Peter F. Landrum

Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois, United States

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Publications (190)495.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This interim 3-year status report describes the results of GLERL's studies on the cycling of toxic organics in the Great Lakes. A hierarchy of models has been developed including 1) a lakescale equilibrium model, 2) a one-dimensional steady-state model, 3) one and two-dimensional time dependent models, and 4) several individual process models. These modeling efforts have identified process research needs, some of which have been supported. Reported here are results of our work on: 1) air-water exchange; 2) photolysis; 3) sorption and partitioning; 4) particle settling and transport; 5) early diagenetic processes in lake sediments; 6) interaction of sediments, contaminants, and benthic organisms; and 7) simulation studies of organic contaminants.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that using exhaustive chemical extractions is not an effective means of assessing exposure of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediments and that bioavailability-based techniques are an improvement over traditional methods. One technique that has shown special promise as a method for assessing the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediment is the use of Tenax-extractable concentrations. A 6-h or 24-h single-point Tenax-extractable concentration correlates to both bioaccumulation and toxicity. This method has demonstrated effectiveness for several hydrophobic organic compounds in various organisms under both field and laboratory conditions. In addition, a Tenax bioaccumulation model was developed for multiple compounds relating 24-h Tenax-extractable concentrations to oligochaete tissue concentrations exposed in both the laboratory and field. This model has demonstrated predictive capacity for additional compounds and species. Use of Tenax-extractable concentrations to estimate exposure is rapid, simple, straightforward, and relatively inexpensive, as well as accurate. Therefore, this method would be an invaluable tool if implemented in risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1445-1453. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: A major issue with characterizing sediment-associated hydrophobic contaminants is the difficulty in assessing the total amount of compound that is available for chemical exchange with an organism. To address this point, contaminant concentrations have been normalized for specific sediment characteristics, including organic carbon content, or the chemical activity has been estimated using passive samplers. Another approach to assess compound availability is to determine the extent of readily desorbed compound using resin extractions of sediment slurries. The current paper reviews the literature using Tenax TA, a p-2,6-diphenylphyleneoxide polymer as an extraction tool for measuring bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediment. The extent of desorption has been assessed with sequential extractions to characterize the maximum rate and pool sizes for different desorbing fractions of bound contaminant. The rapidly desorbing fraction has been well correlated with the extent of degradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of hydrophobic contaminants. A shortcut to measuring the full desorption curve for determining the rapidly desorbing compound is to use a single-point extraction, with 6 or 24 h extractions being most common. The Tenax extraction has been shown to be effective with laboratory-spiked sediments, field-collected sediments, laboratory-exposed organisms, field-collected organisms and studies among laboratories, and a literature-based model has been developed that described the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls from independently measured field-collected sediments. Despite the success of this approach, application of the Tenax method for management of contaminated sediments is limited by the absence of a standard set of conditions for performing the extractions and standard methods for using field sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: This manuscript surveys the literature on passive sampler methods (PSMs) used in contaminated sediments to assess the chemical activity of organic contaminants. The chemical activity in turn dictates the reactivity and bioavailability of contaminants in sediment. Approaches to measure specific binding of compounds to sediment components, e.g., amorphous carbon or specific types of reduced carbon, and the associated partition coefficients are difficult to determine particularly for native sediment. Thus, the development of PSMs that represent the chemical activity of complex compound/sediment interactions, expressed as the freely dissolved contaminant concentration in pore water (Cfree ), offer a better proxy for endpoints of concern, such as reactivity, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Passive sampling methods have estimated Cfree using both kinetic and equilibrium operating modes and used various polymers as the sorbing phase, e.g., polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, and polyoxymethylene in various configurations, e.g., sheets, coated fibers, or vials containing thin films. These PSMs have been applied in laboratory exposures and field deployments covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A wide range of calibration conditions exist in the literature to estimate Cfree , but consensus values have not been established. The most critical criteria are the partition coefficient between water and the polymer phase and the equilibrium status of the sampler. In addition, the PSM must not appreciably deplete Cfree in the pore water. Some of the future challenges include establishing a standard approach for PSM measurements, correcting for non-equilibrium conditions, establishing guidance for selection and implementation of PSMs, and translating and applying data collected by PSMs. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2013 SETAC.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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    ABSTRACT: Recent literature has shown that bioavailability-based techniques, such as Tenax extraction, can estimate sediment exposure to benthos. In a previous study by the authors, Tenax extraction was used to create and validate a literature-based Tenax model to predict oligochaete bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediment; however, its ability to assess sediment remediation was unknown. The present study further tested the Tenax model by examining the impacts of remediation on surface sediment concentrations, Tenax extractable concentrations, and tissue concentrations of laboratory-exposed Lumbriculus variegatus. Tenax extractable concentration was an effective exposure metric to evaluate changes in Lumbriculus exposure preremediation and postremediation, with 75% of the postremediation data corresponding to the Tenax model. At nondredged sites, bioaccumulation was better predicted by the Tenax model, with 86% of the data falling within the 95% confidence intervals, than at dredged sites, for which only 64% of the data fit the Tenax model. In both pre- and postdredge conditions, when the model failed, it was conservative, predicting higher PCB concentrations than observed in the oligochaetes, particularly for the postdredge data. The present study advances understanding of the applicability of the Tenax model for use when examining systems that may have undergone significant disturbances. The Tenax model provides a unique tool for quickly quantifying potential exposure to benthic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:XX–XX. © 2013 SETAC
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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    David S. Page · Peter M. Chapman · Peter F. Landrum · Jerry Neff · Ralph Elston

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Human and Ecological Risk Assessment
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    Peter F Landrum · Michael J Lydy · Brian J Eadie

    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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    Peter F Landrum · Peter M Chapman · Jerry Neff · David S Page
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    ABSTRACT: This theoretical and case-study review of dynamic exposures of aquatic organisms to organic contaminants examines variables important for interpreting exposure and therefore toxicity. The timing and magnitude of the absorbed dose change when the dynamics of exposure change. Thus, the dose metric for interpreting toxic responses observed during such exposure conditions is generally limited to the specific experiment and cannot be extrapolated to either other experiments with different exposure dynamics or to field exposures where exposure dynamics usually are different. This is particularly true for mixture exposures, for which the concentration and composition and, therefore, the timing and magnitude of exposure to individual components of different potency and potentially different mechanisms of action can vary. Aquatic toxicology needs studies that develop temporal thresholds for absorbed toxicant doses to allow for better extrapolation between conditions of dynamic exposure. Improved experimental designs are required that include high-quality temporal measures of both the exposure and the absorbed dose to allow better interpretation of data. For the short term, initial water concentration can be considered a conservative measure of exposure, although the extent to which this is true cannot be estimated specifically unless the dynamics of exposure as well as the toxicokinetics of the chemicals in the exposure scenario for the organism of interest are known. A better, but still limited, metric for interpreting the exposure and, therefore, toxicity is the peak absorbed dose, although this neglects toxicodynamics, requires appropriate temporal measures of accumulated dose to determine the peak concentration, and requires temporal thresholds for critical body residue for each component of the mixture. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2012 SETAC.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the dietary uptake kinetics and sublethal toxicity of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in Antarctic krill. The uptake rate constant (characterised by the seawater volume stripped of contaminant sorbed to algae) of 200 ± 0.32 mL g(-1) wet weight h(-1), average absorption efficiency of 86 ± 13% and very low elimination rate constant of 5 × 10(-6) ± 0.0031 h(-1) demonstrate the importance of feeding for p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in Antarctic krill. Faecal egestion of unabsorbed p,p'-DDE of 8.1 ± 2.7% indicates that this pathway contributes considerably to p,p'-DDE sinking fluxes. A median internal effective concentration (IEC50) of 15 mmol/kg lipid weight for complete immobility indicates baseline toxicity and that Antarctic krill exhibit comparable toxicological sensitivity as temperate species under similar 10 d exposure conditions. These findings support the critical body residue approach and provide insight to the role of Antarctic krill in the biogeochemical cycling of p,p'-DDE in the Southern Ocean.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Environmental Pollution
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    Jerry M Neff · David S Page · Peter F Landrum · Peter M Chapman
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reanalyzes data from an earlier study that used effluents from oiled-gravel columns to assess the toxicity of aqueous fractions of weathered crude oil to Pacific herring embryos and larvae. This reanalysis has implications for future similar investigations, including the observance of two distinct dose-response curves for lethal and sublethal endpoints for different exposures in the same experiment, and the need to consider both potency and slope of dose-response curves for components of a toxicant mixture that shows potentially different toxicity mechanisms/causation. Contrary to conclusions of the original study, the aqueous concentration data cannot support the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the sole cause of toxicity and that oil toxicity increased with weathering. Confounding issues associated with the oiled gravel columns include changes in the concentration and composition of chemicals in exposure water, which interfere with the production of reliable and reproducible results relevant to the field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of pyrethroids in both urban and agricultural sediments at levels lethal to invertebrates has been well documented. However, variations in bioavailability among sediments make accurate predictions of toxicity based on whole sediment concentrations difficult. A proposed solution to this problem is the use of bioavailability-based estimates, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and Tenax beads. This study compared three methods to assess the bioavailability and ultimately toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides including field-deployed SPME fibers, laboratory-exposed SPME fibers, and a 24-h Tenax extraction. The objective of the current study was to compare the ability of these methods to quantify the bioavailable fraction of pyrethroids in contaminated field sediments that were toxic to benthic invertebrates. In general, Tenax proved a more sensitive method than SPME fibers and a correlation between Tenax extractable concentrations and mortality was observed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Environmental Pollution
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · Nov 2012
  • Yuping Ding · Peter F Landrum · Jing You · Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME) was evaluated as a surrogate for the absorbed dose in organisms to estimate bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in laboratory-spiked sediment. Sediments were incubated for 7, 28, and 90 days at room temperature to characterize the effect of aging on bioavailability and toxicity. Sediment toxicity was assessed using two freshwater invertebrates, the midge Chironomus dilutus and amphipod Hyalella azteca. Disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers were used to estimate the absorbed dose in organisms and to examine bioavailability and toxicity. The equilibrium fiber concentrations substantially decreased with an increase in sediment aging time, indicating a reduction in bioavailability. Based on median lethal fiber concentrations (fiber LC50), toxicity of permethrin was not significantly different among the different aging times. Due to the substantial degradation of DDT to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in sediment, sediment toxicity to C. dilutus increased, while it decreased for H. azteca with extended aging times. A toxic unit-based fiber LC50 value represented the DDT mixture (DDT and DDD) toxicity for both species. Significant linear relationships were found between organism body residues and the equilibrium fiber concentrations for each compound, across aging times. The study suggested that the matrix-SPME fibers mimicked bioaccumulation in the organisms, and enabled estimation of body residues, and could potentially be used in environmental risk assessment across matrices (e.g. sediment and water) to measure bioavailability and toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Ecotoxicology
  • Amanda D Harwood · Peter F Landrum · Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have determined that techniques, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and Tenax beads, can predict bioaccumulation and potentially could predict toxicity for several compounds and species. Toxicity of bifenthrin was determined using two standard sediment toxicity tests with the benthic species Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus in three reference sediments with different characteristics. The objectives of the current study were to establish bioavailability-based median lethal concentrations (LC50) and median effect concentrations (EC50) of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, compare their ability to assess toxicity to the use of whole sediment concentrations, as well as to make comparisons of the concentrations derived using each method in order to make assessments of accuracy and extrapolation potential. Four metrics were compared including SPME fiber concentration, pore water concentration derived using SPMEs, 6h Tenax extractable concentration, and 24h Tenax extractable concentration. The variation among the LC50s and EC50s in each sediment derived using bioavailability-based methods was comparable to variation among organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations, but improved over whole sediment concentrations. There was a significant linear relationship between SPME or Tenax and organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the SPME and Tenax concentrations across sediments. The significant linear relationship between SPME and Tenax concentrations further demonstrates that these bioavailability-based endpoints are interrelated. This study derived bioavailability-based benchmarks that may prove to be more accurate than sediment-based ones in predicting toxicity across sediment types.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: Bioavailability has been estimated in the past using equilibrium partitioning-based biota-sediment accumulation factors. These values are not always reliable using field-collected sediments, however, likely due to varying amounts of different organic carbons, particularly black carbon, in sediments. Therefore, improving approaches to better evaluate contaminant bioavailability in sediment are needed. In the present study, a literature-based model was constructed that relied on both laboratory-exposed and field-collected oligochaete bioaccumulation data. The model system used 24-h Tenax extraction data paired with bioaccumulation tests using oligochaetes to establish the ability and utility of the biomimetic extraction. The model was then tested to confirm its utility and reliability to estimate bioavailability of oligochaetes exposed to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments from the Ottawa River in Ohio, USA. The model correctly identified the bioaccumulation of PCBs for 94.9% of the data and 97% of the dioxin-like congeners. The mono- and di-substituted chlorinated biphenyls were the least well described, but the estimates were conservative, for example, the model overpredicted bioaccumulation. Thus, the Tenax model was robust and reliable across a wide range of sediment characteristics for estimating PCB bioaccumulation in oligochaetes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 2210-2216. © 2012 SETAC.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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    Keith A Maruya · Peter F Landrum · Robert M Burgess · James P Shine
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    ABSTRACT: The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the state of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence (LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemistry-based LOE likely does not provide an accurate depiction of organism exposure in all cases, nor is it particularly well suited for assessment of causality. In recent years, several methods for evaluating the bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants have emerged, which, if optimized and validated, could be applied to improve the applicability and broaden the scope of sediment quality assessment. Such methods include equilibrium-based biomimetic extractions using either passive sampling devices (PSDs) or measures of rapidly desorbing contaminant pools, which provide information compatible with existing mechanistic approaches. Currently, these methods show promise in relating bioaccessible chemicals to effects endpoints, including bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds and/or toxicity due to metals. Using these methods, a bioavailability LOE for organics is proposed based on PSD and equilibrium partitioning theory that can be employed as an independent LOE or in assessing causality in tiered toxicity identification evaluations. Current and future research should be aimed at comparing the performance of PSDs and their relationships with effects concentrations, field validation of the most promising methods, addressing contaminant mixtures, further developing the parameterization of the proposed bioavailability LOE, and providing a better understanding of the underlying diagenetic cycling of metal contaminants that lead to exposure, affect bioavailability, and drive adverse outcomes. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2012; 8: 659-673. © 2010 SETAC.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
  • Yuping Ding · Peter F Landrum · Jing You · Amanda D Harwood · Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: Use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers as a dose metric for toxicity testing was evaluated for hydrophobic pesticides to the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test compounds included p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), permethrin, bifenthrin, tefluthrin, and chlorpyrifos. Acute water toxicity tests were determined for 4- and 10-d exposures in both species. Median lethal and sublethal concentrations were expressed both on a water concentration (LC50 and EC50) and on an equilibrium SPME fiber concentration (LC50(fiber) and EC50(fiber)) basis. A significant log dose-response relationship was found between log fiber concentration and organism mortality. It has been shown in the literature that equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations reflect the bioavailable concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, so these fiber concentrations should be a useful metric for assessing toxic effects from the bioavailable contaminant providing a framework to expand the use of SPME fibers beyond estimation of bioaccumulation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
  • Yuping Ding · Peter F Landrum · Jing You · Amanda D Harwood · Michael J Lydy
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    ABSTRACT: In the companion paper, solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber concentrations were used as a dose metric to evaluate the toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides, and concentration-response relationships were found for the hydrophobic pesticides tested in the two test species. The present study extends the use of fiber concentrations to organism body residues to specifically address biotransformation and provide the link to toxic response. Test compounds included the organochlorines p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE); two pyrethroids, permethrin and bifenthrin; and an organophosphate, chlorpyrifos. Toxicity, body residues, and biotransformation of the target compounds were determined for the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Significant regression relationships were found without regard to chemical, extent of biotransformation, or whether the chemical reached steady state in the organisms. The equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations correlated with the parent compound concentration in the biota; however, the regressions were duration specific. Furthermore, the SPME fiber-based toxicity values yielded species-specific regressions with the parent compound-based toxicity values linking the use of SPME fiber as a dose metric with tissue residues to estimate toxic response.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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    Peter F Landrum · Peter M Chapman · Jerry Neff · David S Page
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental designs for evaluating complex mixture toxicity in aquatic environments can be highly variable and, if not appropriate, can produce and have produced data that are difficult or impossible to interpret accurately. We build on and synthesize recent critical reviews of mixture toxicity using lessons learned from 4 case studies, ranging from binary to more complex mixtures of primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons, to provide guidance for evaluating the aquatic toxicity of complex mixtures of organic chemicals. Two fundamental requirements include establishing a dose-response relationship and determining the causative agent (or agents) of any observed toxicity. Meeting these 2 requirements involves ensuring appropriate exposure conditions and measurement endpoints, considering modifying factors (e.g., test conditions, test organism life stages and feeding behavior, chemical transformations, mixture dilutions, sorbing phases), and correctly interpreting dose-response relationships. Specific recommendations are provided.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management

Publication Stats

6k Citations
495.51 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • Southern Illinois University Carbondale
      • Department of Zoology
      Illinois, United States
    • Stockholm University
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2012-2014
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Bowdoin College
      • Department of Chemistry
      Брауншвейг, Maine, United States
  • 1990-2011
    • NOAA Fisheries
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1985-2011
    • Great Lakes Laboratories
      Valparaiso, Indiana, United States
  • 1982-2011
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      • Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Michigan
      • Cooperative Institute For Limnology And Ecosystems Research (CILER)
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2002
    • Seoul National University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998
    • University of Joensuu
      • Department of Biology
      Yoensu, North Karelia, Finland
  • 1984
    • Keene State College
      EEN, New Hampshire, United States
  • 1983
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Forestry and Natural Resources
      ウェストラファイエット, Indiana, United States
  • 1981
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Environmental Toxicology
      Davis, California, United States