Fabiano Borges Figueiredo

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Publications (71)82.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Parasitological methods are the most specific procedures used for the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection, but their limited sensitivity poses a disadvantage and prompts the need for alternatives. The choice of site for sample collection influences diagnostic sensitivity. The combination of an accurate diagnostic method and a technique that allows large-scale field studies is highly desirable to enhance the investigation of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs, especially in endemic regions. The bone marrow is a good target for the detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs. In this context, bone marrow aspiration is rapid and less invasive compared with biopsy procedures, and also enables cell block processing, paraffin wax embedding and the sectioning of samples for further histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time parasitological methods (immunohistochemistry [IHC] and histopathology) using the cell block technique with bone marrow aspirates for the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in 45 dogs from an area endemic for visceral leishmaniosis for parasitological culture and the cell block technique (histopathology and IHC). Fourteen (31.1%) dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. by IHC, six (13.3%) by parasitological culture and four (8.9%) by histopathology. Cell block IHC was a useful tool for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis. Further studies should be conducted to validate this method for routine epidemiological screening.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of comparative pathology
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment of an accurate diagnostic protocol for canine visceral leishmaniosis (CanL) is a significant laboratory challenge and the lack of a reliable reference standard is one of the major problems. The aim of this study was to compare in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and parasitological culture (PC) for detection of L. infantum in skin, spleen, lymph node and bone marrow of clinically healthy and sick seropositive dogs. The study included 65 dogs positive with both DPP® and ELISA for anti-Leishmania antibodies. In situ hybridization of spleen or lymph node had the highest positivity rates of L. infantum detection. The total positivity rates for IHC, ISH and PC were 70 %, 68.1 % and 65.8 %, respectively. When combining techniques, the positivity rates were 81.5 % in the spleen, 79.0 % in lymph nodes, 59.0 % in bone marrow and 52.3 % in the skin. The highest percentage of infected dogs (87.7 %) was detected by using lymph node samples. When examining only skin, positivity was significantly higher in sick dogs than in the clinically healthy dogs. Infection with L. infantum was confirmed in 95.8 % of sick dogs and in 82.4 % of healthy dogs. Considering the advantages of accurately diagnosing different Leishmania species and of being more sensitive than PC, ISH should be considered as reference standard test for the diagnosis of CanL. Spleen and lymph node are the most suitable tissues to confirm infection with L. infantum in seropositive dogs. The testing of only skin from clinically healthy dogs may result in a high percentage of false negative results.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Parasites & Vectors
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sporotrichosis is an endemic zoonosis in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro caused by fungi included in the Sporothrix complex, in which cats are the main source of infection for humans and animals. Coinfections in cats with sporotrichosis from this region, their risk factors and how they affect the treatment outcome in these animals are little known. The objectives of this study were to determine the coinfections of Sporothrix spp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) and to correlate these infections with risk factors and the outcome of sporotrichosis treatment in cats from an endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Materials, Methods & Results: It was conducted a cohort study involving 213 cats with definitive diagnosis of sporotricho-sis from the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro and assisted in the Laboratory of Clinical Research on Dermatozoonosis in Domestic Animals (LAPCLIN-DERMZOO)/Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI)/Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from November 2007 until February 2011. These animals were monthly evaluated due to sporotrichosis treatment until their sporotrichosis treatment outcomes. In every clinical evaluation , 5 mL of blood were collected in order to obtain the serum, which was stored at-20ºC. Information from the animal's medical records have also been collected, such as sex, eating habits, living with other cats, access to the streets, castration, age and the outcome of sporotrichosis treatment. Serological follow-up of anti-T. gondii antibodies were performed through indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in all clinical evaluations. The FIV and FeLV antibody detection were made through a rapid immunoassay using the cats'serum samples from the first clinical evaluation. Fisher's exact test was applied to verify associations between T. gondii, FIV and FeLV coinfections, the outcome of sporotrichosis treatment and risk factors. To compare IHA and IFAT, the values of total, positive and negative concordances were evaluated. A P-value < 0.05 indicated significant associations in the statistical tests. Of the 213 cats, fourteen (6.6%) showed antibodies anti-T. gondii, twelve (5.6%) anti-FIV and thirty-five (16.4%) anti-FeLV. There was a concordance of 100% between IFAT and IHA for the serological diagnosis of T. gondii infection. No statistical difference was observed between the presence of anti-T gondii antibodies with the FIV and FeLV infections and with the outcome of sporotrichosis treatment (P > 0.05). Furthermore there was no significant statistical difference between the presence of anti-T gondii antibodies and the variables sex, eating habits, living with other cats, free access to the street, castration and age (P > 0.05). The follow-up of anti-T.gondii antibodies showed that in two cats there was a fourfold rise in the titers between two consecutive follow-ups and in one there was seroconversion, which were indicative of acute infection. Discussion: The occurrence of coinfections of sporotrichosis with T. gondii, FIV and FeLV was low in cats from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where sporotrichosis is endemic. This was the first study that determine and follow-up the frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in a group of cats diagnosed with sporotrichosis. The fact that cats were domiciled with adequate feeding and management, the low frequency of T. gondii and the rare cases indicative of acute infection in the study population indicate that these animals are not highly exposed to infection by this protozoan.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Acta Scientiae Veterinari
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    Denise Amaro da SILVA · Maria de Fátima MADEIRA · Fabiano Borges FIGUEIREDO
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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    ABSTRACT: American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Trypanosoma caninum is a protozoan species recently described in dogs, whose occurrence has been reported in areas of overlap with visceral leishmaniasis. Methods: Trypanosoma sp. were isolated from nine dogs and characterized by molecular methods. Results: PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of T. caninum in all dogs, revealing two new areas of transmission: Barra Mansa and São João do Piauí. Conclusions: The nine new cases described, when added to those already published, account for 62 cases of natural infection by T. caninum and show the geographical spread of this species to new areas, where other trypanosomatids circulate.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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    ABSTRACT: Canine visceral leishmaniasisis an important zoonosis caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi), whose clinical manifestationsare dependent on theimmune responseexpressed by the infected animal and the virulence of the parasite. Atypical clinical forms of canine visceral leishmaniasis have been reported.The purpose of this paper was to describe a tumor-like lesion form of canine visceral leishmaniasis and to alert clinical and pathologists veterinarians to the importance of its diagnosis. Amastigote forms were observed by cytopathological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis from the tumour-like lesion and Leishmania infantum was isolated by culture from spleen, liver, lymph nodes and bone marrow samples. Clinical and pathologist veterinarians should include the canine visceral leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of tumors and chronic affections of oral mucosa, mainly in endemic regions of the disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to various regions. This study reports canine cases of VL in Barra Mansa, where human VL cases were recently reported. Methods: Using the human index case, a canine survey was performed by dual-path platform immunochromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seropositive animals were euthanized. Cultures were collected to detect Leishmania parasites. Results: Serological tests detected 141 canine VL cases, and Leishmania chagasi were isolated from 82.2% animals. Conclusions: Leishmania chagasi is in circulation in Barra Mansa. This study broadens information on the parasite's distribution in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • A.G.S. Pinto · H. K. Toma · F. B. Figueiredo · M. F. Madeira
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    ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma caninum is a new species that has been recently identified in Brazil and infects domestic dogs. To date, no accurate diagnostic assays for this parasite have been established; thus, our aim was to evaluate more than one type of PCR for the diagnosis and molecular screening of T. caninum in 229 dogs living in Rio de Janeiro state. The tests were based on the amplification and sequencing of the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene using healthy skin fragments. Additionally, PCR amplification of the kDNA minicircles region specific to the Leishmania genus was performed. The PCR results were compared with those of culture-based analysis performed with the same specimen. Using cultures, T. caninum and Leishmania chagasi were isolated from 11 and 12 dogs, respectively, whereas the 18S rDNA PCR assay detected parasitic infection in 35 dogs. Among these, 25 dogs showed an amplification pattern similar to T. caninum and 10 showed a pattern similar to L. chagasi; these results were confirmed by sequencing analysis. The kDNA PCR analysis showed that 14 dogs were positive for Leishmania infection. Of these, 2 dogs showed negative culture results and 12 were positive for L. chagasi, including 4 with negative 18S rDNA PCR results. Thus far, culture-based testing has been the only tool used successfully for T. caninum diagnosis. Our results demonstrate that 18S rDNA PCR-based test should be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly for distinguishing between T. caninum and L. chagasi infections in areas where these 2 parasites co-exist.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
  • Edvar Y P Schubach · Fabiano B Figueiredo · Gustavo A S Romero
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health concern in Brazil and the domestic dog is the main source of infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of a rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on a dual-path platform for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sampling consisted of 428 domestic dogs selected from two neighborhoods in the municipality of Fortaleza, Ceara state, Brazil. The reference standard was composed of three parasitological tests and was applied samples from 333 dogs. The rapid test was used to analyse whole blood and serum samples. Results: Accuracy of the rapid test in whole blood samples through visual reading (n=305), serum samples through electronic reading (n=333) and serum samples through visual reading (n=333), yielded sensitivities of 87.5% (21/24; 95% CI: 66.5 to 96.7), 88% (22/25; 95% CI: 67.5 to 96.8) and 88% (22/25; 95% CI: 67.5 to 96.8), and specificities of 73.3% (206/281; 95% CI: 67.7 to 78.4), 68.2% (210/308; 95% CI: 62.2 to 74.3) and 69.2% (213/308; 95% CI: 63.7 to 74.3), respectively. Agreement between the visual and electronic readings in 428 serum samples were classified as almost perfect (Kappa Index=0.88; 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.93). The positive predictive value of the test using whole blood samples was 21.9% for the 7.9% prevalence detected by the reference standard in the study sample. A sensitivity analysis of the positive predictive value revealed that it remained below 50% in scenarios with a prevalence of up to 20%. Conclusions: The similarity of the accuracy values of the rapid test using whole blood or serum samples, together with its reliable performance in sera through visual and electronic reading, suggests that it may contribute as a screening test for routine use under field-conditions. However, future studies need to improve the accuracy of the test so that it can be successfully implemented in public health programs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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    T L Souza · F B Figueiredo · A.B. Almeida · C V Benigno · C S Pontes · M B Souza
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    ABSTRACT: Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Acta tropica

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology: Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria
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    ABSTRACT: American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The accurate diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential for visceral leishmaniasis control. To this end, DNA detection on different biological samples has been employed. In this study, we report the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on samples such as buffy coat, bone marrow, intact skin and cutaneous ulcers fragments, and lymph node aspirate collected from 430 dogs to determine the suitable biological sample for use in CanL diagnosis. The PCR results were correlated with clinical status and other tests previously performed. Leishmania chagasi DNA was detected in 14.6% (n = 63) of the dogs investigated, regardless of the sample analyzed. Our results showed that symptomatic cases were easily diagnosed when compared to asymptomatic animals; however, the PCR proved to be very useful for Leishmania DNA detection, mainly in lymph node aspirate (41; 9.6%), irrespective of the clinical status of the dog. The finding that the lymph node aspirate produced high positivity rates and the fact that this specimen was obtained by noninvasive methods highlight its use in epidemiological survey by PCR for CanL diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
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    ABSTRACT: Studies report the occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in northern states of Brazil. In the present investigation, we describe the isolation of L. (L.) hertigi from a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, center-west region of Brazil. During a study on canine visceral leishmaniasis conducted in the city of Brasília, Federal District, a porcupine was found dead on a public road. The animal was identified and fragments of intact skin and spleen were collected for isolation of parasite in the culture. This report of the occurrence of L. hertigi in another part of Brazil may help establish the distribution of this parasite in the country. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of L. hertigi in the pathology and pathogenesis of leishmaniasis and its survival in mammals and possible vectors.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology: Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria
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    ABSTRACT: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired disorder characterized by the activation of intravascular coagulation and excessive fibrin formation. It always occurs in association with other clinical conditions, including parasitic diseases. DIC has been described as a unusual complication in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. DIC was found in a seven-year-old male mongrel dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Haemostasis parameters demonstrated changes in primary and secondary haemostasis and fibrinolysis. DIC is a unusual condition described in canine visceral leishmaniasis and it seems to be associated with several immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in the disease.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Veterinary Research
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2013

Publication Stats

619 Citations
82.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003-2015
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2004-2014
    • Instituto Evandro Chagas
      • Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em DST/Aids
      Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2012
    • Michigan State University
      • Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health (DCPAH)
      Ист-Лансинг, Michigan, United States
  • 2007
    • Universidade Federal Fluminense
      • Departamento de Patologia (MPT)
      Vila Real da Praia Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil