[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: adrenal gland, parotid gland, pharynx, eye and bladder are rare localizations of metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We report a case of metachronous RCC metastases to the bladder in a patient with a medical history of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.
a case study and review of the relevant literature are presented.
during a follow-up cystoscopy examination following treatment of TCC, a single 5-mm lesion was detected and endoscopically resected. The histology of the resected sample was confirmed to be RCC, comparable to a primary kidney cancer and not recurrent TCC.
the patient had a probability of metastases three years after nephrectomy of 62.9%. Survival rates following single metastasectomy are 60% and 38% at three and five years, respectively; metachronous diagnosis has a better prognosis than synchronous. During RCC follow-up, each lesion should be considered as a possible metastasis of RCC.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · ecancermedicalscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate a novel approach with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) administered in the surgical field, after pelvic lymphadenectomy (PL) and before radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), evaluating acute and late toxicity, complications and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), as the adequate treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer is still a controversial issue.
Between June 2005 and October 2007, 33 consecutive patients with intermediate-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer were selected for PL + IORT + RRP. IORT was delivered by a mobile linear accelerator in the operating room (electron beam, 12 Gy at 90% isodose). According to the pathological findings further adjuvant radio- or hormone therapy could be administered. The median follow-up was 16 months. This group was compared retrospectively with a historical group of 100 patients who had undergone RRP and further adjuvant therapy, selected with equivalent criteria. The comparison was conducted as a matched-pair analysis. The perioperative outcomes (surgical time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusions, days of catheterization, days of drainage, days of hospitalization), continence as the functional outcome, acute and late toxicity, rate of complications and bPFS were evaluated and compared.
The baseline characteristics of the two groups were equivalent but the node count and the number of positive lymph nodes was higher in the IORT group. The IORT group had longer surgery, and a shorter hospital stay and catheterization. There were no differences in continence rate, and no major complications in either group. The acute and late toxicity and bPFS were equivalent. A retrospective comparison and the short follow-up were the major limitations.
IORT administered before RRP seems a feasible approach, with little effect on the variables evaluated.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · BJU International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need for active agents with a better safety profile than docetaxel, yet good activity, for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). We carried out a phase II trial to determine the activity and safety of estramustine plus oral etoposide in HRPC.
Patients were given estramustine (280 mg twice daily) and etoposide (100 mg/day, days 1-21) in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary end points were overall response rate and safety, as determined by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and lesion assessment.
From November 2001 to February 2007, 75 patients were enrolled. All patients were assessable for safety; 17 (22.6%) had grade 3/4 toxicity. PSA response was assessable in 69, 14 of whom had a >50% reduction in PSA. Of 10 patients with one or more measurable lesions, two (20%) had partial response and two (20%) disease stabilization. Overall, median time to progression was 4.4 months (range 1 week-43 months); median survival was 23 months (range 3 weeks-64+ months).
Estramustine plus etoposide is active and has a manageable safety profile in patients with HRPC. In asymptomatic patients with nonaggressive disease this combination could be useful to delay the start of more demanding treatments.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Damage control is a surgical strategy for severely compromised trauma patients based on speed control of life-threatening injuries that aims to rapidly resuscitate patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). We report on the use of such therapeutic strategy in a patient affected by a retroperitoneal sarcoma concomitant to a horseshoe kidney, a relatively rare anatomical malformation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate adenocarcinoma is generally characterized by slow progression although some phenotypes have a more aggressive behavior with tendency to local invasion and distant metastases, mainly to bones. Better specific care could be provided to the aggressive phenotype-group of patients if pre-surgical identification were available.
Correlations between pre-surgical levels of 6 blood molecules and pathological tumour staging, post-surgical Gleason score and disease-free survival have been observed. Plasma and sera from 162 men affected by prostate adenocarcinoma were analysed with ELISA to assess levels of neovascularization-related molecule (VEGF), endothelial cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), extracellular matrix destruction-related molecules (MMP-2, MMP-9), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2).
The median values of serum determinations were for VEGF 279 pg/ml, VCAM 633 ng/ml, MMP-2 206 ng/ml and MMP-9 614 ng/ml. Plasma medians (ng/ml) were 94 for TIMP-1 and 90 for TIMP-2. Patients with VCAM values > 633 ng/ml had a worse disease-free survival than patients with values <633 ng/ml with an adjusted Hazard Ratio of 2.1, significant (95% confidence interval 0.8-5.6). Patients with levels of MMP-2 < 206 ng/ml showed an increased risk of progression (adjusted HR 1.7; 95% C.I. 0.6-4.8).
Levels of VCAM and MMP-2 should be checked in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, because distant spread is more likely to occur in patients with high levels of VCAM and low levels of MMP-2. The scientific community should further investigate impact on prognosis of VCAM and MMP-2.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Current cancer drug targets
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated efficacy of gefitinib in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Between March 2003 and December 2004, 23 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were assigned to receive 250 mg oral gefitinib daily in addition to antiandrogen and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue for at least 2 months or until disease progression. Patients with progression stopped antiandrogen therapy, and received gefitinib and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Serum HER2 and epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain were evaluated every 2 months. Gefitinib treatment did not result in any objective measurable response or responses in prostate-specific antigen. Median time to progression was 70 days (33-336). Median overall survival was 293 days (25-75 percentile: 235-349). HER2 extracellular domain mean value was 9.6 ng/ml (range 6.9-13.3) at basal time and was 10.1 (range 6.0-14.1) after 2 months. Epidermal growth factor receptor mean basal value was 51.0 ng/ml (range 41.4-75.3). After 2 months of treatment the mean value was 51.1 ng/ml (range 41.5-61.4). One patient had reduction in the pain score from baseline without an increase in the analgesic score. Four patients (17%) out of 23 had pain progression with an increase from baseline of at least 25% in the analgesic score. The study was discontinued before target accrual was reached owing to lack of efficacy of the drug. Our results do not support the efficacy of gefitinib in combination with endocrine treatment for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Anti-Cancer Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present the technique and dose distribution of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for prostate cancer.
Pelvic lymphadenectomy, prostate IORT and radical retropubic prostatectomy was performed in 11 prostate cancer patients. Prostate thickness and rectum depth were measured with intraoperative ultrasound. IORT was delivered by a mobile linear accelerator in the operating room (electron beam, 12 Gy at 90% isodose).
The mean preoperative probability of organ-confined disease was 10% (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomograms). Mean prostate thickness, width and length were 3.4 cm, 4.6 and 4.9 cm, respectively. Mean rectum depth was 3.3 cm. Mean doses to the posterior prostate capsule, 5-mm lateral prostate margins and at the subsequent uretheral stump area were 4.6 Gy, 8. 7 Gy and 11.3 Gy, respectively. Maximum mean rectal dose was 4.9 Gy.
IORT appeared a feasible approach for prostate cancer, showing a satisfactory dose coverage to the prostate bed with relatively low rectal dose. However, high variability in dose distribution calls for further study of patient selection criteria and dosimetry.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to investigate the capability of gemcitabine and pemetrexed to synergistically interact with respect to cytotoxicity and apoptosis in T24 and J82 bladder cancer cells, and to establish a correlation between drug activity and gene expression of selected genes in tumour samples. The interaction between gemcitabine and pemetrexed was synergistic; indeed, pemetrexed favoured gemcitabine cytotoxicity by increasing cellular population in S-phase, reducing Akt phosphorylation as well as by inducing the expression of a major gemcitabine uptake system, the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), and the key activating enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) in both cell lines. Bladder tumour specimens showed an heterogeneous gene expression pattern and patients with higher levels of dCK and hENT1 had better response. Moreover, human nucleoside concentrative transporter-1 was detectable only in 3/12 patients, two of whom presented a complete response to gemcitabine. These data provide evidence that the chemotherapeutic activity of the combination of gemcitabine and pemetrexed is synergistic against bladder cancer cells in vitro and that the assessment of the expression of genes involved in gemcitabine uptake and activation might be a possible determinant of bladder cancer response and may represent a new tool for treatment optimization.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The various prostate biopsy methods are usually compared in terms of the diagnosis rate of prostate cancer. However, the prevalence of cancer in patients with a negative prostatic biopsy is not usually known. We determined the sensitivity and detection rate of 12-core transperineal biopsies in patients not previously investigated for prostate cancer.
We performed prostate biopsy in 63 patients (median age 67 years) before radical cystoprostatectomy for high-grade bladder cancer. We then assessed the relationships between biopsy result, prostate cancer in the surgical specimen, and other variables.
17.2% of patients had a positive biopsy and 54% had prostate cancer on definitive histology. Biopsy sensitivity was 32.3% overall, 75% for clinically significant cancers, and 11% for non-significant cancers. Median PSA was 1.2ng/ml, PSA levels did not correlate with the presence of prostate cancer, the presence of clinically significant cancer, bioptic diagnosis, or prostate volume. Age correlated with risk of cancer.
According to autopsy series, the prevalence of prostate cancer is greater than 50% in males older than 60, yet low PSA levels do not reliably indicate disease absence. The sensitivity of double sextant biopsy is unsatisfactory overall (32%), but acceptable (75%) for diagnosing clinically significant cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No consensus exists regarding further therapy for the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. In this phase II study, the combination of Vinorelbine with 5-Fluorouracil and folinic acid (FLN regimen) was evaluated in patients with progressive or resistant disease after hormone therapy.
Thirty-four patients were treated with Vinorelbine at a dose of 20 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on days 1 and 3, folinic acid (FA), 100 mg/m2 i.v. and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 350 mg/m2 i.v. as a short infusion on days 1 to 3. The therapy was given in an out-patient setting, every 3 weeks.
All of the 34 eligible patients were evaluable for toxicity and 30 for activity. A total of 127 cycles was administered (91% at full dose). Among thelS5 patients with measurable disease, four had a partial response (26.6%; C.I. 95%, 28.3% to 65.7%) and four achieved stable disease. In 14 patients (47%) a clinical benefit was documented. Six out of 15 patients with bone-only involvement had stable disease (40%). The median duration of stabilization and partial response was 16 weeks (range 4-24 weeks). The most common toxicity was hematological: Grade 4 (NCI-CTC scale) in five patients at re-cycle. Other toxicities were of low incidence and easy to manage.
The encouraging results obtained with the FLN regimen in terms of clinical benefit and its predictable and manageable toxicity support the palliative role of this chemotherapeutic strategy in hormone-refractory prostate patients.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coexistence of multiple and synchronous primary neoplasms in the same organ (including kidney) has only rarely been described in the literature. We herein present a case of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) combined with papillary renal carcinoma (RCC) having a 57-month disease-free survival CDC is a rather rare and aggressive neoplasm of the kidney. Sharing probably the same embryological origin, synchronous or metachronous association with in situ orpapillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) may be found; association with RCC has been only once reported in the literature. The high incidence of c-erbB-2 oncogene amplification in CDC further characterizes this tumor as a separate entity from renal cell carcinoma, and shows some genetic characteristics in common with TCC. The histological diagnosis of Bellini CDC can be confirmed by the positive immunohistochemical staining with a collecting duct marker and distal tubule marker and negative staining with a proximal tubule marker.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gn-RH agonists or surgical castration are considered standard treatment for patients affected by metastatic prostate cancer. Despite greater cost, chemical castration is often considered the treatment of choice as it is psychologically better tolerated. We report our experience of one patient undergoing treatment with Gn-RH agonist who developed an early resistance to the administered drug, with serum testosterone levels within the range of normality.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with artificial erection for local staging of penile cancer.
We compared local clinical, MRI plus artificial erection, and pathologic staging in 9 cases of penile cancer. Erection was obtained by injecting 10 microg prostaglandin E1 into the corpora cavernosa. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI with and without contrast was obtained using a phased array coil. Local treatment was based on tumor location and extent, as defined by the clinical and MRI findings.
The histologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in 8 patients and sarcoma in 1. The MRI and pathologic staging coincided in 8 of 9 patients. MRI, clinical, and pathologic staging coincided in 5 patients: 4 had Stage T2 and 1 had Stage T1 disease. In 2 patients, the MRI and pathologic stage was T2, but the clinical stage differed. Another patient had Stage T2 clinically but T3 by MRI and pathologic staging. In the last patient, none of the stages coincided (clinical Stage T1, MRI Stage T0, and pathologic Stage Tis). The only complication during the procedure was that 1 patient developed priapism after prostaglandin injection, which was relieved by evacuation of the corpora cavernosa.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to use artificial erection with MRI to stage local penile cancer. The method appears promising for local staging of penile cancer, but additional studies are necessary to confirm its utility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To verify whether native avidin, made radioactive through the binding with technetium-99m labeled biotin (99mTc-biotin), selectively accumulated in superficial tumor tissues following intravesical administration.
A total of fifteen patients with transitional cell bladder cancer were instilled intravesically with radiolabeled avidin. Cold biopsies were obtained from macroscopically normal and tumor tissues before transurethral resection (TUR) and the radioactivity in the samples was measured.
Increased accumulation of radiolabeled avidin was observed in tumor tissue compared to normal bladder tissue and in some cases, remarkably high quotients of uptake (q) in tumor versus normal tissues were determined (86 and 44). The three patients instilled with a deglycosylated avidin at neutral pI, who served as a control, showed no significant uptake in either tumor or normal urothelium and no difference in relative uptake (q=1.0).
This pilot study indicated that intravesical administration of radiolabeled avidin resulted in a preferential accumulation in tumor tissue compared to normal urothelium. The instillation of radiolabeled avidin warrant further investigations in order to explore the possibility to treat superficial bladder neoplasms locally by replacing 99mTc with high energy beta emitting radionuclides associated with biotin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spermatic cord liposarcoma is a rare pathology (1-4); currently about one hundred cases are documented. The therapy of choice is surgery, followed sometimes by radiotherapy. We herein describe our experience of 4 cases between 1995 and 2000, with median follow-up of 34 months (mean 48 months, range 28-95 months), in order to stress the role of orchifuniculectomy, even when mass-ablation first procedure may seem radical.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secondary tumour to the kidney is quite frequent. Even if, theoretically, all solid tumours may give rise to renal metastasis, secondary lesions to the kidney occur more commonly in patients with lung and breast cancer, melanoma and lymphoma. Only 15 cases of renal metastasis arising from a follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature. Rarely, metastases to the kidney present as primary renal tumours and may be treated surgically for that mistaken diagnosis. Nevertheless, in patients with solitary late distant metastasis of thyroid cancer, complete surgical resection may be proposed, followed by 131I ablation in order to offer a better chance of prolonged survival. We describe a case of a renal mass undergoing radical surgery and revealing itself as a solitary metastasis from follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, appearing 10 years after total thyroidectomy and 131I ablation therapy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the efficacy of IL-2 in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the prognosis of patients with synchronous metastases still remains poor. Nephrectomy itself, as well as other surgical operations, may further suppress the antitumor immune response. Previous studies suggested that the preoperative injection of IL-2 may neutralize surgery-induced lymphocytopenia in advanced colon cancer. On this basis, a pilot randomized study was performed in an attempt to evaluate the effects of a preoperative administration of IL-2 on postoperative lymphocyte numbers and on the survival in advanced RVV patients with more than 3 synchronous metastases. The study included 20 consecutive patients, who were randomized to receive nephrectomy alone or nephrectomy plus preoperative subcutaneous immunotherapy with IL-2 (18 million IU/day for 3 days). Then, all patients underwent postoperative immunotherapy with IL-2 (6 million IU/day for 5 days/week for 6 weeks). Surgery-induced lymphocytopenia was completely abolished by IL-2 preoperative injection. The frequency of postoperative complications was significantly higher in controls than in patients preoperatively treated with IL-2. On the contrary, significant differences between control and patients preoperatively treated with IL-2 were observed neither in the clinical response to IL-2 immunotherapy, nor in the percent of 1-year survival. The results of this preliminary pilot study would suggest that IL-2 preoperative immunotherapy may neutralize surgery-induced lymphocytopenia and reduce the postoperative complications in RCC patients with synchronous metastases, without, however, influencing their prognosis in terms of survival time.
No preview · Article · Mar 1997 · Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia