodulin binding site of PEP-19, failed to associate with calmodulin. We found that the mutation abrogates both the ability to suppress calmodulin-dependent signaling and to protect cells from death. Additionally, the endogenous PEP-19 levels in neurons were significantly reduced following glutamate exposure, this reduction precedes neuronal cell death and can be blocked by treatment with calpain inhibitors. These data suggest that PEP-19 is a substrate for calpain, and that the decreased PEP-19 levels result from its degradation by calpain. A similar reduction of PEP-19 also occurred in the hippocampus of gerbils subjected to transient global ischemia. In contrast to the reduction in PEP-19, no changes in calmodulin occurred following excitotoxicity, suggesting the loss of negative regulation of calmodulin by PEP-19. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PEP-19 overexpression enhances resistance to Ca2+-mediated cytotoxicity, which might be mediated through calmodulin inhibition, and also raises the possibility that PEP-19 degradation by calpain might produce an aberrant activation of calmodulin functions, which in turn causes neuronal cell death.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy impairs Ca(2+) handling in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby impairing cardiac contraction. To identify the mechanisms underlying impaired Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, we assessed Ca(2+)-dependent signaling and the phosphorylation of phospholamban, which regulates Ca(2+) uptake during myocardial relaxation and is in turn regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, treatment with endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy and increased CaMKII autophosphorylation and calcineurin expression. The calcineurin level reached its maximum at 72h and remained elevated for at least 96h after endothelin-1 or angiotensin II treatment. By contrast, CaMKII autophosphorylation, phospholamban phosphorylation, and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) mobilization all peaked 48h after these treatments. By 96h after treatment, CaMKII autophosphorylation and phospholamban phosphorylation had returned to baseline, and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) mobilization was impaired relative to baseline. A similar biphasic change was observed in dystrophin levels in endothelin-1-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, and treatment with the novel CaM antagonists DY-9760e and DY-9836 significantly inhibited the hypertrophy-induced dystrophin breakdown. Taken together, the abnormal Ca(2+) regulation in cardiomyocytes following hypertrophy is in part mediated by an imbalance in calcineurin and CaMKII activities, which leads to abnormal phospholamban activity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Biochemical Pharmacology
  • Y. Morishima · Y. Shirasaki · F. Kito · Y. Honda · T. Shibano

    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
  • Feng Han · Norifumi Shioda · Yasufumi Shirasaki · Kohji Fukunaga
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in brain microvessels maintains homeostasis of the brain microenvironment mostly through maintenance of tight junctions between brain vascular endothelial cells, thereby preventing passage of hydrophilic molecules or toxic substances from the blood to the brain. Vascular damage following embolic stoke leads to disruption of BBB, thereby eliciting brain edema. Therefore, microvascular endothelial cell is likely potential therapeutic target to rescue neurons from brain edema. Vasoprotective agents such as free radical scavengers, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and HMGCoA reductase inhibitors are potential candidates to inhibit BBB disruption. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of decreased brain infarction by these vasoprotective agents. In addition, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are known to elicit cerebral microvascular injury resulting BBB disruption following cerebral ischemia. Of note, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) attenuates BBB disruption following brain ischemia. We recently introduced a novel vasoprotective drug, DY-9760e, which is a novel calmodulin-dependent NOS inhibitor. We confirmed that DY-9760e, can protect microvascular endothelial cells in rat embolic stoke model, thereby attenuating BBB disruption. Taken together, we propose a therapeutic modality that target cerebrovascular would represent powerful approaches to prevent brain edema following cerebral ischemia.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery
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    Feng Han · Yasufumi Shirasaki · Kohji Fukunaga
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    ABSTRACT: Microsphere embolism (ME)-induced up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells of brain microvessels was observed 2-48 h after ischemia. eNOS induction preceded disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) observed 6-72 h after ischemia. In vascular endothelial cells, ME-induced eNOS expression was closely associated with protein tyrosine nitration, which is a marker of generation of peroxynitrite. Leakage of rabbit IgG from microvessels was also evident around protein tyrosine nitration-immunoreactive microvessels. To determine whether eNOS expression and protein tyrosine nitration in vascular endothelial cells mediates BBB disruption in the ME brain, we tested the effect of a novel calmodulin-dependent NOS inhibitor, 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), which inhibits eNOS activity and, in turn, protein tyrosine nitration. Concomitant with inhibition of protein tyrosine nitration in vascular endothelial cells, DY-9760e significantly inhibited BBB disruption as assessed by Evans blue (EB) excretion. DY-9760e also inhibited cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as a marker of the apoptotic pathway in vascular endothelial cells. Taken together with previous evidence in which DY-9760e inhibited brain edema, ME-induced eNOS expression in vascular endothelial cells likely mediates BBB disruption and, in turn, brain edema.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    Norifumi Shioda · Shigeki Moriguchi · Yasufumi Shirasaki · Kohji Fukunaga
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    ABSTRACT: Calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease, in vitro converts calcineurin (CaN) to constitutively active forms of 45 kDa and 48 kDa by cleaving the autoinhibitory domain of the 60 kDa subunit. In a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, calpain converted the CaN A subunit to the constitutively active form with 48 kDa in vivo. We also confirmed increased Ca(2+)/CaM-independent CaN activity in brain extracts. The generation of constitutively active and Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity of CaN peaked 2 h after reperfusion in brain extracts. Increased constitutively active CaN activity was associated with dephosphorylation of dopamine-regulated phosphoprotein-32 in the brain. Generation of constitutively active CaN was accompanied by translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) into nuclei of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In addition, a novel calmodulin antagonist, DY-9760e, blocked the generation of constitutively active CaN by calpain, thereby inhibiting NFAT nuclear translocation. Together with previous studies indicating that NFAT plays a critical role in apoptosis, we propose that calpain-induced CaN activation in part mediates delayed neuronal death in brain ischemia.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Neurochemistry
  • Feng Han · Yasufumi Shirasaki · Kohji Fukunaga
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    ABSTRACT: Microsphere embolism (ME)-induced cerebral ischemia can elicit various pathological events leading to neuronal death. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed that expression of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, decreased after ME induction. Calpain activation after ME was apparently due to, in part, a decrease in calpastatin in a late phase of neuronal injury. The time course of that decrease also paralleled caspase-3 activation. In vitro studies demonstrated that calpastatin was degraded by caspase-3 in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent manner. Because CaM binds directly to calpastatin, we asked whether a novel CaM antagonist, 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydro-chloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), inhibits caspase-3-induced calpastatin degradation during ME-induced neuronal damage. We also tested the effect of DY-9760e on degradation of fodrin, a calpain substrate. Consistent with our hypothesis, DY-9760e (25 or 50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment inhibited degradation of calpastatin and fodrin in a dose-dependent manner. Because DY-9760e showed powerful neuroprotective activity with concomitant inhibition of calpastatin degradation, cross-talk between calpain and caspase-3 through calpastatin possibly accounts for ME-induced neuronal injury. Taken together, both inhibition of caspase-3-induced calpastatin degradation and calpain-induced fodrin breakdown by DY-9760e in part mediate its neuroprotective action.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: A large body of evidence indicates that disturbances of Ca(2+) homeostasis may be a causative factor in the neurotoxicity following cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) overload leads to neuronal cell death have not been fully elucidated. Calmodulin, a major intracellular Ca(2+)-binding protein found mainly in the central nervous system, mediates many physiological functions in response to changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas Ca(2+) overload in neurons after excitotoxic insult may induce excessive activation of calmodulin signaling pathways, leading to neuronal cell death. To determine the role of calmodulin in the induction of neuronal cell death, we generated primary rat cortical neurons that express a mutant calmodulin with a defect in Ca(2+)-binding affinity. Neurons expressing the mutant had low responses of calmodulin-dependent signaling to membrane depolarization by high KCl and became resistant to glutamate-triggered excitotoxic neuronal cell death compared with the vector or wild-type calmodulin-transfected cells, indicating that blocking calmodulin function is protective against excitotoxic insult. These results suggest that calmodulin plays a crucial role in the processes of Ca(2+)-induced neuronal cell death and the possibility that the blockage of calmodulin attenuates brain injury after cerebral ischemia.
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: DY-9760e (3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride-3.5 hydrate) inhibits Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thereby inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production. In cardiomyocytes from ischemic rat heart NO and superoxide levels are increased causing protein tyrosine nitration. In hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion DY-9760e totally abolishes protein tyrosine nitration. Notably, DY-9760e also inhibits calpain and cas-pase-3 activation that occurs prior to apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In ischemic hearts fodrin is the substrate for calpain. DY-9760e inhibits fodrin breakdown in the peri-infarct area rather than in the infarct core. In the ischemic rat brain DY-9760e inhibits caspase-3-induced proteolysis of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, suggesting that crosstalk between calpain and caspase-3 is mediated by calpastatin breakdown. Thus, DY-9760e rescues neurons and cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury by inhibiting crosstalk between calpain and caspase-3 as well as protein tyrosine nitration.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Cardiovascular Drug Reviews

Publication Stats

854 Citations
98.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2013
    • Daiichi Sankyo Company
      Edo, Tokyo, Japan
    • Soochow University (PRC)
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Wu-hsien, Jiangsu, China
  • 2009
    • Sankyo Kasei Co., Ltd.
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan