[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but the difference of GI symptom severity between 2 groups remains unknown. Candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis, 2 major types of esophagitis, are seen in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but differences in GI symptoms that are predictive of esophagitis between 2 groups remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether GI symptoms differ between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, and identify specific symptoms of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis between 2 groups.We prospectively enrolled 6011 patients (HIV, 430; non-HIV, 5581) who underwent endoscopy and completed questionnaires. Nine upper GI symptoms (epigastric pain, heartburn, acid regurgitation, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia) were evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. Associations between esophagitis and symptoms were analyzed by the multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and proton pump inhibitors.Endoscopy revealed GI-organic diseases in 33.4% (2010/6.011) of patients. The prevalence of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis was 11.2% and 12.1% in HIV-infected patients, respectively, whereas it was 2.9% and 10.7 % in non-HIV-infected patients, respectively. After excluding GI-organic diseases, HIV-infected patients had significantly (P < 0.05) higher symptom scores for heartburn, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia than non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected patients, any symptom was not significantly associated with CD4 cell count. In multivariate analysis, none of the 9 GI symptoms were associated with candida esophagitis in HIV-infected patients, whereas dysphagia and odynophagia were independently (P < 0.05) associated with candida esophagitis in non-HIV-infected patients. However, heartburn and acid regurgitation were independently (P < 0.05) associated with erosive esophagitis in both patient groups. The internal consistency test using Cronbach's α revealed that the 9 symptom scores were reliable in both HIV (α, 0.86) and non-HIV-infected patients (α, 0.85).This large-scale endoscopy-based study showed that HIV-infected patients have greater GI symptom scores compared with non-HIV-infected patients even after excluding GI-organic diseases. None of the upper GI symptoms predict candida esophagitis in HIV-infected patients, but dysphagia and odynophagia predict candida esophagitis in non-HIV-infected patients. Heartburn and acid regurgitation predict erosive esophagitis in both patient groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orbital inflammation has been rarely associated with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). We herein describe two AOSD patients who developed lacrimal gland enlargement with inflammation spreading to the contiguous tissues in the orbit. Case 1 was a 26-year-old woman who developed bilateral eyelid swelling while taking prednisolone (22.5 mg/day) for AOSD. The swelling of the eyelid worsened after other symptoms emerged, such as a fever, a rash, and arthritis. The laboratory findings, including leukocytosis, liver dysfunction, and ferritin elevation, also suggested an AOSD flare-up. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman who presented with left eyelid swelling. She was diagnosed with AOSD at 45 years of age but sustained remission. During admission, she subsequently developed a fever, a rash, arthritis, lymphadenopathy, and ocular hyperemia. AOSD was suspected from the clinical course. We speculate that dacryoadenitis and orbital inflammation are manifestations of AOSD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The prevalence of candida esophagitis (CE) might be changing in an era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected patients or today's rapidly aging society among non-HIV-infected patients. However, few studies have investigated long-term CE trends, and CE risk factors have not been studied in a large sample, case-control study. This study aimed to determine long-term trends in CE prevalence and associated risk factors for patients with or without HIV infection.
Trends in CE prevalence were explored in a cohort of 80,219 patients who underwent endoscopy between 2002 and 2014. Risks for CE were examined among a subcohort of 6,011 patients. In risk analysis, we assessed lifestyles, infections, co-morbidities, immunosuppressants, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). All patients were tested for HIV, hepatitis B or C virus, and syphilis infection. For HIV-infected patients, sexual behavior, CD4 cell count, history of HAART were also assessed.
CE prevalence was 1.7% (1,375/80,219) in all patients, 9.8% (156/1,595) in HIV-infected patients, and 1.6% (1,219/78,624) in non-HIV-infected patients. CE prevalence from 2002-2003 to 2012-2014 tended to increase in non-HIV-infected patients (0.6% to 2.5%; P<0.01) and decrease in HIV-infected patients (13.6% to 9.0%; P=0.097). Multivariate analysis revealed increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; p=0.007), HIV infection (OR, 4.92; p<0.001), and corticosteroid use (OR, 5.90; p<0.001) were significantly associated with CE, and smoking (OR, 1.32; p=0.085) and acetaminophen use (OR, 1.70; p=0.097) were marginally associated. No significant association was found with alcohol consumption, hepatitis B or C virus, syphilis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, anticancer, or PPIs use. In HIV-infected patients, CD4 cell count <100/μL (OR, 4.83; p<0.001) and prior HAART (OR, 0.35; p=0.006) were independently associated with CE, but sexual behavior was not. Among corticosteroid users, CE was significantly associated with higher prednisone-equivalent dose (p=0.043 for trend test).
This large, endoscopy-based study demonstrated that CE prevalence increased in non-HIV-infected patients but decreased in HIV-infected patients over 13 years. Risk analysis revealed that increasing age, HIV infection, and corticosteroids use, particularly at higher doses, were independently associated with CE, but alcohol, other infections, diabetes, anticancer drugs, and PPIs use were not.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background We previously reported on treatment of refractory Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) with tocilizumab (TCZ) and how it enables rapid reduction of steroid dose.
Objectives The present study focuses on a new aspect, namely, how TCZ inhibits recurrence and enables discontinuation of steroids in AOSD.
Methods In 15 subjects, including 7 who received TCZ combination therapy, treatment outcomes of steroid monotherapy and therapy with TCZ were compared. Rates of recurrence were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results The mean age of onset was 46.7±23.4 years and the mean disease duration was 10.0±6.5 years. Mean CRP at onset and ferritin levels were higher when patients were receiving TCZ (CRP: 20.79±8.10 mg/dl, ferritin: 17872.2±12158.9 ng/ml) relative to when patients were not receiving TCZ (CRP: 10.79±8.48 mg/dl, ferritin: 7352.3±6837.5 ng/ml). In all patients, with the exception of one patient receiving infliximab, TCZ was administered after their condition was calmed down using a high dose of steroid (60-120 mg prednisolone [PSL]). After TCZ was started, CRP decreased from 0.88±1.14 mg/dl to 0.02±0.02 mg/dl and ferritin decreased from 3153.0±6865.0 ng/dl to 21.16±25.4 ng/dl (P=0.02). The steroid dose was rapidly reduced after TCZ was started, and reduction to a 20 mg dose of PSL was achieved an average of 65.8±26.9 (range: 31-109) days after the start of the maximum dose. The average final steroid (PSL) dose during remission maintenance after initiation of TCZ was 1.2±1.6 mg/day, and 4 patients were able to discontinue steroid use. In addition, it was possible to extend the interval of TCZ administration to an average of 6.1±2.1 weeks. Recurrence was not noted in 6 patients, and there was a total of 17 recurrent episodes. The rate of non-recurrence was significantly higher after initiation of TCZ (n=7) than during the overall period including the time before initiation (n=17) (100% vs 49.9%)(P=0.04).
Conclusions TCZ is useful in treatment to induce and maintain remission in patients who have AOSD with strong disease activity. TCZ enables discontinuation of steroid use and extension of the interval of TCZ administration during remission maintenance and also inhibits recurrence.
Disclosure of Interest None declared
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and pleuritis presented with dyspnea. On admission, she was afebrile and had an oxygen saturation of 97% on ambient air. Chest radiography and CT revealed only subtle ground-glass opacities. However, FDG PET revealed pathological uptake in both lungs. A diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia was made based on a positive β-D-glucan assay and polymerase chain reaction amplification of Pneumocystis jirovecii from the sputum. Posttreatment FDG PET revealed resolution of the previously noted uptake. This case illustrates that FDG PET can be used to diagnose Pneumocystis pneumonia when the CT findings are equivocal.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Clinical nuclear medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein report a rare case of microscopic polyangiitis with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and a literature review of six previously reported cases of PBC complicated by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Due to the scarcity of similar reports, it was not possible to establish a true overlap syndrome or casual association. When the biliary enzyme levels are elevated in patients with vasculitis, physicians should thus be mindful of the possible coexistence of these diseases.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To compare the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) findings in patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) with those in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), two conditions with similar clinical presentations. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the FDG-PET/CT findings in 10 patients with EORA and 27 patients with PMR admitted to our department between 2006 and 2012. Results: No significant difference was observed in the median patient ages at the time of FDG-PET/CT scans in the EORA and PMR groups (73.5 vs. 78.0 years, respectively). Significant differences in both FDG uptake scores and standardized uptake values were observed between the two groups in the ischial tuberosities, spinous processes, and wrists. No significant differences were detected in the shoulders and hips. However, specific uptake patterns were observed in each group: circular and linear uptake patterns were observed around the humeral head in the EORA group, whereas focal and non-linear uptake patterns were observed in the PMR group. Moreover, focal uptake in front of the hip joint, indicating iliopectineal bursitis, tended to be limited to the PMR group. High sensitivity (92.6%) and specificity (90%) were observed for PMR diagnoses when at least three of the following five items were satisfied: characteristic findings of shoulder and iliopectineal bursitis, FDG uptake in ischial tuberosities and spinal spinous processes, and lack of FDG uptake in the wrists. Conclusion. The differences in the degree of uptake at each lesion and in uptake patterns at the shoulders and hips are potentially useful for obtaining a definitive diagnosis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased pressure in the pulmonary artery and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which converts angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang-(1-7), was shown to inhibit experimental PH. Here we identified a novel ACE2 activator and investigated how the compound reduced monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH.
To induce PH, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with MCT, followed by the continuous administration of NCP-2454, an ACE2 activator, using osmotic pumps. Pulmonary arterial compliance was monitored every week until 4 weeks post-injection (wpi). RVH and lung remodeling was evaluated using lung tissue at 4 wpi.
NCP-2454 upregulated the production of Ang-(1-7) when incubated with ACE2 and Ang II. Notably, a continuous infusion of NCP-2454 significantly improved pulmonary arterial compliance, right ventricular systolic pressure, and RVH in MCT-treated rats. Interestingly, NCP-2454 increased the relative expression of ACE2 and MAS mRNA in lung tissue, especially in MCT-treated rats. In addition, the compound inhibited the MCT-induced overexpression of transforming growth factor β, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and interleukin-6 production. The compound also restored the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), which negatively regulates the Janus kinase-STAT signaling cascade.
NCP-2454 prevented MCT-induced PH by suppressing intracellular inflammatory cascades, an upstream molecular change of which is the disruption of Cav-1 expression.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Experimental Lung Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the synovial joints. Rheumatoid vasculitis (RV) is an extra-articular manifestation of RA, and its association with aortitis is rare and not widely recognised. Here, we report the case of a 69-year-old woman with RA-associated aortitis and review the literature on rheumatoid aortitis. The mean oral steroid dose administered to RA-associated aortitis patients was 46.3 mg/day prednisolone (PSL). In our patient, the aortitis was also thought to be due to RV because she had findings of RV, such as cutaneous ulceration and a high rheumatoid factor titre, and because a moderate PSL dose dramatically improved the clinical findings. RA-associated aortitis, if left untreated, can be fatal; therefore, early detection and treatment initiation is very important.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced imaging techniques may enable early diagnosis and monitoring of therapy in various rheumatic diseases. To prevent irreversible tissue damage, inflammatory rheumatic disease must be diagnosed and treated in pre-clinical stages, requiring highly sensitive detection techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides highly sensitive, quantitative imaging at a molecular level, revealing the important pathophysiological processes underlying inflammation. This review provides an overview of the current utility of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with active rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, adult-onset Still's disease, relapsing polychondritis, immunoglobulin G4-related disease, large-vessel vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis. We also discuss the role of FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis and monitoring of these diseases.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Arthritis Research & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old female with a past history of systemic lupus erythematosus had developed autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) at the age of 45 years, and administration of PSL 30 mg/day was initiated. However, AIH exacerbation was suspected based on elevation of hepatic and biliary tract enzymes such as ALP (1207U/L) with a fever of 38 degrees C after tapering off the steroids to PSL 7.5 mg daily, and she was thus hospitalized. A liver biopsy was recommended, but she refused. Thus, we suspected concomitant AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC). Although high-dose steroid treatment including steroid pulse therapy was administered, there was no improvement. We performed a liver biopsy on the 66th hospital day, after obtaining the patient's consent. Epithelioid granuloma was detected in the liver leaflet as the background of the AIH and AIC findings. In addition, acid fast bacteria were detected with auramine and Ziehl-Neelsen staining, raising the possibility of tuberculosis. Additionally, granuloma was also seen in her bone marrow, and miliary tuberculosis was suspected. Anti-tuberculous therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide was initially administered, but the regimen was changed to levofloxacin, ethambutol, and streptomycin due to the side effects of the earlier medications. Liver functions improved and the inflammatory reaction became negative. The patient was discharged on the 138th hospital day. Ultimately, no acid fast bacteria were detected with culture, PCR of her bone marrow, or liver biopsy. However, miliary tuberculosis was definitively diagnosed from the pathological findings and her clinical course. AIH was an underlying disease, and the discrimination from AIH exacerbation was difficult. Consequently, the diagnosis was miliary tuberculosis without the lung involvement and the main lesion was in the liver. It is important to take account of miliary tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of fevers of unknown origin with elevation of hepatic and biliary tract enzymes, and to make a definitive diagnosis with a liver biopsy.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the utility of imaging techniques, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), in immunoglobulin (IgG)4-related disease (IgG4-RD).
We reviewed eight IgG4-RD patients who were referred to our hospital between August 2006 and April 2012. All cases underwent FDG-PET/CT and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) were also performed in five cases and one case, respectively.
Although nearly all patients with IgG4-RD in this study were negative for CRP (mean 0.22 mg/dL), various organ involvement sites were detected by FDG-PET/CT. In the active phase in two autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) cases, FDG-PET/CT showed longitudinal and heterogeneous FDG accumulation in the pancreas with FDG uptake in the hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Follow-up FDG-PET/CT after therapy in one case revealed that the abnormal FDG uptake in all affected lesions had completely disappeared. In two cases, brain MRI revealed asymptomatic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. In one case, EBUS imaging of mediastinal lymph node swelling was consistent with tortuous vessels with high Doppler signals and hyperechoic strands between lymph nodes.
When FDG-PET/CT shows FDG accumulation, characteristic of IgG4-RD in organs, without evidence of an associated inflammatory reaction, a diagnosis of IgG4-RD can be made. Treatment effects can be assessed by the disappearance of FDG uptake. A routine brain MRI is useful for detecting asymptomatic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. EBUS may also be useful for differentiating among the etiologies of lymphadenopathy with characteristic sonographic imaging findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is relatively rare, and early diagnosis is difficult.
Objectives We investigated the utility of FDG-PET/CT for the diagnoses of RPC and evaluation of disease activity.
Methods Five RPC patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT hospitalized in our hospital between 2006 and 2013 were studied. Eight RPC cases examined by PET reported in the literature were also assessed. Data from 13 patients total were analyzed.
Results Typical FDG accumulation was noted in tracheobronchial trees of 9 patients, costal cartilage of 5, joints of 5, larynx of 4, nasal cavity/paranasal sinuses of 3, auricles of 3, lymph nodes of 3, and the aorta of 1. One patient showed nasal chondritis on PET scan despite absence of nasal changes on physical examination. Of 5 patients with costochondritis, 4 remained asymptomatic. Of 9 patients with airway FDG accumulation, 8 developed respiratory symptoms and all had CT abnormalities. In the other patient, airway FDG accumulation was evident despite the absence of airway symptoms and a lack of abnormalities in the respiratory function test and CT. PET also revealed bronchial chondritis in asymptomatic patients.In 5 patients with PET post-treatment, FDG accumulation had diminished with symptomatic and inflammatory improvement.
Conclusions FDG-PET/CT is a potentially powerful tool for the early diagnosis of RPC, especially in patients without easily biopsied organ involvement. This modality also facilitates the evaluation of extent of disease and disease activity during treatment.
Disclosure of Interest None declared
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein report on a 69-year-old male who developed lung nocardiosis and brain abscessation. In April 2011, he was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by peripheral neuropathy. Immunosuppressive therapy with high-dose prednisolone was begun. In November 2011, he developed cryptococcal pneumonia and meningitis, which was treated with liposomal amphotericin and flucytosine for 4 weeks and was maintained with fluconazole. In April 2012, consolidation and peripheral atelectasis in the right middle lobe appeared. Bronchoscopy revealed edematous mucosa in the right middle bronchus and occlusive change of the right B4 and B5, but biopsy and culture results provided no etiological information. In late June, he developed an intermittent fever, and obstructive pneumonia of the right middle lobe was suspected. Nocardia species were detected from the sputum culture and were thought to be the causative pathogen. Brain CT and MRI revealed a contrast-enhanced lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The patient was diagnosed as having lung nocardiosis and brain abscessation. Considering that the nocardiosis had developed under prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia using one tablet per day of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination, meropenem and amikacin were administered in addition to the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination for 6 and 4 weeks, respectively. After N. elegans had been identified from the sputum, antibiotics were switched to a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination and clarithromycin based on the susceptibility results. The patient's clinical and radiological findings were improved and have been well sustained.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of interstitial cystitis (IC) associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) successfully controlled with combination therapy of tacrolimus and a corticosteroid. In 2011, a 69-year-old female, who had been diagnosed with primary SS 23 years ago, developed IC and was successfully treated with tacrolimus and prednisolone combination therapy. The mechanism of IC, including the involved autoimmunity, has not been elucidated. Clinical observation studies suggest a potential association between SS and IC. However, IC is currently thought to be underdiagnosed in patients with SS as well as in the general population. Based on our case and others reported previously, IC associated with SS responds well to immunosuppressive therapy. In particular, a combination of a calcineurin inhibitor (tacrolimus or cyclosporine) with a corticosteroid seems to be highly effective. The possibility of IC in patients with SS complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms without features of infection or other identifiable causes should be given attention.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ) on adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), we reviewed medical records of seven patients with refractory AOSD treated with TCZ at our institution. TCZ therapy might allow rapid corticosteroid tapering and help maintain remission status, that is, resolution of clinical symptoms and normalization of biomarkers such as CRP and ferritin. Patients, however, should be monitored for the development of macrophage activation syndrome when TCZ is administered for active AOSD.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Modern Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein report the case of a 72-year-old woman with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) complicated by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis who exhibited honeycomb lung without volume loss. On admission, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed honeycomb lung without volume loss in addition to increased density of the partition walls. A renal biopsy revealed global sclerosis and cellular crescent formation. Mononeuritis multiple subsequently occurred, and steroid pulse therapy with cyclophosphamide was administered. Repeat chest CT showed that the honeycomb lung was unchanged; however, overall reduced density of the partition walls was observed. It is necessary to recognise that vasculitis may develop in SSc patients who exhibit honeycomb lung without volume loss.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is relatively rare and early diagnosis is difficult. We investigated the utility of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT for the diagnosis of RPC and evaluation of disease activity.
Five RPC patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT in our hospital between 2006 and 2012 were studied. Eight RPC cases examined by PET reported in the literature were also assessed. Data from a total of 13 patients were analysed.
Typical FDG accumulation was noted in the tracheobronchial trees of nine patients, the costal cartilage of five, joints of five, larynx of four, nasal cavity/paranasal sinuses of three, auricles of three, lymph nodes of three and the aorta of one. One patient showed nasal chondritis on a PET scan despite the absence of nasal changes on physical examination. Of five patients with costochondritis, four remained asymptomatic. Of nine patients with airway FDG accumulation, eight developed respiratory symptoms and all had CT abnormalities. In the other patient, airway FDG accumulation was evident despite the absence of airway symptoms and a lack of abnormalities in the respiratory function test and CT. PET also revealed bronchial chondritis in asymptomatic patients. The mean maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the upper and lower airways was 5.79 (s.d. 2.87) and 6.47 (s.d. 4.08), respectively. In five patients with a PET after treatment, FDG accumulation had diminished with symptomatic and inflammatory improvement.
FDG-PET/CT is a potentially powerful tool for the early diagnosis of RPC, especially in patients without easily biopsied organ involvement. This modality also facilitates evaluation of disease extent and disease activity during treatment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Rheumatology (Oxford, England)