Lisa N Kinch

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ашбърн, Virginia, United States

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Publications (88)738.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Proteins and their domains evolve by a set of events commonly including the duplication and divergence of small motifs. The presence of short repetitive regions in domains has generally constituted a difficult case for structural domain classifications and their hierarchies. We developed the Evolutionary Classification Of protein Domains (ECOD) in part to implement a new schema for the classification of these types of proteins. Here we document the ways in which ECOD classifies proteins with small internal repeats, widespread functional motifs, and assemblies of small domain-like fragments in its evolutionary schema. We illustrate the ways in which the structural genomics project impacted the classification and characterization of new structural domains and sequence families over the decade. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: Protein target structures for the Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction round 11 (CASP11) and CASP ROLL were split into domains and classified into categories suitable for assessment of template-based modeling (TBM) and free modeling (FM) based on their evolutionary relatedness to existing structures classified by the Evolutionary Classification of Protein Domains (ECOD) database. First, target structures were divided into domain-based evaluation units. Target splits were based on the domain organization of available templates as well as the performance of servers on whole targets compared to split target domains. Second, evaluation units were classified into TBM and FM categories using a combination of measures that evaluate prediction quality and template detectability. Generally, target domains with sequence-related templates and good server prediction performance were classified as TBM, whereas targets without sequence-identifiable templates and low server performance were classified as FM. As in previous CASP experiments, the boundaries for classification were blurred due to the presence of significant insertions and deteriorations in the targets with respect to homologous templates, as well as the presence of templates with partial coverage of new folds. The FM category included 45 target domains, which represents an unprecedented number of difficult CASP targets provided for modeling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics
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    ABSTRACT: We present an assessment of 'template-free modeling' (FM) in CASP11and ROLL. Community-wide server performance suggested the use of automated scores similar to previous CASPs would provide a good system of evaluating performance, even in the absence of comprehensive manual assessment. The CASP11 FM category included several outstanding examples, including successful prediction by the Baker group of a 256-residue target (T0806-D1) that lacked sequence similarity to any existing template. The top server model prediction by Zhang's Quark, which was apparently selected and refined by several manual groups, encompassed the entire fold of target T0837-D1. Methods from the same two groups tended to dominate overall CASP11 FM and ROLL rankings. Comparison of top FM predictions with those from the previous CASP experiment revealed progress in the category, particularly reflected in high prediction accuracy for larger protein domains. FM prediction models for two cases were sufficient to provide functional insights that were otherwise not obtainable by traditional sequence analysis methods. Importantly, CASP11 abstracts revealed that alignment-based contact prediction methods brought about much of the CASP11 progress, producing both of the functionally relevant models as well as several of the other outstanding structure predictions. These methodological advances enabled de-novo modeling of much larger domain structures than was previously possible and allowed prediction of functional sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The prediction of the structures of proteins without detectable sequence similarity to any protein of known structure remains an outstanding scientific challenge. Here we report significant progress in this area. We first describe de novo blind structure predictions of unprecendented accuracy we made for two proteins in large families in the recent CASP11 blind test of protein structure prediction methods by incorporating residue–residue co-evolution information in the Rosetta structure prediction program. We then describe the use of this method to generate structure models for 58 of the 121 large protein families in prokaryotes for which three-dimensional structures are not available. These models, which are posted online for public access, provide structural information for the over 400,000 proteins belonging to the 58 families and suggest hypotheses about mechanism for the subset for which the function is known, and hypotheses about function for the remainder.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · eLife Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread protein secretion apparatus used by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxic effector proteins into adjacent bacterial or host cells. Here, we uncovered a role in interbacterial competition for the two T6SSs encoded by the marine pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. Using comparative proteomics and genetics, we identified their effector repertoires. In addition to the previously described effector V12G01_02265, we identified three new effectors secreted by T6SS1, indicating that the T6SS1 secretes at least four antibacterial effectors, of which three are members of the MIX-effector class. We also showed that the T6SS2 secretes at least three antibacterial effectors. Our findings revealed that many MIX-effectors belonging to clan V are "orphan" effectors that neighbor mobile elements and are shared between marine bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. We demonstrated that a MIX V-effector from V. alginolyticus is a functional T6SS effector when ectopically expressed in another Vibrio species. We propose that mobile MIX V-effectors serve as an environmental reservoir of T6SS effectors that are shared and used to diversify antibacterial toxin repertoires in marine bacteria, resulting in enhanced competitive fitness.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of extracellular phosphoproteins has been acknowledged for over a century. However, research in this area has been undeveloped largely because the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins have escaped identification. Fam20C is a kinase that phosphorylates S-x-E/pS motifs on proteins in milk and in the extracellular matrix of bones and teeth. Here, we show that Fam20C generates the majority of the extracellular phosphoproteome. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, mass spectrometry, and biochemistry, we identify more than 100 secreted phosphoproteins as genuine Fam20C substrates. Further, we show that Fam20C exhibits broader substrate specificity than previously appreciated. Functional annotations of Fam20C substrates suggest roles for the kinase beyond biomineralization, including lipid homeostasis, wound healing, and cell migration and adhesion. Our results establish Fam20C as the major secretory pathway protein kinase and serve as a foundation for new areas of investigation into the role of secreted protein phosphorylation in human biology and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT)2. Polyamine biosynthesis is essential in T. brucei and the polyamine spermidine is required for synthesis of a novel cofactor called trypanothione and for deoxyhypusine modification of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). eIF5A promotes translation of proteins containing polyprolyl tracks in mammals and yeast. To evaluate the function of eIF5A in T. brucei we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown eIF5A levels and found that it is essential for T. brucei growth. The RNAi-induced growth defect was complemented by expression of wild-type human eIF5A but not by a Lys-50 mutant that blocks modification by deoxyhypusine. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 15% of the T. brucei proteome contains 3 or more consecutive prolines and that actin-related proteins and cysteine proteases were highly enriched in the group. Steady-state protein levels of representative proteins containing 9 consecutive prolines that are involved in actin assembly (formin and CAP/Srv2p) were significantly reduced by knockdown of eIF5A. Several T. brucei polyprolyl proteins are involved in flagellar assembly. Knockdown of TbeIF5A led to abnormal cell morphologies and detached flagella suggesting eIF5A is important for translation of proteins needed for these processes. Potential specialized functions for eIF5A in T. brucei in translation of variable surface glycoproteins (VSGs) were also uncovered. Inhibitors of deoxyhypusination would be expected to cause a pleomorphic effect on multiple cell processes, suggesting deoxyhypusine/hypusine biosynthesis could be a promising drug target in not just T. brucei but in other eukaryotic pathogens. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Inference of homology from protein sequences provides an essential tool for analyzing protein structure, function, and evolution. Current sequence-based homology search methods are still unable to detect many similarities evident from protein spatial structures. In computer science a search engine can be improved by considering networks of known relationships within the search database. Here, we apply this idea to protein-sequence-based homology search and show that it dramatically enhances the search accuracy. Our new method, COMPADRE (COmparison of Multiple Protein sequence Alignments using Database RElationships) assesses the relationship between the query sequence and a hit in the database by considering the similarity between the query and hit's known homologs. This approach increases detection quality, boosting the precision rate from 18% to 83% at half-coverage of all database homologs. The increased precision rate allows detection of a large fraction of protein structural relationships, thus providing structure and function predictions for previously uncharacterized proteins. Our results suggest that this general approach is applicable to a wide variety of methods for detection of biological similarities. The web server is available at prodata.swmed.edu/compadre.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Wenlin Li · Lisa N Kinch · P Andrew Karplus · Nick V Grishin
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    ABSTRACT: Chameleon sequences (ChSeqs) refer to sequence strings of identical amino acids that can adopt different conformations in protein structures. Researchers have detected and studied ChSeqs to understand the interplay between local and global interactions in protein structure formation. The different secondary structures adopted by one ChSeq challenge sequence-based secondary structure predictors. With increasing numbers of available PDB structures, we here identify a large set of ChSeqs ranging from 6 to 10 residues in length. The homologous ChSeqs discovered highlight the structural plasticity involved in biological function. Compared to previous studies, the set of unrelated ChSeqs found represents an about 20-fold increase in the number of detected sequences, as well as an increase in the longest ChSeq length from 8 to 10 residues. We applied secondary structure predictors on our ChSeqs and found that methods based on a sequence profile outperformed methods based on a single sequence. For the unrelated ChSeqs the evolutionary information provided by the sequence profile typically allows successful prediction of the prevailing secondary structure adopted in each protein family. Our dataset will facilitate future studies of ChSeqs, as well as interpretations of the interplay between local and non-local interactions. A user-friendly web interface for this ChSeq database is available at: prodata.swmed.edu/chseq. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 The Protein Society.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the evolution of a protein, including both close and distant relationships, often reveals insight into its structure and function. Fast and easy access to such up-to-date information facilitates research. We have developed a hierarchical evolutionary classification of all proteins with experimentally determined spatial structures, and presented it as an interactive and updatable online database. ECOD (Evolutionary Classification of protein Domains) is distinct from other structural classifications in that it groups domains primarily by evolutionary relationships (homology), rather than topology (or "fold"). This distinction highlights cases of homology between domains of differing topology to aid in understanding of protein structure evolution. ECOD uniquely emphasizes distantly related homologs that are difficult to detect, and thus catalogs the largest number of evolutionary links among structural domain classifications. Placing distant homologs together underscores the ancestral similarities of these proteins and draws attention to the most important regions of sequence and structure, as well as conserved functional sites. ECOD also recognizes closer sequence-based relationships between protein domains. Currently, approximately 100,000 protein structures are classified in ECOD into 9,000 sequence families clustered into close to 2,000 evolutionary groups. The classification is assisted by an automated pipeline that quickly and consistently classifies weekly releases of PDB structures and allows for continual updates. This synchronization with PDB uniquely distinguishes ECOD among all protein classifications. Finally, we present several case studies of homologous proteins not recorded in other classifications, illustrating the potential of how ECOD can be used to further biological and evolutionary studies.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · PLoS Computational Biology
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    ABSTRACT: To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature Genetics
  • Jimin Pei · Wenlin Li · Lisa N Kinch · Nick V Grishin
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    ABSTRACT: The heme-copper oxidase superfamily includes heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) in aerobic respiratory chains and nitric oxide reductases (NORs) in the denitrification pathway. The HCO/NOR catalytic subunit has a core structure consisting of 12 transmembrane helices (TMHs) arranged in three-fold rotational pseudosymmetry, with six conserved histidines for heme and metal binding. Using sensitive sequence similarity searches, we detected a number of novel HCO/NOR homologs and named them HCO Homology (HCOH) proteins. Several HCOH families possess only four TMHs that exhibit the most pronounced similarity to the last four TMHs (TMHs 9-12) of HCOs/NORs. Encoded by independent genes, four-TMH HCOH proteins represent a single evolutionary unit (EU) that relates to each of the three homologous EUs from HCO/NOR comprising TMHs 1-4, TMHs 5-8 and TMHs 9-12. Single-EU HCOH proteins could form homotrimers or heterotrimers to maintain the general structure and ligand-binding sites defined by the HCO/NOR catalytic subunit fold. The remaining HCOH families, including NnrS, have 12-TMHs and three EUs. Most three-EU HCOH proteins possess two conserved histidines and could bind a single heme. Limited experimental studies and genomic context analysis suggest that many HCOH proteins could function in the denitrification pathway and in detoxification of reactive molecules such as nitric oxide. HCO/NOR catalytic subunits exhibit remarkable structural similarity to the homotrimers of MAPEG (membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism) proteins. Gene duplication, fusion and fission likely play important roles in the evolution of HCOs/NORs and HCOH proteins.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2), but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two previously unidentified T6SS effectors that contained a conserved motif. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that this N-terminal motif, named MIX (marker for type six effectors), is found in numerous polymorphic bacterial proteins that are primarily located in the T6SS genome neighborhood. We demonstrate that several MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors and that they are not required for T6SS activity. Thus, we propose that MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors. Our findings allow for the identification of numerous uncharacterized T6SS effectors that will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of new biological mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial Type III Secretion Systems deliver effectors into host cells to manipulate cellular processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Many host targets of these effectors are found on membranes. Therefore, to identify their targets, effectors often use specialized membrane-localization domains to localize to appropriate host membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms used by many domains are unknown. Here we identify a conserved bacterial phosphoinositide-binding domain (BPD) that is found in functionally diverse Type III effectors of both plant and animal pathogens. We show that members of the BPD family functionally bind phosphoinositides and mediate localization to host membranes. Moreover, NMR studies reveal that the BPD of the newly identified Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III effector VopR is unfolded in solution, but folds into a specific structure upon binding its ligand phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. Thus, our findings suggest a possible mechanism for promoting refolding of Type III effectors after delivery into host cells.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. Importance: Macrophages produce a variety of antimicrobial molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and acid (H+), that serve to kill engulfed bacteria. In addition to these molecules, human and mouse macrophages also produce carbon monoxide (CO) gas by the heme oxygenase (HO1) enzyme. We observed that, in contrast to other bacteria, mycobacteria are resistant to CO, suggesting that this might be an evolutionary adaptation of mycobacteria for survival within macrophages. We screened a panel of ~2,500 M. tuberculosis mutants to determine which genes are required for survival of M. tuberculosis in the presence of CO. Within this panel, we identified one such gene, cor, that specifically confers CO resistance. Importantly, we found that the ability of M. tuberculosis cells carrying a mutated copy of this gene to cause tuberculosis in a mouse disease model is significantly attenuated. This indicates that CO resistance is essential for mycobacterial survival in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Cell surface growth factor receptors couple environmental cues to the regulation of cytoplasmic homeostatic processes, including autophagy, and aberrant activation of such receptors is a common feature of human malignancies. Here, we defined the molecular basis by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase regulates autophagy. Active EGFR binds the autophagy protein Beclin 1, leading to its multisite tyrosine phosphorylation, enhanced binding to inhibitors, and decreased Beclin 1-associated VPS34 kinase activity. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy disrupts Beclin 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and binding to its inhibitors and restores autophagy in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells with a TKI-sensitive EGFR mutation. In NSCLC tumor xenografts, the expression of a tyrosine phosphomimetic Beclin 1 mutant leads to reduced autophagy, enhanced tumor growth, tumor dedifferentiation, and resistance to TKI therapy. Thus, oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases directly regulate the core autophagy machinery, which may contribute to tumor progression and chemoresistance.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Cell

Publication Stats

3k Citations
738.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2016
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ашбърн, Virginia, United States
  • 2000-2015
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      • • Molecular Biology
      • • Biochemistry
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 1994-2015
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States