[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men. Qualitative or semi-quantitative immunochromatographic measurements of prostate specific antigen (PSA) have been shown to be simple, noninvasive and feasible. The aim of this study was to evaluate an optimized gold immunochromatographic strip device for the detection of PSA, in which the results can be analysed using a Chromogenic Rapid Test Reader to quantitatively assess the test results.
This reader measures the reflectance of the signal line via a charge-coupled device camera. For quantitative analysis, PSA concentration was computed via a calibration equation. Capillary blood samples from 305 men were evaluated, and two independent observers interpreted the test results after 12 min. Blood samples were also collected and tested with a conventional quantitative assay.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the PSA rapid quantitative test system were 100, 96.6, 89.5, 100, and 97.4 %, respectively. Reproducibility of the test was 99.2, and interobserver variation was 8 % with a false positive rate of 3.4 %. The correlation coefficient between the ordinary quantitative assay and the rapid quantitative test was 0.960.
The PSA rapid quantitative test system provided results quickly and was easy to use, so that tests using this system can be easily performed at outpatient clinics or elsewhere. This system may also be useful for initial cancer screening and for point-of-care testing, because results can be obtained within 12 min and at a cost lower than that of conventional quantitative assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Even though shift work has been suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, little research has been done to determine the logical underlying inflammation mechanisms. This study investigated the association between shift work and circulating total and differential leukocyte counts among Chinese steel workers.
The subjects were 1,654 line workers in a steel plant, who responded to a cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire on basic attributes, life style, and sleep. All workers in the plant received a periodic health checkup. Total and differential leukocytes counts were also examined in the checkup.
Shift workers had higher rates of alcohol use, smoking, poor sleep, poor physical exercise, and obesity than daytime workers. In further analysis, we found that the peripheral total WBC, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were also greater in shift workers than in daytime workers. When subjects were divided into quartiles according to total WBC, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts, increased leukocyte count was associated with shift work. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, smoking, obesity, and shift work were independently associated with total WBC, monocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts.
This study indicates that peripheral total and differential leukocyte counts are significantly higher in shift workers, which suggests that shift work may be a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of cardiovascular disease for shift workers.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Occupational Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of visfatin, a ubiquitous adipokine, may reflect both the severity of plaque as well as degree of plaque stabilization in acute myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was to test whether the level of visfatin is associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Consecutive patients (n=185) with acute STEMI were prospectively enrolled in the study. ELISA was used to measure plasma visfatin concentrations. Composite MACEs included death, recurrent myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization or re-advanced heart failure.
Plasma visfatin levels were significantly higher in composite MACE patients than in non-MACE patients. A multivariate Cox hazard regression model revealed that the predictive independent risk factors for the occurrence of composite MACEs were visfatin level (relative risk = 1.04) and age (relative risk = 6.05). When patients were grouped according to their plasma visfatin levels, composite MACEs occurred more frequently in patients presenting with high visfatin levels. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high visfatin levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of composite MACEs.
The level of plasma visfatin may be associated with risk of composite MACEs in STEMI patients, and may be useful for risk stratification.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total mortality and sudden cardiac death is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD patients, the protein-bound uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate (IS) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association have yet to be elucidated. The relationship between IS and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters was investigated in a prospective observational study among early CKD patients. IS arrhythmogenic effect was evaluated by in vitro cardiomyocyte electrophysiological study and mathematical computer simulation. In a cohort of 100 early CKD patients, patients with corrected QT (QTc) prolongation had higher IS levels. Furthermore, serum IS level was independently associated with prolonged QTc interval. In vitro, the delay rectifier potassium current (IK) was found to be significantly decreased after the treatment of IS in a dose-dependent manner. The modulation of IS to the IK was through the regulation of the major potassium ion channel protein Kv 2.1 phosphorylation. In a computer simulation, the decrease of IK by IS could prolong the action potential duration (APD) and induce early afterdepolarization, which is known to be a trigger mechanism of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. In conclusion, serum IS level is independently associated with the prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients. IS down-regulated IK channel protein phosphorylation and the IK current activity that in turn increased the cardiomyocyte APD and QTc interval in vitro and in the computer ORd model. These findings suggest that IS may play a role in the development of arrhythmogenesis in CKD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epicardial fat is visceral adipose tissue that possesses inflammatory properties. Inflammation and obesity are associated with cardiovascular disease and arrhythmogenesis, but little is known about the relationship between epicardial fat and PR-Interval prolongation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and PR-interval prolongation as assessed by computed tomography (CT) and Twelve-lead ECGs.
Patients (n=287) were referred for 64-slice CT for exclusion of coronary artery disease and EAT volumes were determined. Twelve-lead ECGs were obtained from each subject and were evaluated by two independent readers.
Patients with significant PR interval prolongation had higher median EAT volume than patients with normal PR interval. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the EAT volume and the PR interval (p = 0.183, p = 0.003), and QRS duration (p = 0.144, p = 0.018). Multivariate and trend analyses confirmed that EAT volume was independently associated with the presence of PR interval prolongation. The receiver operator characteristics curve of EAT volume showed that an EAT volume >144.4 cm³ was associated with PR interval prolongation.
This study indicates that EAT volume is highly associated with PR interval prolongation. Whether epicardial fat plays a role in the pathogenesis of PR interval prolongation requires future investigation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased visfatin expression has been shown to increase gene expression, which promotes cell survival and increases SirT1 activity thereby promoting angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) express high levels of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). Since visfatin expression is increased by Stat3, we hypothesized that visfatin protein may be highly expressed in OSCCs. Immunohistochemistry was the technique used to examine the expression of visfatin in 19 OSCCs and 4 hyperplastic lesions. The results indicated that visfatin was detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the OSCCs and epithelial hyperplasia as well as in the stromal tissues of patients with OSCC and oral hyperplasia. Furthermore, co-expression of visfatin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen proteins was noted in verrucous epithelial hyperplasia, and co-expression of visfatin and CD68 in the inflammatory cells of the stromal region was noted in the OSCCs. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that plasma visfatin concentrations were significantly increased in the patients with OSCC and oral hyperplasia compared to those of the control subjects. In conclusion, visfatin expression and concentrations were higher in OSCCs and oral hyperplasia, suggesting that visfatin may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral cancers.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of applied biomedicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
p-Cresylsulfate (PCS), a protein-bound uraemic retention solute, is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and possibly plays a role in coronary atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the association among serum total PCS, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality were also found in previous studies. However, little is known about the relationship between total PCS level and prolonged QT interval. We assessed whether serum total PCS level is related with prolonged QT interval by measuring 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recording in stable angina patients with early stage of renal failure.
Serum total PCS concentrations were measured by using the Ultra Performance LC System in 154 consecutive stable angina patients. A 12-lead ECG recording was obtained from each subject.
Patients with abnormal corrected QT (QTc) interval have higher median serum total PCS levels than patients with normal QTc interval. Statistically significant associations were observed between the serum total PCS levels and the QTc interval (r=0.217, P=0.007). Using multivariate and trend analyses, serum total PCS level was independently associated with QTc prolongation.
This study indicates that serum total PCS levels are significantly higher in the presence of abnormal QTc interval and are associated with the QTc prolongation. Whether total PCS plays a role in the pathogenesis of QTc prolongation requires future investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment total and differential leukocyte counts can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cavity cancer.
In a retrospective analysis of patients treated between 2004 and 2011, medical records of 202 patients with oral cavity cancer were evaluated.
Patients with oral cavity cancer, the peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) count, monocyte, and neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio increased with the advancement of clinical stage. In contrast, the lymphocyte count decreased. Further, total WBC, monocyte, and neutrophil counts were increased in those with pathologic stage T4 and poor tumor differentiation, and the monocyte count was also increased in those with lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the pretreatment circulating monocyte count was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival.
A higher pretreatment circulating monocyte count can be considered as a useful prognostic marker in patients with oral cavity cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Visfatin (also known as pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor) is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease and has been linked with coronary atherosclerosis. Given that it has been reported that visfatin plays a role in endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease patients, we examined associations between visfatin levels and several markers related to atherosclerosis.
Materials and methods:
The association between visfatin and atherosclerotic risk factors was studied in 173 chronic kidney disease patients (130 men and 43 women). Serum levels of visfatin were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
With increasing visfatin tertiles, patients proved to have a larger number of vessels with stenosis and a higher likelihood of coronary artery disease, as well as having incrementally lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum albumin and higher total leukocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; and brain natriuretic peptide levels. Visfatin showed significant positive correlations with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, brain natriuretic peptide, E-selectin, total leukocyte count, neutrophil count, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and a significant negative correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin. Only E-selectin was independently associated with visfatin in multiple linear regression analysis.
This study indicates that plasma visfatin levels are significantly higher in the presence of coronary artery disease and are correlated with E-selectin levels, which suggest that increased plasma visfatin may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis in CKD patients.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Iranian journal of kidney diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (Sfrp5), an endogenous inhibitor of wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt) signalling, is an anti-inflammatory adipokine whose expression is perturbed in models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Wnt member 5a (Wnt5a) is a representative ligand, and recent reports suggest that Wnt5a is involved in inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma Wnt5a and Sfrp5 levels are altered in patients with T2DM. Methods
Plasma Sfrp5 and Wnt5a concentrations were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. ResultsA total of 82 patients with T2DM and 42 nondiabetic subjects were studied. Plasma Sfrp5 levels were found to be elevated in patients with T2DM (9.49.0 vs 7.4 +/- 10.9ng/mL, p=0.006). In contrast, Wnt5a levels were decreased (6.8 +/- 12.6 vs 9.1 +/- 4.0ng/dL, p<0.001). Increasing concentrations of Sfrp5 were independently and significantly associated with T2DM. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed Sfrp5 as an independent association factor for T2DM, even after full adjustment of known biomarkers. In a multiple linear regression analysis, only the fasting glucose level was positively associated with the plasma Sfrp5 level. Conclusions
Our results indicate that Sfrp5 may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is linked to endothelial damage, NF-κB activation and induced development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum IS levels and the severity of coronary artery stenosis. In addition, the relationship among IS and various cardiovascular risk factors was also explored.
Serum IS concentrations were measured using ultra performance liquid chromatography in 191 consecutive patients presenting with stable angina. The associations between serum IS levels and angiographic indexes of the number of diseased vessels, modified Gensini scores and calcium scores were determined.
Patients with significant coronary artery stenosis were found to have higher serum IS levels than patients with normal coronary arteries. Using multivariate analysis, serum IS levels were found to be independently associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Furthermore, statistically significant correlation was observed between the serum IS levels and age, Agatston calcium score, volume calcium score, modified Gensini score, coronary lesions, coronary disease and Framingham-10 year risk score.
This study indicates that serum IS levels are significantly higher in the presence of CAD and correlate with the severity of the disease and coronary atherosclerosis scores, which suggest that increased serum IS may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrated that visfatin expressed in monocytes and neutrophils and increased their reactivity in male acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Furthermore, visfatin was strongly appeared in lipid rich coronary rupture plaques and macrophages. These results suggest another explanation about leukocytes mediated visfatin that may play a pathogenesis role in coronary vulnerable plaques rupture.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD have elevated levels of p-cresylsulfate (PCS), which has been linked with cardiovascular mortality in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of CKD in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and to investigate whether a significant correlation exists between CKD, total PCS and poor clinical outcomes in CAD patients. Methods: We assessed the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) among 340 consecutive CAD patients who enrolled in a disease management program after the patients were discharged from the hospital. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that CKD and high total PCS levels (>1.66 mg/L) were significantly associated with the occurrence of MACE. A multivariate Cox hazard regression model revealed that the predictive independent risk factor for the occurrence of MACE was high total PCS level (relative risk = 1.387). We divided the patients with or without CKD and high or low total PCS levels into 4 groups according to their eGFR and total PCS levels, respectively. The hazard ratio for MACE in the group with both CKD and high total PCS level was 1.721, relative to the group without CKD that had low total PCS level (p=0.005). Conclusions: A high serum level of total PCS may be a predictor of elevated risk of MACE in CAD patients with low eGFR.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Fat surrounding coronary arteries can aggravate coronary artery disease (CAD). To provide evidence for this concept, we sought to investigate the correlation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volumes and risk factors, plasma visfatin levels, inflammatory biomarkers, and the quantity of coronary calcification and atherosclerosis. Methods: EAT volume was measured using cardiac multi-slice computed tomography. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was determined by the Agatston Score, and plasma visfatin levels were measured by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results: Patients with CAC and coronary atherosclerosis had significantly larger EAT volumes than patients without CAC and coronary atherosclerosis. When the analysis was stratified according to diabetes status, the EAT volumes in CAC and coronary atherosclerosis patients, with or without type 2 diabetes, were significantly higher than those of their counterparts. Furthermore, the correlation of EAT volume and CAC remained statistically significant even after it was adjusted for body mass index (BMI). EAT volume was also associated with the Agatston calcium score, volume calcium score, Gensini score, and the Framingham Risk Score. An EAT volume > 200 cm 3 was the strongest independent risk factor for CAC. An elevated EAT volume was also significantly correlated with elevated visfatin, triglycerides, high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, total white blood cells, lymphocyte counts, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: Increased EAT volumes were associated with coronary atherosclerosis and CAC, independent of risk factors, and were correlated with several CAD inflammatory biomarkers. These data suggest that EAT may act through inflammatory reactions to play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and CAC.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Cardiologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visfatin is a cytokine that is expressed in many tissues, including the heart, and has been proposed to play a role in plaque destabilization leading to acute myocardial injury. The present study evaluates plasma levels of visfatin in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and examines the temporal changes in visfatin levels from the acute period to the subacute period to determine a correlation with the degree of myocardial ischemia. We evaluated 54 patients with STEMI. Circulating levels of visfatin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by ELISA. In addition, local expression of visfatin and BNP were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of left ventricular myocytes in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). Plasma levels of visfatin were significantly increased in patients with STEMI on admission, relative to controls (effort angina patients and individuals without coronary artery disease). The visfatin levels reached a peak 24h after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and then decreased toward the control range during the first week after PCI. The basal plasma visfatin levels were found to correlate with peak troponin-I, peak creatine kinase-MB, total white blood cell count, and BNP levels. Trend analyses confirmed that visfatin levels correlated with the number of diseased coronary arteries. Further, in MI mice, mRNA levels of visfatin and BNP were found to be higher than in sham-treated mice. IHC analysis showed that visfatin and BNP immunoreactivity was diffusely observable in left ventricular myocytes of the MI mice. This study indicates that plasma visfatin levels are significantly higher in STEMI patients and that these higher visfatin levels correlate with elevated levels of cardiac enzymes, suggesting that increased plasma visfatin may be closely related to the degree of myocardial damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) is a traditional Chinese herb that possesses strong antioxidant activity and protects against endothelial cell (EC) injury by inhibition of free reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which GT prevents endothelial injury using a proteomics approach. We used a sensitive method to analyze the Snitrosoproteins utilizing a modified biotin-switch method in order to detect the possible effects of GT on protein posttranslational modification. After treatment of vascular ECs with GT, two proteins HspA9 (IS1), beta-actin (IS2) were observed to have increased posttranslational S-nitrosylation, whereas seven proteins, vimentin (DS2, DS3 and DS5), tropomyosin 3, 4 (DS6 and DS7) and oxidative phosphorylation protein such as ATP synthase, F1 complex (DS1) and 80K-H protein (DS4), were found to have decreased posttranslational S-nitrosylation. Due to S-nitrosylation of HspA9 causing the reduction of intracellular ROS and S-nitrosylation of ATP synthase interfering with ATP production and ROS formation, our study may indicate a novel mechanism in which GT protects EC injury by the inhibition of oxidative reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of circulating adiponectin (ADPN), an anti- inflammatory and anti-oxidative peptide, are associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma ADPN levels could help predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD). We prospectively enrolled 193 CAD patients, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and/or stenting and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. ELISA was used to measure plasma ADPN concentrations. MACE--myocardial infarction, PCI, CABG, stroke, carotid revascularization, and death--was evaluated during a follow-up period of median 15.3 months (range 5-21 months). Cox regression analysis revealed that diabetes status, waist circumference, and plasma ADPN levels were significantly associated with MACE occurrence. On stratification according to diabetes status, plasma ADPN levels helped predict MACE only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed higher MACE rates in diabetic patients with high-plasma ADPN levels than in those with low-plasma ADPN levels. High ADPN plasma concentrations can independently be associated with MACE in CAD with T2DM but not in those without diabetes. This indicates that plasma ADPN may have potential roles in high risk T2DM patients with ischemic heart disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p-Cresylsulphate (PCS), a protein-bound uraemic retention solute, is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and possibly plays a role in coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the relationship of total PCS with traditional biomarkers associated with chronic coronary atherosclerosis. In addition, the relationship between serum total PCS levels and the severity of coronary artery stenosis was also explored.
Serum total PCS concentrations were measured by using the Ultra Performance LC System in 202 consecutive stable angina patients, and their associations with angiographic indexes of the number of diseased vessels and modified Gensini score were estimated. Patients with significant coronary artery stenosis have higher median serum total PCS levels than patients with normal coronary arteries. Statistically significant associations were observed between the serum total PCS levels and the number of diseased vessels (beta=0.261, p=0.0002), and modified Gensini score (beta=0.171, p=0.016). Using multivariate analysis, serum total PCS level was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAD.
This study indicates that serum total PCS levels are significantly higher in the presence of CAD and are correlated with the severity of the disease, which suggest that increased serum total PCS may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresylsulphate (PCS) are uremic toxins with similar protein-binding, dialytic clearance, and proinflammatory features. Few studies have evaluated the possible associations between these solutes and coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.
A hospital-based case control study was performed. A total of 209 T2D patients were divided into two groups based on the presence/absence of significant CAD (≥50% luminal reduction). Serum total PCS and IS levels were measured using the Ultra Performance LC System. The relationship between total PCS and IS levels were investigated. Coronary calcium scores and the modified Gensini score were analyzed.
Serum total PCS and IS levels were significantly higher in patients with both T2D and significant CAD, than in non-diabetic control subjects and T2D patients without CAD (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed independent and significant associations between the two solutes and CAD status. Serum total PCS, IS, and numbers of diseased vessels were elevated in groups with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2 and below. Also, serum total PCS and IS levels were significantly associated with eGFR, coronary calcium scores, Gensini score, adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and leptin), and total white blood cell count.
Serum total PCS and IS levels were elevated in patients with T2D and CAD. These increases were associated with renal function deterioration, inflammation, and coronary atherosclerosis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · The Review of Diabetic Studies