[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free iron leads to the formation of pro-oxidant reactive oxygen species (ROS). Humic acids (HAs) enhance permeability of cellular wall and act as a chelator through electron transferring. This study was designed to test chelator effect of HA on iron as well as its anti-oxidant effect against the iron-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. The rats used were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8/group): group I (the control group); group II (the HA group), humic acid (562 mg/kg) was given over 10 days by oral gavage; group III (the iron group), iron III hydroxide polymaltose (250 mg/kg) was given over 10 days by intraperitoneal route; and group IV (the HA plus iron group), received the iron (similar to group II) plus humic acid (similar to those in groups II and III) group. Blood and two tissue samples both from liver and heart were obtained for biochemical and histopathological evaluations. Iron deposition, the iron-induced hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity were demonstrated by histopathological and biochemical manner. However, no significant differences were observed in the serum biochemical values and the histopathological results among the iron and the HA plus iron groups in the liver tissue but not in the heart tissue. The protective effects of humic acid against iron-induced cardiotoxicity were shown but not against hepatotoxicity in our study.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Biological trace element research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) and increased mucosal permeability are suggested to increase bacterial translocation (BT) in liver injury. Rifaximin (RIF) is a minimally absorbed oral antimicrobial agent that restores gut microflora imbalance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of RIF on BT frequency in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. Group 1 was the control. In group 2 (TAA), rats received TAA daily for 3 days. In group 3 (TAA + RIF), RIF was commenced on the same day as the first dose of TAA. In group 4 (RIF), rats received only RIF. Ileal aspirate Escherichia coli counts were significantly lower in the TAA + RIF group than in TAA group. There was no difference in BT frequency between the TAA and TAA + RIF groups. Our results suggest that factors such as intestinal barrier dysfunction and impaired host immune shield, apart from IBO, play an important role in BT in this model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibodies have been shown to reduce liver damage in different models. We investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α antibody) on liver damage in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Group 1 (n = 8) was the control group. In group 2 (n = 8), the TAA group, the rats received 300 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) TAA daily for 2 days. In group 3 (n = 8), the TAA + Infliximab (INF) group, infliximab (5 mg/kg ip daily) was administered 48 hours before the first dose of TAA daily for 2 days and was maintained for 4 consecutive days. In group 4 (n = 8), the INF group, the rats received only ip infliximab (5 mg/kg) daily. Livers were excised for histopathological and biochemical tests (thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]). Serum ammonia, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), TNF-α, liver TBARS and MPO levels, and liver necrosis and inflammation scores in the TAA group were significantly higher than in the control and INF groups (all p < 0.01). All parameters except AST were not significantly different between TAA and TAA + INF. In conclusion, our results suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in TAA-induced hepatotoxicity, and infliximab does not improve oxidative liver damage.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Human & Experimental Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal expression of claudin-4 and beta-catenin play a role in carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine claudin-4 and beta-catenin expression in normal and precancerous gastric mucosa.
Endoscopic biopsy specimens [normal gastric mucosa (n = 22), intestinal metaplasia (n = 24), dysplasia (n = 18), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated chronic gastritis (n = 32) and remnant gastric mucosa (n = 18)] obtained from different 114 patients were examined by immunohistochemistry.
Claudin-4 expression was present in 94.4% of dysplasia, 87.5% of intestinal metaplasia, 62.5% H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, and 88.9% remnant gastric mucosa but only 18.2% of normal gastric mucosa biopsies. Decreased expression of beta-catenin was present in 27.8% of dysplasia, 8.3% of intestinal metaplasia, 15.6% of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, and 22.2% of remnant gastric mucosa biopsies, but was not present in normal gastric mucosa. When compared with normal gastric mucosa, there was a significant difference in claudin-4 expression in all groups (P < 0.05), but a significant difference was detected in dysplasia and remnant gastric mucosa for beta-catenin (P < 0.05).
Our results suggest that claudin-4 expression is upregulated in premalignant gastric alterations.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary complications, mainly hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), are frequently observed in liver cirrhosis. In this study, the aim was to investigate the frequency of hypoxemia and impairment of pulmonary function tests (PFT) in patients with liver cirrhosis and to examine the relationships of these impairments with liver failure. A total of 39 patients with cirrhosis, 24 males and 15 females, were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 47.5 +/- 17.2 years. Arterial blood gases, PFT, and carbon monoxide diffusion tests (DLCO) were performed in all patients. Out of 39 cirrhotic patients, 21 (53.8%) had ascites, whereas 18 (46.2%) did not. Seven patients were in the Child-Pugh A group, 21 in the Child-Pugh B group, and 11 patients were in the Child-Pugh C group. Hypoxia was found in 33.3% of the patients. Although the PaO2 and SaO2 values of patients with ascites were lower compared to those without ascites (P < 0.05), no statistically significant difference was determined in the comparison of hypoxia between the groups (P > 0.05). Among the PFT parameters, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% values were found to be lower in patients with ascites than those without (P < 0.05). No differences were established between these two groups of patients in terms of DLCO (P > 0.05). While no differences were found in comparison of the DLCO values in between the groups (P > 0.05), there was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of DLCO to the alveolar ventilation (DLCO/VA) in between the groups (P < 0.05). On the other hand, a negative correlation was found between the DLCO/VA and Child points when the relationship between the Child-Pugh score and PFT parameters were investigated (r = -0.371, P < 0.05). Consequently, a relationship was established between the severity of liver failure and diffusion tests showing pulmonary complications invasively. We believe diffusions tests should be performed in addition to the PFT in order to determine pulmonary involvements particularly in patients who are candidates for liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric mucosal lesions are very common in portal hypertension and cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess for oxidative gastric tissue damage in cirrhosis and evaluate relations with portal hypertension and cirrhosis parameters. The study included 30 patients with cirrhosis and 30 controls. Each patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory findings were recorded, and multiple biopsies of the gastric antrum were obtained at endoscopy. A set of antral biopsies was also collected from each control subject. Each tissue specimen was analyzed for levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Patients' gastric GPX, SOD, and CAT levels were significantly lower, and MDA levels were higher, than in the control group. The GPX activity level in the specimens was moderately negatively correlated with portal vein diameter (P<0.05, r=-0.45) and spleen length (P<0.05, r=-0.45). In this study gastric tissue oxidative markers showed that antral oxidative factors worsen in cirrhosis. Oxidative stress may not be a clinical condition but it obviously shows gastric tissue damage and may explain many patients' gastric lesions and hemorrhage.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most reliable, frequently used imaging techniques in cholestasis is ultrasonography (US) for the diagnosis of common bile duct (CBD) stones.
In this study, changes in diameters of CBD were determined ultrasonographically before and after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in 46 patients with stone-induced dilated CBD.
There was a significant decrease in CBD diameter measured 1 week after ES and extraction of stone (p < 0.001). In 87% of cases, the difference was more significantly pronounced during the first 24 h of ES. The mean CBD diameters on US were 13.70 +/- 3.00 mm (10-21 mm) before and 9.13 +/- 2.90 mm (4.2-18 mm) 24 h after endoscopic treatment (p < 0.001). After ES, six patients (13%) with inadequate decreases in CBD diameters were found to have residual stones.
US can show residual stones in the CBD with the same efficacy as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Abdominal Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the splenoportal hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis and the stage of the disease.
Patients with cirrhosis were grouped according to modified Child-Pugh scoring into stages A, B, and C of cirrhosis. A control group of healthy volunteers was included. After gastroenterologic clinical and laboratory examinations, all participants underwent a splenoportal Doppler sonographic evaluation in which the vessels' diameter, area, and blood flow velocity were measured and blood flow rate and the congestion index in the splenoportal venous system were calculated.
Seventy-five patients with cirrhosis (25 women and 50 men) were enrolled; the control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers (15 women and 15 men) with no liver disease. The mean age (+/- standard deviation) of the patients was 54.4 +/- 14.8 years (range, 13-80 years) and of the control subjects was 47.3 +/- 14.5 years (range, 18-72 years). No significant differences in vessel diameter, blood flow velocity, and blood flow rate were found in the main and left portal veins between the study group and the control group. In the right portal vein, we found decreases in the vessel diameter, blood flow velocity, and blood flow rate, and in the splenic vein, we found increases in vessel diameter and blood flow rate. The congestion index was increased in the main portal and splenic veins but was unchanged in the left portal vein.
Although our data indicate that there is no difference in Doppler sonographic parameters of the main portal vein according to Child-Pugh scores, the hemodynamic differences between the left and right branches of the portal vein may be clinically useful in patients with cirrhosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Clinical Ultrasound