[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of K(+)-channel blockers on the action potential duration of the myocardium were examined in isolated right ventricles from the 7 - 10-day-old, 11 - 13-day-old, and 14 - 20-day-old embryo and 1 - 7-day-old hatched chicks. E-4031 significantly prolonged action potential duration at all developmental stages examined; the prolongation was largest in the 11 - 13-day-old embryo and was accompanied by early after-depolarizations. Chromanol 293B showed smaller prolongation at all stages examined. Terfenadine prolonged action potential duration in the 11 - 13-day-old embryo, but not in other stages. Thus, the chick ventricular myocardium changes its repolarization properties during development.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The waveform of the myocardial action potential (AP) triggering contraction differs among the species, developmental stage, and pathological state. The species difference in heart rate, which inversely correlates with body size, originates in the ion-channel mechanisms responsible for diastolic depolarization of the sinoatrial node. In some cases, such as the chronically AV-blocked dog and 11- to 13-day chick embryo, the repolarization reserve is decreased making the heart useful for drug evaluation. The degree of dependence of contraction on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function increases during development. The large SR dependence and short AP of the adult mouse and rat support their rapid contraction under high heart rate. The function of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger is affected by AP waveform and ion concentrations; its major role is Ca(2+) extrusion, but under pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion, it allows Ca(2+) influx and leads to myocardial injury, including loss of mitochondrial function. The role of mitochondria in ATP supply is less in the fetus where glycolysis plays a greater role. The pharmacological properties of the myocardium are affected by all of these factors and also by autonomic innervation and the hormonal status. Such comprehensive understanding is indispensable for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrophysiological properties of the pulmonary vein myocardium were assessed in a canine chronic atrioventricular block model resulting in left atrial volume overload. Five chronic atrioventricular block dogs and five sham-operated dogs were used. The heart was removed two months after a surgical procedure causing atrioventricular block, when atrial structural remodeling was established. Standard microelectrode penetrations were made with glass microelectrodes to obtain action potential signals of left atrium and pulmonary vein myocardia. The resting membrane potential in the pulmonary vein was more positive than that in the left atrium (-69 mV vs -74 mV) in both animal groups. The action potential duration at 50% repolarization of the pulmonary vein was shorter in the chronic atrioventricular block dogs than in the sham-operated dogs (38 ms vs 63 ms), whereas no significant difference was detected in the action potential duration of the left atrium between the two animal groups (67 ms vs 61 ms). The action potential duration of the pulmonary vein in the chronic atrioventricular block dogs was prolonged by charybdotoxin but not by iberiotoxin. Such prolongation was not observed in the normal pulmonary vein. These results suggest that long-term left atrial dilatation shortened the action potential duration of pulmonary vein myocardium, which may be associated with activation of the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (IK channel).
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chronic atrioventricular block dog is a useful model for predicting the future onset of drug-induced long QT syndrome in clinical practice. To better understand the arrhythmogenic profile of this model, we recorded the action potentials of the isolated ventricular tissues in the presence and absence of the class III antiarrhythmic drug nifekalant. The action potential durations of the Purkinje fiber and free wall of the right ventricle were longer in the chronic atrioventricular block dogs than in the dogs with normal sinus rhythm. Nifekalant in concentrations of 1 and 10 microM prolonged the action potential durations of Purkinje fiber and the free wall in a concentration-dependent manner. The extent of prolongation was greater in the chronic atrioventricular block dogs than in the normal dogs. However, increase of temporal dispersion of ventricular repolarization including early afterdepolarization was not detected by nifekalant in either group of dogs, indicating lack of potential to trigger arrhythmias in vitro. These results suggest that the ventricular repolarization delay in the chronic atrioventricular block model by nifekalant may largely depend on the decreased myocardial repolarization reserve, whereas the trigger for lethal arrhythmia was not generated in the in vitro condition in contrast to the in vivo experiment.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inotropic response to muscarinic receptor stimulation of isolated chick ventricular myocardium was examined at various developmental stages, and the receptor subtype involved was pharmacologically characterized. In embryonic chick ventricles, carbachol (CCh) produced positive inotropy at micromolar concentrations. In hatched chick ventricles, CCh produced negative inotropy at nanomolar concentrations. Neither positive nor negative inotropy was observed in the 19 - 21-day-old embryos. Both positive and negative inotropy were also observed with acetylcholine and oxotremoline-M. The CCh-induced positive inotropy in 7 - 9-day-old embryonic ventricles and the negative inotropy in 1 - 3-day-old hatched chick ventricles were antagonized by muscarinic receptor antagonists; pA(2) values for the positive and negative responses of pirenzepine were 7.5 and 7.2, those of AF-DX116 (11-[(2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl)acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4] benzodiazepine-6-one) were 6.8 and 6.9, those of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) were 9.0 and 8.5, and those of himbacine were 7.0 and 8.0, respectively. CCh had no effect on action potential configuration. In conclusion, the positive inotropy is most likely mediated by muscarinic M(1) receptors and the negative inotropy is mostly likely mediated by muscarinic M(4) receptors.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oxidative cyclization–carbonylation of propargylic esters mediated by Pd(II) afforded cyclic orthoesters, which were hydrolyzed into γ-acetoxy-β-ketoesters. Based on the NMR experiments, it was presumed that the cyclization reaction was initiated by a nucleophilic attack of carbonyl oxygen to the alkyne carbon coordinated to palladium(II). When the γ-acetoxy-β-ketoesters were treated with a basic condition, Knoevenagel–Claisen type condensation took place, and spiro furanone derivatives were obtained in good yields. We applied these reactions to steroid derivatives, and steroid derivatives having a spiro furanone fragment were synthesized. Among them, the spiro furanone 4j had vasorelaxant and bradycardiac activities. Compounds 2i–4k had inhibitory effect on CYP3A.