Christopher M Janelle

Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States

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Publications (119)240.5 Total impact

  • Source
    Garrett F Beatty · Nicole M Cranley · Giselle Carnaby · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotions motivate individuals to attain appetitive goals and avoid aversive consequences. Empirical investigations have detailed how broad approach and avoidance orientations are reflected in fundamental movement attributes such as the speed, accuracy, and variability of motor actions. Several theoretical perspectives propose explanations for how emotional states influence the speed with which goal directed movements are initiated. These perspectives include biological predisposition, muscle activation, distance regulation, cognitive evaluation, and evaluative response coding accounts. A comprehensive review of literature and meta-analysis were undertaken to quantify empirical support for these theoretical perspectives. The systematic review yielded 34 studies that contained 53 independent experiments producing 128 effect sizes used to evaluate the predictions of existing theories. The central tenets of the biological predisposition (Hedges' g = -0.356), distance regulation (g = -0.293; g = 0.243), and cognitive evaluation (g = -0.249; g = -0.405; g = -0.174) accounts were supported. Partial support was also identified for the evaluative response coding (g = -0.255) framework. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that substantiate existing theoretical perspectives, and provide potential direction for conceptual integration of these independent perspectives. Recommendations for future empirical work in this area are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Emotion
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of emotion on motor behavior can be modulated by implicit cues such as the distance between an individual and affective environmental content. Explicit cognitive processes elicited when evaluating affective meaning can also impact the degree to which emotions impact motor actions. How implicit and explicit factors interact to influence emotional reactions and ensuing whole body movements remains unspecified. We sought to determine the impact of explicit positive (e.g., Toward) and negative (e.g., Away) instructional codes on implicit approach (e.g., forward gait) and avoidance (e.g., backward gait) behaviors made under different emotional conditions. Participants completed 28 forward and 28 backward gait initiation trials following exposure to emotional images. In two separate trial blocks, the direction of gait was instructed using Toward or Away response codes to targets located in the anterior and posterior directions. Pleasant emotional stimuli facilitated initial step velocity for gait in the forward (p = .042) and backward directions (p = .025). Additionally, compatibility between instruction cue and the direction walked in the first trial block (e.g., Toward, Forward-Backward) facilitated forward (both ps < .05) and backward (both ps < .05) step force following exposure to pleasant stimuli. Finally, participants rated all images as more arousing (all ps < .05) and less pleasant (all ps < .05) when there was incompatibility between instructional cue and direction of gait initiation in the last block of trials (e.g., Away, Backward-Forward). Results suggest that explicit instructional codes impact implicit approach-avoidance behavior based on compatibility with movement direction and congruence with emotional content. Furthermore, these findings provide support for embodiment perspectives, which emphasize the influence of movement on emotional processing. Theoretical and functional implications are discussed.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated brain activity in elite, expert, and novice archers during a simulated archery aiming task to determine whether neural correlates of performance differ by skill level. Success in shooting sports depends on complex mental routines just before the shot, when the brain prepares to execute the movement. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 40 elite, expert, or novice archers aimed at a simulated 70-meter-distant target and pushed a button when they mentally released the bowstring. At the moment of optimal aiming, the elite and expert archers relied primarily on a dorsal pathway, with greatest activity in the occipital lobe, temporoparietal lobe, and dorsolateral pre-motor cortex. The elites showed activity in the supplementary motor area, temporoparietal area, and cerebellar dentate, while the experts showed activity only in the superior frontal area. The novices showed concurrent activity in not only the dorsolateral pre-motor cortex but also the ventral pathways linked to the ventrolateral pre-motor cortex. The novices exhibited broad activity in the superior frontal area, inferior frontal area, ventral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, superior parietal lobule, and primary somatosensory cortex. The more localized neural activity of elite and expert archers than novices permits greater efficiency in the complex processes subserved by these regions. The elite group's high activity in the cerebellar dentate indicates that the cerebellum is involved in automating simultaneous movements by integrating the sensorimotor memory enabled by greater expertise in self-paced aiming tasks. A companion article comments on and generalizes our findings.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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    Bradley Fawver · Garrett F Beatty · Kelly M Naugle · Chris J Hass · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotional states influence whole-body movements during quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady state gait. A notable gap exists, however, in understanding how emotions affect postural changes during the period preceding the execution of planned whole-body movements. The impact of emotion induced postural reactions on forthcoming posturomotor movements remains unknown. We sought to determine the influence of emotional reactions on center of pressure (COP) displacement prior to the initiation of forward gait. Participants (N = 23, 14 females) stood on a force plate and initiated forward gait at the offset of an emotional image (representing five discrete categories; attack, sad faces, erotica, happy faces, and neutral objects). COP displacement in the anteroposterior direction was quantified for a 2s period during image presentation. Following picture onset, participants produced a posterior postural response to all image types. The greatest posterior displacement was occasioned in response to attack/threat stimuli compared to happy faces and erotica images. Results suggest the impact of emotional states on gait behavior begins during the motor planning period prior to the preparatory phase of gait initiation, and manifest in center of pressure displacement alterations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of applied biomechanics
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    Bradley Fawver · Chris J Hass · Kyoungshin D Park · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of self-generated affective states on self-initiated motor behavior remains unspecified. The purpose of the current study was to determine how self-generated emotional states impact forward gait initiation. Participants recalled past emotional experiences (anger, fear, happy, sad, and neutral), "relived" those emotional memories before gait initiation (GI), and then walked ∼4 m across the laboratory floor. Kinetic and kinematic data revealed GI characteristics consistent with a motivational direction hypothesis. Specifically, participants produced greater posterior-lateral displacement and velocity of their center of pressure (COP) during the initial phase of GI after self-generation of happy and anger emotional states relative to sad ones. During the second phase of GI, greater medial displacement of COP was found during the happy condition compared with sad, greater velocity was occasioned during happy and angry trials compared with sad, and greater velocity was exhibited after happy compared with fear memories. Finally, greater anterior velocity was produced by participants during the final phase of GI for happy and angry memories compared with sad ones. Steady state kinetic and kinematic data when recalling happy and angry memories (longer, faster, and more forceful stepping behavior) followed the anticipatory postural adjustments noted during GI. Together the results from GI and steady state gait provide robust evidence that self-generated emotional states impact forward gait behavior based on motivational direction. Endogenous manipulations of emotional states hold promise for clinical and performance interventions aimed at improving self-initiated movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Emotion
  • Garrett F. Beatty · Bradley Fawver · Christopher M. Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotion regulation (ER) strategies influence motor execution following brief (5–8 s) exposures to emotional stimuli. The neural regions associated with emotional processing, ER, and motor output collectively indicate varied temporal activation patterns that potentially affect motor execution. A more complete understanding of how ER strategies affect motor actions within emotionally rich and temporally constrained environments is essential to developing empirically informed recommendations for improving motor performance. We investigated the impact of deliberate ER on the performance of a ballistic motor action (contracting the index finger and thumb on a force transducer) to a specific target force level (10% of the participants’ maximum voluntary contraction) under short duration exposure (2–3 s) to visual emotional stimuli. Participants (N = 44) were trained to produce a 10% target force consistently at the offset of visual stimuli. They then completed the same task during a baseline condition, followed by three randomized and counterbalanced ER conditions (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and emotional expression). As hypothesized, the ER strategies uniquely influenced motor action. Across conditions, main effects for reaction time (RT: p < 0.001) and peak rate of force production (PRF: p < 0.05) were observed. Follow up pairwise comparisons indicated significantly slower RTs in the cognitive reappraisal and emotional expression conditions compared to the baseline condition. Increased rates of force production were identified for the emotional expression condition compared to the baseline and expressive suppression conditions. Our findings indicate that while several ER strategies influence motor function, the impact of employing specific strategies in time constrained and emotional performance environments varies. Accordingly, temporal constraints of performance settings should be considered when developing ER interventions.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Garrett F. Beatty · Nicole M. Cranley · Giselle Carnaby · Christopher M. Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotional reactions predictably modulate the force, variability, and speed of executing voluntary motor actions. Motor response time (RT) is commonly used to index effects of organismic, task, and environmental factors on temporal requirements for planning and executing motor actions. Despite robust RT findings, contrasting theoretical explanations account for these results. Theoretical debate centers on mechanisms driving observed phenomena. Theories predict quicker RTs driven by biological predispositions (BP) expressing heightened reactivity to threatening stimuli; muscle activation (MA) producing contraction and extension movements in response to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli respectively; distance regulation (DR) that respectively reduces or increases individuals’ distance to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli; overt cognitive evaluations (CE) of emotional content within stimuli; and evaluative response coding (ERC) of instructions imposing valence codes to movements. We sought to quantify summary effect sizes from studies (N = 35) representing each theoretical perspective by conducting meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses identified significant summary effects for the BP (p < 0.001, g = –0.314), DR (p < 0.001, g = –0.429; p < 0.05, g = 0.369), and CE (p < 0.001, g = –0.339) frameworks. Funnel plots, Duval and Tweedie’s trim and fill test, and fail-safe N calculations revealed little chance of unpublished studies influencing the significant summary effects. Collectively, our analyses indicate that (1) individuals are biologically predisposed to respond more quickly to unpleasant stimuli; (2) explicit cognitive evaluations of stimuli speed responses initiating congruent and incongruent motor actions following exposure to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, respectively; and (3) explicit cognitive evaluations speed the initiation of movements, resulting in decreased distance from pleasant stimuli and increased distance from unpleasant stimuli. Results indicate the need for revisions to the MA and ERC theoretical perspectives.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
  • Source
    Garrett F. Beatty · Bradley Fawver · Gabriella M. Hancock · Christopher M. Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated how emotion regulation (ER) strategies influence the execution of a memory guided, ballistic pinch grip. Participants (N = 33) employed ER strategies (expressive suppression, emotional expression, and attentional deployment) while viewing emotional stimuli (IAPS images). Upon stimulus offset, participants produced a targeted pinch force aimed at 10% of their maximum voluntary contraction. Performance measures included reaction time (RT), rate of force production, and performance accuracy. As hypothesized, attentional deployment resulted in the slowest RT, largest rate of force production, and poorest performance accuracy. In contrast, expressive suppression reduced the rate of force production and increased performance accuracy relative to emotional expression and attentional deployment. Findings provide evidence that emotion regulation strategies uniquely influence human movement. Future work should further delineate the interacting role that emotion regulation strategies have in modulating both affective experience and motor performance.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Human movement science
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    Torrance J Higgins · Christopher M Janelle · Todd M Manini
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives.To provide a comprehensive review regarding the role of activity and participation compensations within the disablement process, identify directions for future research, and discuss the implications of compensation pertaining to public health initiatives aimed at preventing and reversing disability.Method.This article evaluated how using compensatory strategies to cope with functional deficits reveals important transitions within the disablement process and signifies a unique opportunity to identify early declines in function. Previous research suggests that (a) adopting compensatory strategies to maintain activity/participation is strongly associated with functional decline and disease severity and significantly predicts the onset of limitations/restrictions; (b) compensation can be reliably quantified; and (c) contextual knowledge about how individuals adapt to functional decline can be used to describe transitions in the disablement process.Discussion.Characterizing subtle adaptations prior to the onset of activity limitations and participation restrictions will not only aid in understanding the complex disablement process but also help inform social services and future prevention strategies. Overall, this article integrates the concept of compensation into the current model of disability and proposes a framework for identifying and interpreting compensatory behavior.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
  • Torrance J Higgins · Kathryn R Middleton · Larry Winner · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods: A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results: Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion: Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Health Psychology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Body image
  • Garrett F. Beatty · Bradley Fawver · Christopher M. Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding how emotion regulation (ER) strategies influence motor execution is essential to developing empirically informed interventions aimed to improve motor performance within emotionally charged environments. Investigations of the efficacy of ER strategies, and parallel work exploring the mechanisms by which emotions influence human movement have expanded dramatically in recent decades. Yet, how ER strategies influence the planning and execution of motor actions remains unspecified. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of deliberate ER on the performance of a ballistic movement (contracting the index finger and thumb on a force transducer) to a specific target force level (10% of the participant’s maximum voluntary contraction). Participants were trained to produce the target force consistently at the offset of visual stimuli. After training, participants progressed through a baseline condition followed by three randomized and counterbalanced ER conditions (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and attentional deployment). In each condition, participants executed the motor task following offset of affective stimuli. In ER conditions, participants were instructed to perform the respective ER strategy while concurrently attending to the stimuli. As hypothesized, ER strategies mitigated the affective modulation of motor production. Reaction time (RT) significantly differed between valence categories during the baseline condition (p < 0.01) but not the ER conditions (all ps > 0.05); suggesting that participants successfully regulated emotional reactions during ER conditions. Across conditions, a main effect of RT (p < 0.001), peak rate of force production (PRF) (p < 0.001), and root mean squared error (RMSE) (p < 0.001) was observed, with follow up analyses revealing that attentional deployment displayed the slowest RT, highest PRF, and largest RMSE. Thus, while several ER strategies temper the influence of emotional experiences on motor function, strategies present unique costs to motor planning efficiency and the efficacy of downstream motor execution.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2013
  • Bradley J. Fawver · Kyoungshin D. Park · Chris J. Hass · Christopher M. Janelle
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
  • Source
    Christopher Mesagno · Jack T Harvey · Christopher M Janelle
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2012
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    Asif Ali · Bradley Fawver · Jingu Kim · Jeffrey Fairbrother · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21 mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24 h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17 mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    Bradley Fawver · Shinichi Amano · Chris J Hass · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotions adaptively prepare the body to interact with the environment through execution of motor actions, but the extent to which emotional states modulate force control during directionally targeted movement tasks remains unknown. We sought to determine how emotions influence active control of approach-oriented posture. Participants (N = 43; 25 females) stood on a force plate and displaced their center of pressure (COP) anteriorly to a target at 50% of their maximum voluntary lean. After 7 s of real-time COP feedback, a picture representing 6 discrete categories (attack, mutilation, contamination, erotic couples, happy faces, and neutral objects) replaced the target and remained on the screen. Participants were instructed to maintain the target COP position throughout the trial. Deviation of the COP position relative to the target (root-mean-square error; RMSE) and error direction (constant error; CE) were evaluated during the feedback and picture portions of the trial. RMSE increased for all affective conditions following feedback occlusion. Following picture onset, lean error exhibited when viewing attack pictures was more anterior (i.e., greater CE) compared with the mutilation, contamination, and erotica conditions. Additionally, participants leaned more anteriorly (i.e., greater CE) during the happy faces condition compared with the mutilation and erotica conditions. Collectively, results indicate that the maintenance of an anterior COP position in the anterior direction is primarily modulated by the motivational direction of emotional stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Emotion
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classic developmental theory suggests that aging is associated with using compensatory strategies to prolong independence. While compensatory strategies are typically considered positive adaptations, they also signify an early phase in the disablement process - commonly known as pre-clinical disability. To build a better understanding of psychological constructs related to these early signs of disability, we examined the contribution of SE and state anxiety on using compensatory strategies among pre-clinically disabled older adults. Compensatory strategies were observed during performance of daily activities in 257 pre-clinically disabled older adults (67.6±7.04), and SE and state anxiety were evaluated prior to performing each task. In univariate models, lower SE and higher anxiety were associated with more compensation (Spearman correlations: 0.15-0.48, p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that low SE [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.40-2.08) and high anxiety (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.10-1.63) were positively associated with using ≥6 compensatory strategies - a level signifying substantial compensation. When considered jointly with SE, the association with anxiety was reversed - higher anxiety demonstrated a lower likelihood of using compensation (OR: 0.70-0.73; 95% CI: 0.50-0.99). The addition of SE might remove the self-defeating cognitions characterizing anxiety allowing the remaining arousal component to appear beneficial. In conclusion, lower SE and higher anxiety are associated with using compensation to complete daily tasks among pre-clinically disabled older adults. Such psychological constructs may contribute to the use of compensatory strategies and represent future intervention targets to help reduce early signs of disability.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
  • Source
    Kelly M Naugle · Stephen A Coombes · James H Cauraugh · Christopher M Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accuracy and variability of a sustained low-level force contraction (2% of maximum voluntary contraction) was measured while participants viewed unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral images during a feedback occluded force control task. Exposure to pleasant and unpleasant images led to a relative increase in force production but did not alter the variability of force production compared to conditions in which participants viewed neutral images. Findings are discussed with respect to prior work, emphasizing arousal specific changes that emerge at low target force levels.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Research quarterly for exercise and sport
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    G. M. Hancock · P. A. Hancock · C. M. Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotion-provoking stimuli abound on modern roadways. Driving measures, of both longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle, have been shown to vary based on affective influences. Research, however, has yet to address how drivers' individual techniques to mitigate emotional reactions influence driving performance. To address this issue, the present study featured a dual-task protocol involving simulated driving together with processing of emotionally-valenced images with a focus on different Predominant Emotion Regulation Techniques (PERT): one adaptive strategy (task-focused coping) and one maladaptive style (emotion-focused coping). Dependent measures included mean driving speed and number of lane excursions. Results indicated that pleasant images degraded longitudinal control to the greatest extent, while unpleasant images produced the greatest detriment in lateral control. Additionally, individuals' PERT played a major interactive role in drivers' longitudinal control leading task-focused females and emotion-focused males to adhere more closely to the speed limit; yet, it did not affect their lateral control. Results hold important potential implications for the amount or variety of training necessary for driver licensure to promote and sustain safe vehicle control.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Work
  • G. M. Hancock · P. A. Hancock · C. M. Janelle
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotion-provoking stimuli abound on modern roadways. Driving measures, of both longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle, have been shown to vary based on affective influences. Research, however, has yet to address how drivers' individual techniques to mitigate emotional reactions influence driving performance. To address this issue, the present study featured a dual-task protocol involving simulated driving together with processing of emotionally-valenced images with a focus on different Predominant Emotion Regulation Techniques (PERT): one adaptive strategy (task-focused coping) and one maladaptive style (emotion-focused coping). Dependent measures included mean driving speed and number of lane excursions. Results indicated that pleasant images degraded longitudinal control to the greatest extent, while unpleasant images produced the greatest detriment in lateral control. Additionally, individuals' PERT played a major interactive role in drivers' longitudinal control leading task-focused females and emotion-focused males to adhere more closely to the speed limit; yet, it did not affect their lateral control. Results hold important potential implications for the amount or variety of training necessary for driver licensure to promote and sustain safe vehicle control.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Work

Publication Stats

2k Citations
240.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2011
    • Florida State University
      • Learning Systems Institute (LSI)
      Tallahassee, FL, United States
  • 1998-2011
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1998-2007
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES)
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States