[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidation of maternal immune correlates of protection against congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is necessary to inform future vaccine design. Here, we present a novel rhesus macaque model of placental rhesus CMV (rhCMV) transmission and use it to dissect determinants of protection against congenital transmission following primary maternal rhCMV infection. In this model, asymptomatic intrauterine infection was observed following i.v. rhCMV inoculation during the early second trimester in two of three rhCMV-seronegative pregnant females. In contrast, fetal loss or infant CMV-associated sequelae occurred in four rhCMV-seronegative pregnant macaques that were CD4(+) T-cell depleted at the time of inoculation. Animals that received the CD4(+) T-cell-depleting antibody also exhibited higher plasma and amniotic fluid viral loads, dampened virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses, and delayed production of autologous neutralizing antibodies compared with immunocompetent monkeys. Thus, maternal CD4(+) T-cell immunity during primary rhCMV infection is important for controlling maternal viremia and inducing protective immune responses that prevent severe CMV-associated fetal disease.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human pegivirus (HPgV)-formerly known as GB virus C and hepatitis G virus-is a poorly characterized RNA virus that infects about one-sixth of the global human population and is transmitted frequently in the blood supply. We create an animal model of HPgV infection by infecting macaque monkeys with a new simian pegivirus (SPgV) discovered in wild baboons. Using this model, we provide a high-resolution, longitudinal picture of SPgV viremia where the dose, route, and timing of infection are known. We detail the highly variable acute phase of SPgV infection, showing that the viral load trajectory early in infection is dependent on the infecting dose, whereas the chronic-phase viremic set point is not. We also show that SPgV has an extremely low propensity for accumulating sequence variation, with no consensus-level variants detected during the acute phase of infection and an average of only 1.5 variants generated per 100 infection-days. Finally, we show that SPgV RNA is highly concentrated in only two tissues: spleen and bone marrow, with bone marrow likely producing most of the virus detected in plasma. Together, these results reconcile several paradoxical observations from cross-sectional analyses of HPgV in humans and provide an animal model for studying pegivirus biology.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Science translational medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), of which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intrageneric phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, as compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population we discover the first structural variations that are in some cases predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine
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Pathogenesis of human (HIV) and simian (SIV) immunodeficiency viruses reflects a balance between viral replication host innate and adaptive anti-viral immune responses, and sustained immune activation that in humans and Asian macaques is associated with persistent viremia, immune escape and AIDS. Among nonhuman primates, pig-tailed macaques following SIV infection are predisposed to more rapid disease progression than are rhesus macaques. Here, we show that disruption of a conserved tyrosine-based cellular trafficking motif in the viral transmembrane envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic tail leads in pig-tailed macaques to a unique phenotype in which high levels of acute viral replication are followed by elite control, robust cellular responses in mucosal tissues, and no disease. Paradoxically, control of this virus in rhesus macaques is only partial, and progression to AIDS occurs. This novel model should provide a powerful tool to help identify host-specific determinants for viral control with potential relevance for vaccine development.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, the specific qualities and characteristics of an effective CD8 T cell response remain unclear. Although targeting breadth, cross-reactivity, polyfunctionality, avidity, and specificity are correlated with HIV control, further investigation is needed to determine the precise contributions of these various attributes to CD8 T cell efficacy. We developed protocols for isolating and expanding SIV-specific CD8 T cells from SIV-naive Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM). These cells exhibited an effector memory phenotype, produced cytokines in response to cognate antigen, and suppressed viral replication in vitro. We further cultured cell lines specific for four SIV-derived epitopes, Nef103-111 RM9, Gag389-394 GW9, Env338-346 RF9, and Nef254-262 LT9. These cell lines were up to 94.4% pure, as determined by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramer analysis. After autologous transfer into twoMCMrecipients, expanded CD8 T cells persisted in peripheral blood and lung tissue for at least 24 weeks and trafficked to multiple extralymphoid tissues. However, these cells did not impact the acute-phase SIV load after challenge compared to historic controls. The expansion and autologous transfer of SIV-specific T cells into naive animals provide a unique model for exploring cellular immunity and the control of SIV infection and facilitate a systematic evaluation of therapeutic adoptive transfer strategies for eradication of the latent reservoir.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although immune pressure exerted by MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are an important determinant of outcome in pathogenic HIV and SIV infection, lack of data on MHC class I genes has hampered study of its role in natural hosts with nonpathogenic SIV infection. In this study, we cloned and characterized full-length MHC class I genes derived from the cDNA library of two unrelated naturally infected sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in whom SIV-specific CTL epitopes were previously mapped. Twenty one full-length MHC class I alleles consisting of five MHC-A (Ceat-A), 13 MHC-B (Ceat-B), and three MHC-E (Ceat-E) alleles were identified. Sequence-specific primers (SSP) for high-throughput screening of genomic DNA by PCR were developed for 16 of the 18 Ceat-A and Ceat-B alleles. Screening of 62 SIV-negative and 123 SIV-infected sooty mangabeys at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (YNPRC) revealed the presence of up to four MHC-A and eight MHC-B alleles in individual mangabeys, indicating that similar to macaque species, mangabeys have at least two duplications of the MHC-A locus and four duplications of the MHC-B locus in the absence of an MHC-C locus. Using stable transfectants of Ceat MHC Class I alleles in the MHC-null 721.221 cell line, we identified Ceat-B*12:01 as the restricting allele of a previously reported Nef20-28 CTL epitope. Ceat-B*1201/Nef20-28 tetramers identified tetramer-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes in Ceat-B*1201-positive SIV-infected mangabeys. This study has laid the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of CTL and SIV evolution in a natural host of SIV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology with the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II platform offers the potential to obtain full-length coding regions (∼1,100-bp) from MHC class I cDNAs. Despite the relatively high error rate associated with SMRT technology, high quality sequences can be obtained by circular consensus sequencing (CCS) due to the random nature of the error profile. In the present study we first validated the ability of SMRT-CCS to accurately identify class I transcripts in Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) that have been characterized previously by cloning and Sanger-based sequencing as well as pyrosequencing approaches. We then applied this SMRT-CCS method to characterize 60 novel full-length class I transcript sequences expressed by a cohort of cynomolgus macaques from China. The SMRT-CCS method described here provides a straightforward protocol for characterization of unfragmented single-molecule cDNA transcripts that will potentially revolutionize MHC class I allele discovery in nonhuman primates and other species.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Human immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are natural SIV hosts and the presumed source of HIV-2 and SIVmac, which makes them a valuable model for HIV/SIV research. However, like other African primates, little is known about their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics. In this study, we used Roche/454 and Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing in order to determine the MHC class I transcripts in a cohort of 165 sooty mangabeys from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (YNPRC). We have characterized 121 functionally full-length classical (Ceat-A and Ceat-B) and non-classical (Ceat-F and Ceat-I) alleles and have also identified 22 Ceat-A/Ceat-B haplotype chromosomal combinations. We correlated these Ceat-A/Ceat-B haplotype combinations to recently described microsatellite haplotypes from the YNPRC colony. These newly identified alleles and haplotypes establish a resource for studying cellular immunity in sooty mangabeys and provide a framework for rapidly cataloging MHC class I sequences in an understudied, yet important, nonhuman primate species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A small percentage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques control virus replication without antiretroviral treatment. The major determinant of this control is host expression of certain major histocompatibility complex alleles. However, this association is incompletely penetrant, suggesting that additional loci modify the major histocompatibility complex's protective effect. Here, to identify candidate control-modifying loci, we sequence the genomes of 12 SIV-infected Mauritian cynomolgus macaques that experienced divergent viral load set points despite sharing the protective M1 major histocompatibility complex haplotype.
Our genome-wide analysis of haplotype-level variation identifies seven candidate control-modifying loci on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14. The highest variant density marks the candidate on chromosome 7, which is the only control-modifying locus to comprise genes with known immunological function. Upon closer inspection, we found an allele for one of these genes, granzyme B, to be enriched in M1(+) controllers. Given its established role as a cytotoxic effector molecule that participates in CD8-mediated killing of virus-infected cells, we test the role of variation within gzmb in modifying SIV control by prospectively challenging M1(+) granzyme B-defined macaques.
Our study establishes a framework for using whole genome sequencing to identify haplotypes that may contribute to complex clinical phenotypes. Further investigation into the immunogenetics underlying spontaneous HIV control may contribute to the rational design of a vaccine that prevents acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
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Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a severe and almost uniformly fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in Asian macaques but is thought to be nonpathogenic for humans. To date, the SHFV life cycle is almost completely uncharacterized on the molecular level. Here, we describe the first steps of the SHFV life cycle. Our experiments indicate that SHFV enters target cells by low-pH-dependent endocytosis. Dynamin inhibitors, chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chloroquine, and concanamycin A dramatically reduced SHFV entry efficiency, whereas the macropinocytosis inhibitors EIPA, blebbistatin, and wortmannin and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors nystatin and filipin III had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression and knockout study and electron microscopy results indicate that SHFV entry occurs by a dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis-like pathway. Experiments utilizing latrunculin B, cytochalasin B, and cytochalasin D indicate that SHFV does not hijack the actin polymerization pathway. Treatment of target cells with proteases (proteinase K, papain, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin) abrogated entry, indicating that the SHFV cell surface receptor is a protein. Phospholipases A2 and D had no effect on SHFV entry. Finally, treatment of cells with antibodies targeting CD163, a cell surface molecule identified as an entry factor for the SHFV-related porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, diminished SHFV replication, identifying CD163 as an important SHFV entry component.
Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes highly lethal disease in Asian macaques resembling human illness caused by Ebola or Lassa virus. However, little is known about SHFV's ecology and molecular biology and the mechanism by which it causes disease. The results of this study shed light on how SHFV enters its target cells. Using electron microscopy and inhibitors for various cellular pathways, we demonstrate that SHFV invades cells by low-pH-dependent, actin-independent endocytosis, likely with the help of a cellular surface protein.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 is the only remaining SHFV in culture, and only a single genome
sequence record exists in GenBank/RefSeq. We compared the genomic sequence of NIH LVR42-0/M6941 acquired from the ATCC in
2011 to NIH LVR42-0/M6941 genomes sequenced directly from nonhuman primates experimentally infected in 1989.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) alleles on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity in humans has been well characterized at the population level. MHC-I alleles likely affect viral diversity in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) model, but this is poorly characterized. We studied the evolution of SIV in pig-tailed macaques with a range of MHC-I haplotypes. SIVmac251 genomes were amplified from the plasma of 44 pig-tailed macaques infected with SIVmac251 at 4 to 10 months after infection and characterized by Illumina deep sequencing. MHC-I typing was performed on cellular RNA using Roche/454 pyrosequencing. MHC-I haplotypes and viral sequence polymorphisms at both individual mutations and groups of mutations spanning 10-amino-acid segments were linked using in-house bioinformatics pipelines, since cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape can occur at different amino acids within the same epitope in different animals. The approach successfully identified 6 known CTL escape mutations within 3 Mane-A1*084-restricted epitopes. The approach also identified over 70 new SIV polymorphisms linked to a variety of MHC-I haplotypes. Using functional CD8 T cell assays, we confirmed that one of these associations, a Mane-B028 haplotype-linked mutation in Nef, corresponded to a CTL epitope. We also identified mutations associated with the Mane-B017 haplotype that were previously described to be CTL epitopes restricted by Mamu-B*017:01 in rhesus macaques. This detailed study of pig-tailed macaque MHC-I genetics and SIV polymorphisms will enable a refined level of analysis for future vaccine design and strategies for treatment of HIV infection.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Virology
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Since the 1960s, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Nidovirales, Arteriviridae) has caused highly fatal outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive Asian macaque colonies. However, the source(s) of these outbreaks and the natural reservoir(s) of this virus remain obscure. Here we report the identification of two novel, highly divergent simian arteriviruses related to SHFV, Mikumi yellow baboon virus 1 (MYBV-1) and Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1), in wild and captive baboons, respectively, and demonstrate the recent transmission of SWBV-1 among captive baboons. These findings extend our knowledge of the genetic and geographic diversity of the simian arteriviruses, identify baboons as a natural host of these viruses, and provide further evidence that baboons may have played a role in previous outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever in macaques, as has long been suspected. This knowledge should aid in the prevention of disease outbreaks in captive macaques and supports the growing body of evidence that suggests that simian arterivirus infections are common in Old World monkeys of many different species throughout Africa.
Historically, the emergence of primate viruses both in humans and in other primate species has caused devastating outbreaks of disease. One strategy for preventing the emergence of novel primate pathogens is to identify microbes with the potential for cross-species transmission in their natural state within reservoir species from which they might emerge. Here, we detail the discovery and characterization of two related simian members of the Arteriviridae family that have a history of disease emergence and host switching. Our results expand the phylogenetic and geographic range of the simian arteriviruses and define baboons as a natural host for these viruses. Our findings also identify a potential threat to captive macaque colonies by showing that simian arteriviruses are actively circulating in captive baboons.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) serve as important models for human infectious disease research. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are important to this research since they present peptides to CD4+ T cells. Despite the importance of characterizing the MHC-II alleles expressed in model species like pig-tailed macaques, to date, less than 150 MHC-II alleles have been named for the six most common classical class II loci (DRA, DRB, DQA, DQB, DPA, and DPB) in this population. Additionally, only a small percentage of these alleles are full-length, making it impossible to use the known sequence for reagent development. To address this, we developed a fast, high-throughput method to discover full-length MHC-II alleles and used it to characterize alleles in 32 pig-tailed macaques. By this method, we identified 128 total alleles across all six loci. We also performed an exon 2-based genotyping assay to validate the full-length sequencing results; this genotyping assay could be optimized for use in determining MHC-II allele frequencies in large cohorts of pig-tailed macaques.