Christopher M Janelle

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States

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Publications (76)149.83 Total impact

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    Garrett F Beatty · Nicole M Cranley · Giselle Carnaby · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Emotions motivate individuals to attain appetitive goals and avoid aversive consequences. Empirical investigations have detailed how broad approach and avoidance orientations are reflected in fundamental movement attributes such as the speed, accuracy, and variability of motor actions. Several theoretical perspectives propose explanations for how emotional states influence the speed with which goal directed movements are initiated. These perspectives include biological predisposition, muscle activation, distance regulation, cognitive evaluation, and evaluative response coding accounts. A comprehensive review of literature and meta-analysis were undertaken to quantify empirical support for these theoretical perspectives. The systematic review yielded 34 studies that contained 53 independent experiments producing 128 effect sizes used to evaluate the predictions of existing theories. The central tenets of the biological predisposition (Hedges' g = -0.356), distance regulation (g = -0.293; g = 0.243), and cognitive evaluation (g = -0.249; g = -0.405; g = -0.174) accounts were supported. Partial support was also identified for the evaluative response coding (g = -0.255) framework. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that substantiate existing theoretical perspectives, and provide potential direction for conceptual integration of these independent perspectives. Recommendations for future empirical work in this area are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Emotion
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated brain activity in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated archery aiming task to determine whether neural correlates of performance differ by skill level. Success in shooting sports depends on complex mental routines just before the shot, when the brain prepares to execute the movement. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 40 elite, expert, or novice archers aimed at a simulated 70-meter-distant target and pushed a button when they mentally released the bowstring. At the moment of optimal aiming, the elite and expert archers relied primarily on a dorsal pathway, with greatest activity in the occipital lobe, temporoparietal lobe, and dorsolateral pre-motor cortex. The elites showed activity in the supplementary motor area, temporoparietal area, and cerebellar dentate, while the experts showed activity only in the superior frontal area. The novices showed concurrent activity in not only the dorsolateral pre-motor cortex but also the ventral pathways linked to the ventrolateral pre-motor cortex. The novices exhibited broad activity in the superior frontal area, inferior frontal area, ventral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, superior parietal lobule, and primary somatosensory cortex. The more localized neural activity of elite and expert archers than novices permits greater efficiency in the complex processes subserved by these regions. The elite group's high activity in the cerebellar dentate indicates that the cerebellum is involved in automating simultaneous movements by integrating the sensorimotor memory enabled by greater expertise in self-paced aiming tasks. A companion article comments on and generalizes our findings.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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    Bradley Fawver · Garrett F Beatty · Kelly M Naugle · Chris J Hass · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Emotional states influence whole-body movements during quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady state gait. A notable gap exists, however, in understanding how emotions affect postural changes during the period preceding the execution of planned whole-body movements. The impact of emotion induced postural reactions on forthcoming posturomotor movements remains unknown. We sought to determine the influence of emotional reactions on center of pressure (COP) displacement prior to the initiation of forward gait. Participants (N = 23, 14 females) stood on a force plate and initiated forward gait at the offset of an emotional image (representing five discrete categories; attack, sad faces, erotica, happy faces, and neutral objects). COP displacement in the anteroposterior direction was quantified for a 2s period during image presentation. Following picture onset, participants produced a posterior postural response to all image types. The greatest posterior displacement was occasioned in response to attack/threat stimuli compared to happy faces and erotica images. Results suggest the impact of emotional states on gait behavior begins during the motor planning period prior to the preparatory phase of gait initiation, and manifest in center of pressure displacement alterations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of applied biomechanics
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    Bradley Fawver · Chris J Hass · Kyoungshin D Park · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of self-generated affective states on self-initiated motor behavior remains unspecified. The purpose of the current study was to determine how self-generated emotional states impact forward gait initiation. Participants recalled past emotional experiences (anger, fear, happy, sad, and neutral), "relived" those emotional memories before gait initiation (GI), and then walked ∼4 m across the laboratory floor. Kinetic and kinematic data revealed GI characteristics consistent with a motivational direction hypothesis. Specifically, participants produced greater posterior-lateral displacement and velocity of their center of pressure (COP) during the initial phase of GI after self-generation of happy and anger emotional states relative to sad ones. During the second phase of GI, greater medial displacement of COP was found during the happy condition compared with sad, greater velocity was occasioned during happy and angry trials compared with sad, and greater velocity was exhibited after happy compared with fear memories. Finally, greater anterior velocity was produced by participants during the final phase of GI for happy and angry memories compared with sad ones. Steady state kinetic and kinematic data when recalling happy and angry memories (longer, faster, and more forceful stepping behavior) followed the anticipatory postural adjustments noted during GI. Together the results from GI and steady state gait provide robust evidence that self-generated emotional states impact forward gait behavior based on motivational direction. Endogenous manipulations of emotional states hold promise for clinical and performance interventions aimed at improving self-initiated movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Emotion
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    Garrett F. Beatty · Bradley Fawver · Gabriella M. Hancock · Christopher M. Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated how emotion regulation (ER) strategies influence the execution of a memory guided, ballistic pinch grip. Participants (N = 33) employed ER strategies (expressive suppression, emotional expression, and attentional deployment) while viewing emotional stimuli (IAPS images). Upon stimulus offset, participants produced a targeted pinch force aimed at 10% of their maximum voluntary contraction. Performance measures included reaction time (RT), rate of force production, and performance accuracy. As hypothesized, attentional deployment resulted in the slowest RT, largest rate of force production, and poorest performance accuracy. In contrast, expressive suppression reduced the rate of force production and increased performance accuracy relative to emotional expression and attentional deployment. Findings provide evidence that emotion regulation strategies uniquely influence human movement. Future work should further delineate the interacting role that emotion regulation strategies have in modulating both affective experience and motor performance.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Human movement science
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    Torrance J Higgins · Christopher M Janelle · Todd M Manini
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives.To provide a comprehensive review regarding the role of activity and participation compensations within the disablement process, identify directions for future research, and discuss the implications of compensation pertaining to public health initiatives aimed at preventing and reversing disability.Method.This article evaluated how using compensatory strategies to cope with functional deficits reveals important transitions within the disablement process and signifies a unique opportunity to identify early declines in function. Previous research suggests that (a) adopting compensatory strategies to maintain activity/participation is strongly associated with functional decline and disease severity and significantly predicts the onset of limitations/restrictions; (b) compensation can be reliably quantified; and (c) contextual knowledge about how individuals adapt to functional decline can be used to describe transitions in the disablement process.Discussion.Characterizing subtle adaptations prior to the onset of activity limitations and participation restrictions will not only aid in understanding the complex disablement process but also help inform social services and future prevention strategies. Overall, this article integrates the concept of compensation into the current model of disability and proposes a framework for identifying and interpreting compensatory behavior.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
  • Torrance J Higgins · Kathryn R Middleton · Larry Winner · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods: A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results: Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion: Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Health Psychology
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    ABSTRACT: Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Body image
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    Christopher Mesagno · Jack T Harvey · Christopher M Janelle

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2012
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    Asif Ali · Bradley Fawver · Jingu Kim · Jeffrey Fairbrother · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21 mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24 h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17 mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    Bradley Fawver · Shinichi Amano · Chris J Hass · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Emotions adaptively prepare the body to interact with the environment through execution of motor actions, but the extent to which emotional states modulate force control during directionally targeted movement tasks remains unknown. We sought to determine how emotions influence active control of approach-oriented posture. Participants (N = 43; 25 females) stood on a force plate and displaced their center of pressure (COP) anteriorly to a target at 50% of their maximum voluntary lean. After 7 s of real-time COP feedback, a picture representing 6 discrete categories (attack, mutilation, contamination, erotic couples, happy faces, and neutral objects) replaced the target and remained on the screen. Participants were instructed to maintain the target COP position throughout the trial. Deviation of the COP position relative to the target (root-mean-square error; RMSE) and error direction (constant error; CE) were evaluated during the feedback and picture portions of the trial. RMSE increased for all affective conditions following feedback occlusion. Following picture onset, lean error exhibited when viewing attack pictures was more anterior (i.e., greater CE) compared with the mutilation, contamination, and erotica conditions. Additionally, participants leaned more anteriorly (i.e., greater CE) during the happy faces condition compared with the mutilation and erotica conditions. Collectively, results indicate that the maintenance of an anterior COP position in the anterior direction is primarily modulated by the motivational direction of emotional stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Emotion
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    ABSTRACT: Classic developmental theory suggests that aging is associated with using compensatory strategies to prolong independence. While compensatory strategies are typically considered positive adaptations, they also signify an early phase in the disablement process - commonly known as pre-clinical disability. To build a better understanding of psychological constructs related to these early signs of disability, we examined the contribution of SE and state anxiety on using compensatory strategies among pre-clinically disabled older adults. Compensatory strategies were observed during performance of daily activities in 257 pre-clinically disabled older adults (67.6±7.04), and SE and state anxiety were evaluated prior to performing each task. In univariate models, lower SE and higher anxiety were associated with more compensation (Spearman correlations: 0.15-0.48, p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that low SE [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.40-2.08) and high anxiety (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.10-1.63) were positively associated with using ≥6 compensatory strategies - a level signifying substantial compensation. When considered jointly with SE, the association with anxiety was reversed - higher anxiety demonstrated a lower likelihood of using compensation (OR: 0.70-0.73; 95% CI: 0.50-0.99). The addition of SE might remove the self-defeating cognitions characterizing anxiety allowing the remaining arousal component to appear beneficial. In conclusion, lower SE and higher anxiety are associated with using compensation to complete daily tasks among pre-clinically disabled older adults. Such psychological constructs may contribute to the use of compensatory strategies and represent future intervention targets to help reduce early signs of disability.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
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    Kelly M Naugle · Stephen A Coombes · James H Cauraugh · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: The accuracy and variability of a sustained low-level force contraction (2% of maximum voluntary contraction) was measured while participants viewed unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral images during a feedback occluded force control task. Exposure to pleasant and unpleasant images led to a relative increase in force production but did not alter the variability of force production compared to conditions in which participants viewed neutral images. Findings are discussed with respect to prior work, emphasizing arousal specific changes that emerge at low target force levels.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Research quarterly for exercise and sport
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    G. M. Hancock · P. A. Hancock · C. M. Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Emotion-provoking stimuli abound on modern roadways. Driving measures, of both longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle, have been shown to vary based on affective influences. Research, however, has yet to address how drivers' individual techniques to mitigate emotional reactions influence driving performance. To address this issue, the present study featured a dual-task protocol involving simulated driving together with processing of emotionally-valenced images with a focus on different Predominant Emotion Regulation Techniques (PERT): one adaptive strategy (task-focused coping) and one maladaptive style (emotion-focused coping). Dependent measures included mean driving speed and number of lane excursions. Results indicated that pleasant images degraded longitudinal control to the greatest extent, while unpleasant images produced the greatest detriment in lateral control. Additionally, individuals' PERT played a major interactive role in drivers' longitudinal control leading task-focused females and emotion-focused males to adhere more closely to the speed limit; yet, it did not affect their lateral control. Results hold important potential implications for the amount or variety of training necessary for driver licensure to promote and sustain safe vehicle control.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Work
  • G. M. Hancock · P. A. Hancock · C. M. Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Emotion-provoking stimuli abound on modern roadways. Driving measures, of both longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle, have been shown to vary based on affective influences. Research, however, has yet to address how drivers' individual techniques to mitigate emotional reactions influence driving performance. To address this issue, the present study featured a dual-task protocol involving simulated driving together with processing of emotionally-valenced images with a focus on different Predominant Emotion Regulation Techniques (PERT): one adaptive strategy (task-focused coping) and one maladaptive style (emotion-focused coping). Dependent measures included mean driving speed and number of lane excursions. Results indicated that pleasant images degraded longitudinal control to the greatest extent, while unpleasant images produced the greatest detriment in lateral control. Additionally, individuals' PERT played a major interactive role in drivers' longitudinal control leading task-focused females and emotion-focused males to adhere more closely to the speed limit; yet, it did not affect their lateral control. Results hold important potential implications for the amount or variety of training necessary for driver licensure to promote and sustain safe vehicle control.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Work
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    Kelly M Naugle · Chris J Hass · Dawn Bowers · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of manipulating emotional state on gait initiation in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy older adults. Following the presentation of pictures that are known to elicit specific emotional responses, participants initiated gait and continued to walk for several steps at their normal pace. Reaction time, the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory during the preparatory postural adjustments, and length and velocity of the first two steps were measured. Analysis of the gait initiation measures revealed that exposure to (1) threatening pictures, relative to all other pictures, speeded the initiation of gait for PD patients and healthy older adults; (2) approach-oriented emotional pictures (erotic and happy people), relative to withdrawal-oriented pictures, facilitated the anticipatory postural adjustments of gait initiation for PD patients and healthy older adults, as evidenced by greater displacement and velocity of the COP movement; and (3) emotional pictures modulated gait initiation parameters in PD patients to the same degree as in healthy older adults. Collectively, these findings hold significant implications for understanding the circuitry underlying the manner by which emotions modulate movement and for the development of emotion-based interventions designed to maximize improvements in gait initiation for individuals with PD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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    Christopher Mesagno · Jack T Harvey · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Conceptual models and predictors of choking under pressure (i.e., choking) have been proposed, but the role of fear of negative evaluation remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the degree to which fear of negative evaluation (FNE) may predispose athletes to choking. Design and method: 138 Experienced basketball players participated in a pre-selection stage, which involved completing a set of questionnaires that included the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation-II (BFNE-II) questionnaire. Based on the scores from the BFNE-II, 34 athletes, categorized as either low- or high-FNE, were selected to perform basketball shots from five different areas of the court under low- and high-pressure phases. Shooting performance was evaluated based on the total number of successful shots out of 50 attempts. Results: Results indicated that the high-FNE athletes displayed a significant increase in anxiety and a significant decrease in performance from low- to high-pressure phases. The low-FNE group exhibited only minimal changes in anxiety throughout the study and was able to maintain performance under pressure. Further mediation analysis investigating significant difference in performance between FNE groups within the high-pressure phase indicated that that cognitive anxiety was a partial mediator between FNE group and performance, but somatic anxiety was not. Conclusions: Findings extend the existing choking literature by providing empirical support for the role of FNE in the context of the self-presentation model of choking.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Psychology of Sport and Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Individual difference measures have been shown to alter emotional arousal and emotional arousal alters force production during force control tasks. In the current study we examined whether individual differences in behavioral inhibition influence force control during emotional image viewing. Subjects who scored high and low in behavioral inhibition (BIS) produced force with visual feedback for 5 s. Feedback was then removed and replaced by a mutilation, attack, erotica, or neutral image for 6 s. The magnitude and direction of error in force production during image presentation was compared between groups and across image type. The high BIS group displayed a relative increase in force production during exposure to attack and mutilation images compared to the low BIS group. Bias scores (i.e., comparison of unpleasant image to neutral or pleasant image) further confirmed these findings by demonstrating a relative increase in force for the high BIS group during attack and mutilation images as compared to erotica images, whereas the low BIS group displayed the reverse effect. Together these findings extend the premise of action readiness to demonstrate that dispositional differences in behavioral inhibition interact with emotional state to alter force production.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Human movement science
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    Christopher Mesagno · Jack T Harvey · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: Whether self-presentation is involved in the choking process remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of self-presentation concerns on the frequency of choking within the context of a recently proposed self-presentation model. Experienced field hockey players (N = 45) were randomly assigned to one of five groups (i.e., performance-contingent monetary incentive, video camera placebo, video camera self-presentation, audience, or combined pressure), before taking penalty strokes in low- and high-pressure phases. Results indicated that groups exposed to self-presentation manipulations experienced choking, whereas those receiving motivational pressure treatments decreased anxiety and increased performance under pressure. Furthermore, cognitive state anxiety mediated the relationship between the self-presentation group and performance. These findings provide quantitative support for the proposed self-presentation model of choking, while also holding implications for anxiety manipulations in future sport psychology research.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
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    Kelly M Naugle · Chris J Hass · Jessica Joyner · Stephen A Coombes · Christopher M Janelle
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which pleasant and unpleasant emotional states impact the initiation of forward gait. Participants initiated gait and walked for several steps following the presentation of low arousing pleasant, high arousing pleasant, low arousing unpleasant, high arousing unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Reaction time, displacement, and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory, and length and velocity of the first and second steps were calculated. Exposure to the highly arousing unpleasant pictures reduced reaction times compared to all other affective conditions. Compared to the low arousing unpleasant pictures, exposure to the high and low arousing pleasant pictures increased the displacement of the COP movement during the anticipatory postural adjustment phase of gait initiation. Additionally, exposure to the low arousing pleasant pictures increased the velocity of the COP movement during the anticipatory postural adjustment phase, compared to the high and low arousing unpleasant pictures. Exposure to the high and low arousing pleasant pictures increased the velocity of the first step relative to the low arousing unpleasant pictures. These findings demonstrate that highly arousing unpleasant emotional states accelerate the initial motor response, but pleasant emotional states generally facilitate the initiation of forward gait due to the approach-oriented directional salience of the movement. These findings extend the scope of the motivational direction hypothesis by demonstrating the effects of emotional reactivity on the initiation of gait.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Emotion

Publication Stats

2k Citations
149.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2014
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1999-2007
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES)
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States