[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections with human rhinovirus (HRV) are commonly associated with acute upper and lower respiratory tract disease and asthma exacerbations. The role that HRVs play in these diseases suggests it is important to understand host-specific or virus-specific factors that contribute to pathogenesis. Since species A HRVs are often associated with more serious HRV disease than species B HRVs, differences in immune responses they induce should inform disease pathogenesis. To identify species differences in induced responses, we evaluated 3 species A viruses, HRV 25, 31 and 36 and 3 species B viruses, HRV 4, 35 and 48 by exposing human PBMCs to HRV infected Calu-3 cells. To evaluate the potential effect of memory induced by previous HRV infection on study responses, we tested cord blood mononuclear cells that should be HRV naïve. There were HRV-associated increases (significant increase compared to mock-infected cells) for one or more HRVs for IP-10 and IL-15 that was unaffected by addition of PBMCs, for MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IFN-α, and HGF only with addition of PBMCs, and for ENA-78 only without addition of PBMCs. All three species B HRVs induced higher levels, compared to A HRVs, of MIP-1α and MIP-1β with PBMCs and ENA-78 without PBMCs. In contrast, addition of CBMCs had less effect and did not induce MIP-1α, MIP-1β, or IFN-α nor block ENA-78 production. Addition of CBMCs did, however, increase IP-10 levels for HRV 35 and HRV 36 infection. The presence of an effect with PBMCs and no effect with CBMCs for some responses suggest differences between the two types of cells possibly because of the presence of HRV memory responses in PBMCs and not CBMCs or limited response capacity for the immature CBMCs relative to PBMCs. Thus, our results indicate that different HRV strains can induce different patterns of cytokines and chemokines; some of these differences may be due to differences in memory responses induced by past HRV infections, and other differences related to virus factors that can inform disease pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are associated with the common cold, occasionally with more serious lower respiratory tract illnesses, and frequently with asthma exacerbations. The clinical features of HRV infection and its association with asthma exacerbation suggest that some HRV disease results from virus-induced host immune responses to infection. To study the HRV-infection-induced host responses and the contribution of these responses to disease, we have developed an in vitro model of HRV infection of human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) and subsequent exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to these infected cells in a two-chamber trans-well tissue culture system. Using this model, we studied HRV 14 (species B) and HRV 16 (species A) induced cytokine and chemokine responses with PBMCs from four healthy adults. Infection of Calu-3 cells with either virus induced HRV-associated increases in FGF-Basic, IL-15, IL-6, IL-28A, ENA-78 and IP-10. The addition of PBMCs to HRV 14-infected cells gave significant increases in MIP-1β, IL-28A, MCP-2, and IFN-α as compared with mock-infected cells. Interestingly, ENA-78 levels were reduced in HRV 14 infected cells that were exposed to PBMCs. Addition of PBMCs to HRV 16-infected cells did not induce MIP-1β, IL-28A and IFN-α efficiently nor did it decrease ENA-78 levels. Our results demonstrate a clear difference between HRV 14 and HRV 16 and the source of PBMCs, in up or down regulation of several cytokines including those that are linked to airway inflammation. Such differences might be one of the reasons for variation in disease associated with different HRV species including variation in their link to asthma exacerbations as suggested by other studies. Further study of immune responses associated with different HRVs and PBMCs from different patient groups, and the mechanisms leading to these differences, should help characterize pathogenesis of HRV disease and generate novel approaches to its treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enveloped viruses including the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicating within host cells acquire host proteins upon egress from the host cells. A number of studies have catalogued such host proteins, and a few have documented the potential positive and negative biological functions of such host proteins. The studies conducted herein utilized proteomic analysis to identify differences in the spectrum of host proteins acquired by a single source of SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease resistant sooty mangabeys and disease susceptible rhesus macaques.
While a total of 202 host derived proteins were present in viral preparations from CD4+ T cells from both species, there were 4 host-derived proteins that consistently and uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from rhesus macaques but not sooty mangabeys; and, similarly, 28 host-derived proteins that uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from sooty mangabeys, but not rhesus macaques. Of interest was the finding that of the 4 proteins uniquely present in SIV preparations from rhesus macaques was a 26 S protease subunit 7 (MSS1) that was shown to enhance HIV-1 'tat' mediated transactivation. Among the 28 proteins found in SIV preparations from sooty mangabeys included several molecules associated with immune function such as CD2, CD3ε, TLR4, TLR9 and TNFR and a bioactive form of IL-13.
The finding of 4 host proteins that are uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease susceptible rhesus macaques and 28 host proteins that are uniquely associated with SIV replicating within CD4+ T cells from disease resistant sooty mangabeys provide the foundation for determining the potential role of each of these unique host-derived proteins in contributing to the polarized clinical outcome in these 2 species of nonhuman primates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5alpha has been shown to restrict human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 infection in Old World monkey cells at the early post-entry step by poorly understood mechanisms. Currently, the physiological function of TRIM5alpha is not known. In this study, we showed that transiently overexpressed TRIM5alpha causes a morphological change in HEK293T cells. A proteomics analysis of the protein complexes that were pulled down with hemagglutinin-tagged TRIM5alpha suggested that the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) may serve as a TRIM5alpha-binding partner. The interaction between Hsp70 and TRIM5alpha was confirmed by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-expression of Hsp70 reversed the TRIM5alpha-induced morphological change in HEK293T cells. Another heat shock protein Hsc70 also bound to TRIM5alpha, but unlike Hsp70, Hsc70 was not able to reverse the TRIM5alpha-induced morphological change, suggesting that Hsp70 specifically reverses the morphological change caused by TRIM5alpha. Studies using a series of TRIM5alpha deletion mutants demonstrate that, although the PRYSPRY domain is critical for binding to Hsp70, the entire TRIM5alpha structure is necessary to induce the morphological change of cells. When the ATPase domain of Hsp70 was mutated, the mutated Hsp70 could not counteract the morphological change induced by TRIM5alpha, indicating that the catalytic activity of Hsp70 protein is important for this function. Co-expression of Hsp70 elevated the levels of TRIM5alpha in the detergent-soluble fraction with a concomitant decrease in the detergent-insoluble fraction. Together these results suggest that Hsp70 plays critical roles in the cellular management against the TRIM5alpha-induced cellular insults.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5α has been shown to restrict human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 infection in Old World
monkey cells at the early post-entry step by poorly understood mechanisms. Currently, the physiological function of TRIM5α
is not known. In this study, we showed that transiently overexpressed TRIM5α causes a morphological change in HEK293T cells.
A proteomics analysis of the protein complexes that were pulled down with hemagglutinin-tagged TRIM5α suggested that the heat
shock protein 70 (Hsp70) may serve as a TRIM5α-binding partner. The interaction between Hsp70 and TRIM5α was confirmed by
co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-expression of Hsp70 reversed the TRIM5α-induced morphological change
in HEK293T cells. Another heat shock protein Hsc70 also bound to TRIM5α, but unlike Hsp70, Hsc70 was not able to reverse the
TRIM5α-induced morphological change, suggesting that Hsp70 specifically reverses the morphological change caused by TRIM5α.
Studies using a series of TRIM5α deletion mutants demonstrate that, although the PRYSPRY domain is critical for binding to
Hsp70, the entire TRIM5α structure is necessary to induce the morphological change of cells. When the ATPase domain of Hsp70
was mutated, the mutated Hsp70 could not counteract the morphological change induced by TRIM5α, indicating that the catalytic
activity of Hsp70 protein is important for this function. Co-expression of Hsp70 elevated the levels of TRIM5α in the detergent-soluble
fraction with a concomitant decrease in the detergent-insoluble fraction. Together these results suggest that Hsp70 plays
critical roles in the cellular management against the TRIM5α-induced cellular insults.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release. It has been suggested that both functions can be genetically separated by mutation of a serine residue at position 52. However, recent data suggest that the S52 phosphorylation site is also important for the ability of Vpu to counteract tetherin. To clarify this issue, we performed a comprehensive analysis of HIV-1 with a mutated casein kinase-II phosphorylation site in Vpu in various cell lines, primary blood lymphocytes (PBL), monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and ex vivo human lymphoid tissue (HLT).
We show that mutation of serine 52 to alanine (S52A) entirely disrupts Vpu-mediated degradation of CD4 and strongly impairs its ability to antagonize tetherin. Furthermore, casein-kinase II inhibitors blocked the ability of Vpu to degrade tetherin. Overall, Vpu S52A could only overcome low levels of tetherin, and its activity decreased in a manner dependent on the amount of transiently or endogenously expressed tetherin. As a consequence, the S52A Vpu mutant virus was unable to replicate in macrophages, which express high levels of this restriction factor. In contrast, HIV-1 Vpu S52A caused CD4+ T-cell depletion and spread efficiently in ex vivo human lymphoid tissue and PBL, most likely because these cells express comparably low levels of tetherin.
Our data explain why the effect of the S52A mutation in Vpu on virus release is cell-type dependent and suggest that a reduced ability of Vpu to counteract tetherin impairs HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in tissue CD4+ T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nef is a multifunctional accessory protein of primate lentiviruses. Recently, it has been shown that the ability of Nef to
downmodulate CD4, CD28, and class I major histocompatibility complex is highly conserved between most or all primate lentiviruses,
whereas Nef-mediated downregulation of T-cell receptor-CD3 was lost in the lineage that gave rise to human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 (HIV-1). Whether or not other Nef activities are preserved between different groups of primate lentiviruses remained
to be determined. Here, we show that nef genes from a large variety of HIVs and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) enhance virion infectivity and stimulate viral
replication in human cells and/or in ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissue (HLT). Notably, nef alleles from unpassaged SIVcpz and SIVsmm enhanced viral infectivity, replication, and cytopathicity in cell culture and
in ex vivo infected HLT as efficiently as those from HIV-1 and HIV-2, their human counterparts. Furthermore, nef genes from several highly divergent SIVs that have not been found in humans were also highly active in human cells and/or
tissues. Thus, most primate lentiviral Nefs enhance virion infectivity and stimulate viral replication. Moreover, our data
show that SIVcpz and SIVsmm Nefs do not require adaptive changes to perform these functions in human cells or tissues and
support the idea that nef alleles from other primate lentiviruses would also be capable of promoting efficient virus spread in humans.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. To identify endogenous factors that affect the efficiency of sexual viral transmission, we screened a complex peptide/protein library derived from human semen. We show that naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen marker prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) form amyloid fibrils. These fibrils, termed Semen-derived Enhancer of Virus Infection (SEVI), capture HIV virions and promote their attachment to target cells, thereby enhancing the infectious virus titer by several orders of magnitude. Physiological concentrations of SEVI amplified HIV infection of T cells, macrophages, ex vivo human tonsillar tissues, and transgenic rats in vivo, as well as trans-HIV infection of T cells by dendritic or epithelial cells. Amyloidogenic PAP fragments are abundant in seminal fluid and boost semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Thus, they may play an important role in sexual transmission of HIV and could represent new targets for its prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein with p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) has been proposed to play a role in T-cell activation, viral replication, apoptosis, and progression to AIDS. However, these hypotheses were based on results obtained using Nef mutants impaired in multiple functions. Recently, it was reported that Nef residue F191 is specifically involved in PAK2 binding. However, only a limited number of Nef activities were investigated in these studies. To further evaluate the role of F191 in Nef function and to elucidate the biological relevance of Nef-PAK2 interaction, we performed a comprehensive analysis of HIV-1 Nef mutants carrying F191H and F191R mutations. We found that the F191H mutation reduces and the F191R mutation disrupts the association of Nef with PAK2. Both mutants upregulated the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II)-associated invariant chain and downregulated CD4, MHC-I, and CD28, although with reduced efficiency for the latter. Furthermore, the F191H/R changes neither affected the levels of interleukin-2 receptor expression and apoptosis of HIV-1-infected primary T cells nor reduced Nef-mediated induction of NFAT. Unexpectedly, the F191H change markedly reduced and the F191R mutation disrupted the ability of Nef to enhance virion infectivity in P4-CCR5 indicator cells but not in TZM-bl cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Most importantly, all HIV-1 Nef mutants replicated efficiently and caused CD4+ T-cell depletion in ex vivo-infected human lymphoid tissue. Altogether, our data show that the interaction of Nef with PAK2 does not play a major role in T-cell activation, viral replication, and apoptosis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion inhibitors blocking viral entry by binding the gp41 heptad repeat 1 (HR1) region offer great promise for antiretroviral therapy, and the first of these inhibitors, T20 (Fuzeon; enfuvirtide), is successfully used in the clinic. It has been reported previously that changes in the 3-amino-acid GIV motif at positions 36 to 38 of gp41 HR1 mediate resistance to T20 but usually not to second-version fusion inhibitors, such as T1249, which target an overlapping but distinct region in HR1 including a conserved hydrophobic pocket (HP). Based on the common lack of cross-resistance and the difficulty of selecting T1249-resistant HIV-1 variants, it has been suggested that the determinants of resistance to first- and second-version fusion inhibitors may be different. To further assess HIV-1 resistance to fusion inhibitors and to analyze where changes in HR1 are tolerated, we randomized 16 codons in the HR1 region, including those making contact with HR2 codons and/or encoding residues in the GIV motif and the HP. We found that changes only at positions 37I, 38V, and 40Q near the N terminus of HR1 were tolerated. The propagation of randomly gp41-mutated HIV-1 variants in the presence of T1249 allowed the effective selection of highly resistant forms, all containing changes in the IV residues. Overall, the extent of T1249 resistance was inversely correlated to viral fitness and cytopathicity. Notably, one HIV-1 mutant showing approximately 10-fold-reduced susceptibility to T1249 inhibition replicated with wild type-like kinetics and caused substantial CD4+-T-cell depletion in ex vivo-infected human lymphoid tissue in the presence and absence of an inhibitor. Taken together, our results show that the GIV motif also plays a key role in resistance to second-version fusion inhibitors and suggest that some resistant HIV-1 variants may be pathogenic in vivo.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that mutations of R77A and R80A in the HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) impair its proapoptotic activity and that a naturally occurring R77Q variation is associated with non-progressive HIV-1 infection.
To assess the effect of Vpr R77Q, R77A and R80A mutations on the efficiency of CCR5(R5)- and CXCR4(X4)-tropic HIV-1 replication and cytopathicity in human lymphoid tissue (HLT).
Vpr mutants of the X4-tropic HIV-1 NL4-3 clone and an R5-tropic derivative were generated by PCR mutagenesis. Virus stocks established by transfection of 293T cells were used to infect macrophages and ex vivo HLT. HIV-1 replication was assessed by measuring p24 core antigen in the culture supernatants and CD4 T-cell depletion and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometric analysis.
The R5-tropic HIV-1 Vpr mutants replicated with slightly (R77A, R77Q) to moderately (R80A) reduced efficiency in ex vivo-infected HLT and macrophages. In comparison, the changes in Vpr had negligible effects on replication of the X4-tropic forms in lymphatic tissues. Mutation of R77Q and R80A reduced apoptosis of HIV-1-infected cells in ex vivo-infected HLT independently of the viral coreceptor tropism. However, only the R5-tropic HIV-1 Vpr mutants caused markedly less CD4 T-cell depletion than wild-type HIV-1 at the end of ex vivo HLT culture.
The observation that Vpr R77Q reduces the cytopathicity of R5-tropic HIV-1 in lymphoid tissues supports a role in non-progressive HIV-1 infection but the attenuating effects might be dependent on the viral subtype and coreceptor tropism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The LTRs of all primate lentiviruses contain long U3 regions overlapping the nef gene. To assess the relevance of the modulatory U3 region for HIV-1 replication, we inactivated the T-rich region, the Polypurine tract and attachment (att) sequences in nef by silent mutations and inserted intact cis-regulatory elements just upstream of the core enhancer. These modifications severely truncated the U3 region and eliminated the nef overlap. The resulting HIV-1 mutants expressed functional Nef, replicated efficiently and caused CD4+ T cell depletion in ex vivo-infected lymphoid tissue suggesting that the modulatory U3 region might not be essential for efficient HIV-1 gene expression and AIDS pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS requires adequate experimental models. In HIV-1 infected individuals the bulk of viral replication and the critical events in AIDS progression occur in lymphoid tissues. These processes can be studied in ex vivo-infected HLT represent-ing a typical adult lymphoid tissue (tonsils). This system supports productive HIV-1 infection without exogenous stimulation and provides a useful model for studying the importance of different proteins for HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in infected individuals. In the present study, the HLT system was used as a model to assess the potential role of the ac-cessory HIV-1 Vpr and Vpu proteins and the LTR U3 region for viral replication and patho-genicity in HIV-1 infected individuals. Thus, the specific goals of the present doctoral thesis were (1) to assess the relevance of three arginine residues in the C-terminal mitochondriotoxic domain of Vpr for its apoptogenic activity and hence in the clinical course of HIV-1 infection; (2) to elucidate whether Vpu-mediated CD4 down-modulation is sufficient for effective viral spread and cytopathicity in ex vivo-infected HLT; and (3) to clarify whether upstream U3 se-quences in the HIV-1 LTR are required for efficient viral replication and CD4+ T cell deple-tion in lymphoid tissues. The results of this doctoral thesis suggest that (1) point mutations in Vpr may affect the clinical course of infection; (2) Vpu-mediated CD4 down-modulation is most likely not critical for AIDS pathogenesis; and (3) the U3 region has probably limited significance in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Thus, the results of this doctoral thesis provide novel insights into the possible role of the HIV-1 Vpr and Vpu proteins and the LTR U3 re-gion in the pathogenesis of AIDS.