[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ZrO2-impregnated red mud catalysts were employed as a novel catalyst for catalytic cracking of vacuum residue with steam. Under the batch reaction condition at 470 °C for 2 h with superheated steam, 3 wt% ZrO2-impregnated red mud exhibited the best performance for catalytic cracking of vacuum residue. Furthermore, under the same reaction conditions, the conversion and liquid yield of 3 wt% ZrO2-impregnated red mud were higher than those of 3 wt% ZrO2-supporting Al–FeOx, a well-known catalyst for catalytic cracking of heavy oil with steam. 3 wt% ZrO2-impregnated red mud also showed better catalytic performance than 3 wt% ZrO2-supporting Al–FeOx under the fixed-bed reaction conditions at 500 °C for 2 h with steam atmosphere, resulting in higher conversion as well as liquid yield. The better catalytic performance of 3 wt% ZrO2-impregnated red mud was due to large surface area and high catalyst stability. The large surface area of 3 wt% ZrO2-impregnated red mud could generate more active sites for hydrogenation, which induced higher H/C ratio in liquid product. X-ray diffraction data of the spent catalysts showed that iron oxide phase in 3 wt% ZrO2-impregnated red mud maintained a hematite structure while it in 3 wt% ZrO2-supporting Al–FeOx was transformed to magnetite, inactive phase for catalytic cracking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigalloccatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenol component of green tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis). EGCG is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Here, we identify EGCG as a new inhibitor of ocular angiogenesis and its vascular permeability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a key role in the processes of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and microvascular permeability during angiogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on ocular neovascularization and vascular permeability using the retina oriented cells and animal models induced by VEGF and alkaline burn. EGCG treatment significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-9 in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPECs). EGCG also effectively protected ARPE-19 cells from cell death and attenuated mRNA expressions of key angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF, VEGF Receptor-2) by inhibiting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). EGCG significantly inhibited proliferation, vascular permeability, and tube formation in VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). Furthermore, EGCG significantly reduced vascular leakage and permeability by blood-retinal barrier breakdown in VEGF-induced animal models. In addition, EGCG effectively limited upregulation of MMP-9 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM/CD31) on corneal neovascularization (CNV) induced by alkaline burn. Our data suggest that MMP-9 and VEGF are key therapeutic targets of EGCG for treatment and prevention of ocular angiogenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal neovascularization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cu and Cr sorption capacities of Ca-loaded Laminaria japonica biomass were studied using an equilibrium methodology and evaluation of the sorption performance, and modeling in a two-metal system was carried out with a modified multi-component Langmuir isotherm. The maximum Cu and Cr uptakes calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 1.59 mmol/g (10.1 wt.%) and 1.81 mmol/g (9.4 wt.%) at pH 4.5, respectively. The desorption efficiency of the Cr-sorbed L. japonica was approximately 5% for 8 h in the 0.1 N HNO3 solution, while that of Cu-sorbed L. japonica was more than 99% in the 0.1 N HNO3 solution. The modified Langmuir model gave the following affinity correlated coefficients: 1.12 for Cu and 7.31 for Cr at pH 4.5. The interference of Cr with Cu biosorptive uptake was assessed by 'cutting' the three dimensional uptake isotherm surfaces at constant second-metal final concentrations. Equimolar final equilibrium concentrations of Cu and Cr of 1 mM at pH 4.5 reduced Cu and Cr uptakes by 75.5 and 11.0%, respectively.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SME) on gene and protein expression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related factors in activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and in mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were placed on an MCD or control diet for 8 weeks and SME (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally every other day for 4 or 6 weeks. HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were treated with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or TGF-β1 plus SME (0.1-10 μg/mL). To investigate the effect of SME on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced condition, LX-2 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2 plus SME (0.1-100 μg/mL). MCD administration for 12 weeks increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TGF-β1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. TGF-β1-induced LX-2 cells exhibited similar gene expression patterns. SME treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of NASH-related factors in the mouse model and HSCs. Histopathological liver analysis showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity and fibrosis score in SME-treated mice. The in vivo studies showed that SME had a significant effect at low doses. These results suggest that SME might be a potential therapeutic candidate for NAFLD treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, mesoporous titanosilicate (MTS)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite materials were prepared as a function of the RGO content and used as novel adsorbents for a mixed-solute solution of methylene blue and rhodamine B (RhB). Adsorption capacities of the composite materials were higher than those of MTS or RGO by themselves, demonstrating that adsorptive performances of the composite materials are better than the inorganic or organic materials alone. Composite material containing 20 wt% RGO (20MTSG) showed the best adsorption capacity for both contaminants where its adsorptive behavior in the mixed-solute solution can be ascribed to the unique morphology of the large layered structure of MTS and RGO, as well as many aggregates of small-sized plates. Compared to the other composite materials, 20MTSG contained an abundant edge structure of RGO, resulting in a relatively higher RhB adsorption capacity. RhB preferred the adsorption sites on RGO to the adsorption sites on MTS due to steric hindrance inside the mesopores of MTS.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Environmental Engineering Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous biosorption process for removal of lead and copper by laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor was carried out using
Ca-loadedLaminaria japonica. All biosorption processes were observed as cation exchange such as Pb2+ vs. Ca2+, Cu2+ vs. Ca2+, and Pb2+ vs. Cu2+. The affinity of lead ions towardsL. japonica was stronger than that of copper ions because the initial amount of desorbed Cu2+ in Cu-Pb system was higher than that of eluted Pb2+ in Pb-Cu system.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many natural compounds have been investigated as drug candidates to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with low cytotoxicity. We tested whether ingenol from Euphorbia ingens exerts anti-HIV effects in human T cell lines.
Ingenol effectively maintained high cell viability (CD50, >1 mM) in H9 and MT4 T cells. The efficacy of ingenol to inhibit HIV-1 infection was dose dependent. ED50 for 100 and 200 TCID50 of HIV-1 was 5.06 and 16.87 μM, respectively. Gag p24 antigen production in ingenol-treated MT4 cells was reduced by 24.5% on day 6 post-infection. While p24 antigen was reduced in ingenol-treated cells, levels of cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines such as RANTES and MCP-1 were increased. dUTP level related to late apoptotic events was increased on day 2 post-infection of HIV by ingenol treatment, whereas expression of annexin V was unchanged. Reduced levels of iNOS and ZAP-70 after HIV infection were recovered by ingenol treatment.
Ingenol helps T cells to survive longer against viremia after HIV-1 infection, without exerting cytotoxic effects. Ingenol can be considered a safe and efficacious candidate for immune-boosting therapy for AIDS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have an important role as antiviral effector cells for controlling HIV-1 infection.
To investigate CTL response during the early stage of HIV infection, we measured immunity-related factors including CD4+ T cell counts, CD8+ T cell counts, HIV-1 RNA viral loads and IFN-γ secretion according to CTL response in 78 selected primary HIV-1-infected Koreans.
The CTL response was strongly induced by HIV-1 specific Gag and Nef peptides (p = 0.016) compared with induction by Tat or Env peptides. These results suggest that the major antiviral factors inducing strong HIV-specific CTL responses are associated with the Gag and Nef viral regions in primary HIV-1 infected Koreans. The relationship between viral load and CTL response showed varying correlations with time following HIV infection. CTL response was inversely correlated with viral loads at preseroconversion stage I (r = -0.224 to -0.33) and changed to a positive correlation at the preseroconversion stage II (r = 0.132 to 0.854). Finally, it changed to an inverse correlation again after seroconversion until a viral set point was established on serological profiling (r = -0.195 to -0.407).
These findings demonstrate a dynamic correlation between viral load and subsequent CTL responses during early HIV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prepared La-impregnated mesoporous silicates to investigate the adsorption of tetracycline in aqueous solution. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm tests confirmed the mesoporosity of the prepared materials, resulting in a decline in surface area and pore volume along with La loading amount. In adsorption tests, however, La impregnation improved the adsorption capacity of materials for tetracycline even though the surface area and the pore volumes were lower after La impregnation. Adsorption capacities for tetracycline showed a maximum value with La loading amounts. The highest adsorption capacity for tetracycline was 303.3 mg g(-1), which was acquired from the fitting of isotherm data of 10 wt% La-impregnated mesoporous silicates to the Langmuir model. Changes in FTIR patterns of tetracycline adsorbed on La-impregnated mesoporous silicates implied that the negatively charged oxygen of the tricarbonylamide group of tetracycline chemically interacted with La hydroxide species in materials in the neutral condition.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Environmental Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase plays an important role in HIV latency. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors, CG05 and CG06, were evaluated for their roles in HIV latency using ACH2 cells. Both inhibitors were highly efficient in reactivation of provirus and exerted lesser toxicity compared with other known histone deacetylase inhibitors. Histone acetylation increased when proviruses were reactivated by the compounds. These new inhibitors may contribute to the reduction of the HIV reservoir when used in conjunction with highly active antiretroviral therapy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prepared Fe-impregnated mesoporous silicates to investigate the adsorption of tetracycline in aqueous solution. Mesoporous
silicates with different Fe content (5, 10, 30, 50 wt%) were prepared by an incipient wetness method. Adsorption kinetics
for tetracycline showed that Fe-impregnation improved the adsorption ability for tetracycline. By fitting the adsorption kinetic
data to a pseudo second-order model, we obtained a maximum adsorption amount of tetracycline with Fe30SBA-15 (30 wt% Fe-impregnated mesoporous silicates) at 41.7 mg/g. The pH dependency of tetracycline adsorption exhibited a
volcano curve where the maximum adsorption onto the Fe30SBA-15 sample occurred in the neutral pH region. The introduction of Fe species into the SBA-15 revived the adsorption ability
for tetracycline, whereas there was no interaction between tetracycline and SBA-15, a mesoporous silicate. These results suggest
that impregnated Fe species produce an effective interaction with tetracycline in an aqueous system.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aiming at improving the phase behavior of the OPVCs, we have designed and synthesized a series of C60 and C70 derivatives, which showed high electron mobility, electron affinity, and good solubility. These methanofullerene acceptor materials having ethyleneoxy substituent, PCBEs, were synthesized from the reaction of fullerene C60 or C70 with each hydrizide. Device performances of OPVC using the mixture of P3HT and PCBEs as an active layer were measured under illumination of 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5G simulated light. Pristine OPVC using P3HT:compound 3 showed 2.59% of power conversion efficiency, which is much higher than 1.65% of pristine P3HT:PCBM device. The electrochemical and photophysical properties of these methanofullerene derivatives were examined by using cyclicvoltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. We revealed that ethyleneoxy substituted methanofullerenes can be used as a good candidate for acceptor materials in OPVCs.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) in Helicobacter pylori is associated with mutations in rdxA, encoding an oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase, and mutations in frxA, encoding a NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase. Despite this association, the strict correlation of MTZ resistance with mutations in rdxA or frxA is still controversial. In this study, rdxA allelic replacement was used to distinguish resistance-associated nucleotide mutations from the natural genetic diversity of H. pylori. Replacement with truncated rdxA resulted in MTZ resistance, whereas replacement with missense-mutated rdxA from resistant clinical isolates failed to yield MTZ resistance. Thus, although truncation of rdxA confers MTZ resistance in G27 H. pylori, MTZ resistance found in other clinical isolates is not due to the identified amino-acid substitutions. Three of our MTZ-resistant clinical isolates expressed functional rdxA and two of these also encoded full-length frxA. Therefore, MTZ resistance can arise in H. pylori possessing functional rdxA, suggesting that other factors are involved in MTZ resistance.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · The Journal of Antibiotics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori causes diseases ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease to gastric cancer. Geographically, areas with high incidences
of H. pylori infection often overlap with areas with high incidences of gastric cancer, which remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related
deaths worldwide. Strains of H. pylori that carry the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) are much more likely to be associated with the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, particular C-terminal polymorphisms
in CagA vary by geography and have been suggested to influence disease development. We conducted a large-scale molecular epidemiologic
analysis of South Korean strains and herein report a statistical link between the East Asian CagA EPIYA-ABD genotype and the
development of gastric cancer. Characterization of a subset of the Korean isolates showed that all strains from cancer patients
expressed and delivered phosphorylatable CagA to host cells, whereas the presence of the cagA gene did not strictly correlate to expression and delivery of CagA in all noncancer strains.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of clinical microbiology