[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover marker levels, muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal Chinese women.
A total of 485 healthy postmenopausal Chinese women (63.44±5.04 years) were enrolled in this open-label, 2-year, prospective, community-based trial. The participants were divided into group A, B, C, which were treated with calcium (600 mg/d) alone, calcium (600 mg/d) and cholecalciferol (800 IU/d) or calcium (600 mg/d) and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d), respectively, for 2 years. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, β-CTX and P1NP were measured, and the muscle strength and quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups.
Four hundred and sixty one participants completed this study. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly increased in group C, but not changed in groups A and B at 24-month follow-up. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone, bone turnover marker β-CTX and bone formation marker P1NP were significantly decreased in group C, while serum levels of β-CTX were increased in group A at 24-month follow-up. The participants in group C maintained the grip strength, while those in groups A and B exhibited decreased grip strength at 24-month follow-up. The quality of life for the participants in groups B and C remained consistent, but that in group A was deteriorated at 24-month follow-up.
Supplementation with calcitriol and calcium modifies the bone turnover marker levels, and maintains muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal Chinese women, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol and calcium prevents aging-mediated deterioration in quality of life.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral risedronate is effective in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis when administered daily, weekly, or monthly. In this 1-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study we compared the weekly 35-mg and daily 5-mg risedronate dosing regimens in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis or osteopenia were randomly assigned to the weekly group or daily group (n=145 for each) that received oral risedronate 35 mg once a week or 5 mg daily, respectively, for 1 year. The subjects' bone mineral densities (BMDs), bone turnover markers (P1NP and β-CTX), new vertebral fractures, and adverse events were assessed at baseline and during the treatments.
All subjects in the weekly group and 144 subjects in the daily group completed the study. The primary efficacy endpoint after 1 year, i.e. the mean percent changes in the lumbar spine BMD (95% CI) were 4.87% (3.92 to 5.81%) for the weekly group and 4.35% (3.31 to 5.39%) for the daily group. The incidences of clinical adverse events were 48.3% in the weekly group and 54.2% in the daily group.
The weekly 35-mg and daily 5-mg risedronate dosing regimens during 1 year of follow-up show similar efficacy in improving BMDs and biochemical markers of bone turnover in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Moreover, the two dosing regimens exhibit similar safety and tolerability.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
X-linked dominant hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most prevalent form of inherited rickets/osteomalacia in humans. The aim of this study was to identify PHEX gene mutations and describe the clinical features observed in 6 unrelated Chinese families and 3 sporadic patients with hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia.
For this study, 45 individuals from 9 unrelated families of Chinese Han ethnicity (including 16 patients and 29 normal phenotype subjects), and 250 healthy donors were recruited. All 22 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PHEX gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced.
The PHEX mutations were detected in 6 familial and 3 sporadic hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. Altogether, 2 novel mutations were detected: 1 missense mutation c.1183G>C in exon 11, resulting in p.Gly395Arg and 1 missense mutation c.1751A>C in exon 17, resulting in p.His584Pro. No mutations were found in the 250 healthy controls.
Our study increases knowledge of the PHEX gene mutation types and clinical phenotypes found in Chinese patients with XLH, which is important for understanding the genetic basis of XLH. The molecular diagnosis of a PHEX genetic mutation is of great importance for confirming the clinical diagnosis of XLH, conducting genetic counseling, and facilitating prenatal intervention, especially in the case of sporadic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dent disease comprises a group of X-linked recessive inherited renal tubular disorders, the symptoms of which include low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. We sought to characterize the clinical manifestations and to identify the mutations associated with this disease in Chinese patients. In total, 155 DNA samples were collected from one affected individual, four of his family members, and 150 healthy donors. All 12 exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the CLCN5 gene were amplified and directly sequenced in this Chinese family. The proband demonstrated osteomalacia, which had resulted in more than 10 fractures, LMWP, and renal failure. A single base 'G' deletion at nucleotide 246 (c. 246delG) was identified in exon 5 of the CLCN5 gene in this patient, resulting in a frame shift mutation (fsX) that changed the Threonine (Thr) residue in position 83 to Proline (Pro). The proband's mother was found to be a carrier of this mutation. The present study suggests that a novel frameshift mutation (c. 246delG) in exon 5 of the CLCN5 gene is responsible for Dent disease in this case. Our findings also expand the known spectrum of CLCN5 mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Mutations in the CYP27B1 gene, which encodes vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, are the genetic basis of vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A, MIM 264700). The aim of this study was to investigate a novel CYP27B1 mutation and its clinical manifestations.
VDDR1A was diagnosed based on clinical presentation, a physical examination, bone characteristics on an X-ray, and laboratory results. A molecular model of the CYP27B1 protein was constructed using the SWISS-MODEL server and Swiss-PdbViewer.
We sequenced the CYP27B1 gene in a 5-year-old male child who presented with growth retardation and a history of frequent hand, leg, and perioral twitching since the age of 12 months. We identified a compound heterozygous mutation consisting of two missense mutations: one in exon 7 (R389C [c.1165C>T]) and one in exon 8 (R459C [c.1375C>T]). We used the wild-type CYP27B1 as a receptor and calcidiol as a ligand to predict the interaction between the R459 site and calcidiol. According to the predicted structure, the wild-type R459 residue localizes to the pocket where CYP27B1 binds to its ligand.
According to the Human Gene Mutation Database, the compound heterozygous mutation identified in our patient is novel and has not yet been reported in the literature. This mutation provides a new basis for further research on VDDR1A and for the development of clinical diagnostics.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein-16 (PRDM16) is a cell-autonomous transcriptional component that stimulates the development of brown fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variants of PRDM16 to obesity-related phenotype variations in Chinese.
A total of 3204 subjects (consisting of 400 male-offspring nuclear families, 401 female-offspring nuclear families, and 729 unrelated older males) were recruited. Ten tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PRDM16 gene were genotyped using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR by Taqman assay. Body compositions were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The associations of the SNPs with the obesity-related phenotypes were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT), GLM-ANOVA and PLINK statistical methods.
Rs2236518 was the only SNP that was associated with BMI in young (aged 20–40 years) males (P=0.011) using QTDT, and in the older men (aged 50–80 years) (P=0.003) using GLM-ANOVA. No significant associations were detected in the females. Nor was a relationship found between any haplotype and obesity-related phenotypes. When PLINK was used, no significant relationship was detected between 10 SNPs and obesity-related phenotypes in any of the studied cohorts.
Rs2236518 is associated with BMI in the young males (using QTDT), and the older males (using GLM-ANOVA).However, the result is not confirmed using PLINK. The discrepancy needs to be further addressed.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reference ranges of bone turnover markers (BTMs) were important during the treatment of osteoporosis, and the associations with bone mineral density (BMD) were controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the reference ranges of N-terminal procollagen of type l collagen (P1NP), osteocalcin (OC), and beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen ( β -CTX) in Shanghai area and to investigate the relationships between BTMs and BMD in postmenopausal women. 2,799 subjects recruited in Shanghai City were measured BTMs to establish the reference ranges. Additional 520 healthy postmenopausal women were also measured BTMs, these women measured BMD in addition. BTMs were measured using the Roche electrochemiluminescence system. We used the age range of 35 to 45-year-olds to calculate reference intervals. The reference range of OC was 4.91 to 13.90 ng/mL for women and 5.58 to 16.57 ng/mL for men, P1NP was 13.72 to 32.90 ng/mL for women and 16.89 to 42.43 ng/mL for men, and β -CTX was 0.112 to 0.210 ng/mL for women and 0.100 to 0.378 ng/mL for men. BTMs significantly negatively correlated with lumbar spine and femoral and total hip in postmenopausal women (Betastd = -0.157 ~ -0.217, P < 0.001). We established the normal reference ranges of P1NP, OC, and β -CTX in the Shanghai area. This study also found that BTMs correlated with BMD and suggested that BTMs were the key determining factors of early BMD decreases.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Inclusion-body myopathy (IBM) with Paget's disease of bone (PDB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), designated as IBMPFD, is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder (MIM 605382). IBMPFD is caused by mutations in the gene that encode valosin-containing protein (VCP). We investigated a Chinese family in which multiple members were diagnosed with PDB and suffered from weakness of the limbs. However, no members of this family were diagnosed with FTD. We made a preliminary diagnosis of PDB, but failed to identify an SQSTM1 mutation in any of the patients. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify the pathogenic gene mutation affecting the Chinese male proband.
Materials and methods:
Altogether, 254 subjects, including one 56-year-old male proband, four affected, related individuals and additional nine family members from a non-consanguineous Chinese family, and 240 healthy donors were recruited and genomic DNA was extracted. All eight exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the SQSTM1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced in five patients (II13, II4, II5, II8, II9). Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel mutation in VCP as the disease-causing mutation. We confirmed the result by sequencing a 500-bp region of the promoter and the coding region of VCP in all 254 of the participants using Sanger sequencing.
No mutation in the SQSTM1 gene was identified in the five patients examined using direct Sanger sequencing. However, through whole-exome sequencing we were able to identify a novel missense mutation in exon 3 of the VCP gene (p.Gly97Glu) in the Chinese male proband. This mutation was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. The proband, four affected individuals and three unaffected individuals carried this mutation. We were able to correctly diagnose the patients with atypical IBMPFD. Structural analysis of the p.Gly97Glu mutation in the VCP protein showed that the affected amino-acid is located in the interface of the protein. This abnormality may therefore interfere with protein function.
This is the first report of a family from China with IBMPFD. A novel VCP mutation was found as the cause of atypical IBMPFD in a Chinese family. Our findings confirm that VCP gene mutations can be a pathogenic cause of IBMPFD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Osteosclerosis (OMIM: 144750) is a type of autosomal dominant bone disease caused by a mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene. The case of a Chinese family with two affected individuals is reported in the present study in order to investigate the clinical characteristics and virulence genes of this sclerosing bone disorder.
Biochemical and radiographic examinations and bone mineral density (BMD) and genetic analyses were performed in two patients and eight other family members.
The 40-year-old proband (II-1) and her 64-year-old mother (I-2) both had chronic lumbodorsal pain, an elongated mandible and torus palatinus in the center of the hard palate. No fractures were observed in any of the family members. Skull, mandibular and pelvic X-rays in each of the two patients revealed thickened cranial plates, an enlarged sella turcica, an elongated mandible and cortical thickening of the long bones. The BMD values of the two patients was significantly higher than the standard age- and sex-matched adult mean reference values. Both patients had higher serum sclerostin levels, while their renal function markers and serum calcium, phosphonium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25(OH)D levels were within the normal ranges. The heterozygous missense mutation p.Ala242Thr in exon 4 of the LRP5 gene was detected in the two patients, while the other family members and 200 healthy donors had normal wild-type genotypes.
The A242T mutation in the LRP5 gene resulted in a high bone mass phenotype with an elongated mandible and torus palatinus in this osteosclerotic family.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that changes in hip geometry increase the risk of hip fracture. The aim of this study was to identify whether body composition were associated with hip geometry or bone mineral density (BMD) in a large sample of Chinese people. A total of 2072 subjects aged 20-79yr (including 700 males and 1372 females) were selected. The following measurements were taken: lumbar spine (L1-4); proximal femur BMD; lean mass (LM); fat mass (FM); and hip geometric parameters, including hip axis length (HAL), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), cross-sectional area (CSA), neck-shaft angle, and femur strength index (SI) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FM and LM were positively correlated with HAL, CSMI, and CSA, and negatively correlated with SI in both men and women. Multiple regression analysis showed that leg LM contributions to HAL, CSMI, and CSA variance were 12.6-37.6%. Compared with FM, LM was generally more strongly related to hip geometry and BMD in young and old men and women. Body composition was a good predictor for hip geometry parameter variation and BMD variation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Clinical Densitometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To increase awareness of the rarity of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) in the Chinese population, we characterized the clinical manifestations and features of 13 Chinese sporadic PDB patients. The clinical features of our Chinese PDB patients show similarities with cases reported in Western countries. The most common lesion sites were the pelvis, femur, and tibia; the next most common lesion sites were the spine and skull. Most patients had a higher serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. Treatment with bisphosphonates was effective. In addition, we screened for PDB-causing mutations and performed a functional analysis in an attempt to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of PDB. A total of 216 persons, including 13 sporadic PDB patients, three unaffected relatives of 1 patient, and 200 healthy donors, were recruited. All eight exons and exon-intron boundaries of the SQSTM1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. We identified a 53-year-old man who harbored a heterozygous T-to-C transversion at position 1250 in exon 8 (1250T > C), which resulted in a methionine-to-threonine (ATG > ACG) substitution at codon 404 (M404T). The M404T mutant SQSTM1 protein exhibited increased NF-κB activation and drove a significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (OLCs) that formed in response to RANKL and an increased number of OLC nuclei. This is the first report of an SQSTM1 genetic mutation that contributes to the pathogenesis of PDB in Chinese patients. These results may partially explain the mechanism by which this SQSTM1 mutation contributes to the pathogenesis of sporadic PDB in Chinese patients.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth. Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD, lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.
Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited. Anthropometric measurements, including the peak BMD, body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing. Both rs2293284 and +2278GA were genotyped using TaqMan assay, and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The associations of the SNPs with anthropometric variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).
Using QTDT to detect within-family associations, neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site. However, rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001). Moreover, for within-family associations, haplotypes AGG, AAA, and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).
Our results suggest that genetic variation within myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males. Additionally, the myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of cholecalciferol (800 IU/d) and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d) on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in Chinese postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.
One hundred Chinese postmenopausal women aged 63.8±7.0 years and with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <30 ng/mL were recruited. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the age and serum 25(OH)D concentration: 50 subjects (group A) received cholecalciferol (800 IU/d), and 50 subjects (group B) received calcitriol (0.25 μg/d) for 3 months. In addition, all the subjects received Caltrate D (calcium plus 125 IU cholecalciferol) daily in the form of one pill. The markers of calcium metabolism and bone turnover, including the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone, 25(OH)D and β-CrossLaps of type I collagen containing cross-linked C-telopeptide (β-CTX), were measured before and after the intervention.
After the 3-month intervention, the serum 25(OH)D concentration in group A was significantly increased from 16.01 ± 5.0 to 20.02 ± 4.5 ng/mL, while that in group B had no significant change. The serum calcium levels in both the groups were significantly increased (group A: from 2.36 ± 0.1 to 2.45 ± 0.1 mmol/L; group B: from 2.36 ± 0.1 to 2.44 ± 0.1 mmol/L). The levels of serum intact parathyroid hormone in both the groups were significantly decreased (group A: from 48.56 ± 12.8 to 39.59 ± 12.6 pg/mL; group B: from 53.67 ± 20.0 to 40.32 ± 15.4 pg/mL). The serum levels of β-CTX in both the groups were also significantly decreased (group A: from 373.93 ± 135.3 to 325.04 ± 149.0 ng/L; group B: from 431.00 ± 137.1 to 371.74 ± 185.0 ng/L). Conclusion: We concluded that both cholecalciferol (800 IU/d) and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d) plus Caltrate D modifies the serum calcium and bone turnover markers in Chinese postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency. In addition, cholecalciferol (800 IU/d) significantly increased the serum 25(OH)D concentration.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in ALOX12, which encoded human 12-lipoxygenase, was found to be associated with fat mass in young Chinese men. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the ALOX15 gene and obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring.
We recruited 1,296 subjects from 427 nuclear families with male offspring and genotyped five SNPs (rs9894225, rs748694, rs2619112, rs2619118, and rs916055) in the ALOX15 gene locus. The total fat mass (TFM), trunk fat mass (tFM), leg fat mass (LFM) and arm fat mass (AFM) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The percentage of fat mass (PFM) was the ratio of TFM and body weight. The association between SNPs and haplotypes of ALOX15 and obesity-related phenotypic variation was measured using quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).
Using QTDT to measure family-based genetic association, we found that rs916055 had a statistically significant association with PFM (P=0.038), whereas rs916055 had a marginal but statistically insignificant association with tFM (P=0.093). The multiple-parameter 1000 permutations test agreed with the family-based association results: both showed that rs916055 had a statistically significant association with PFM (P=0.033).
rs916055 in ALOX15 gene was significantly associated with the percentage of fat mass in Chinese nuclear families with male offspring in the family-based association study using QTDT approach.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia is a genetic disorder characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralization and a deficiency of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase activity. To date, few studies have identified gene mutations in Chinese patients with hypophosphatasia. We sought to characterize the clinical manifestations and identify the mutations associated with the disease in Chinese hypophosphatasia patients.
All 12 exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the ALPL gene were amplified and directly sequenced in two probands from unrelated Chinese families. The mutation sites were identified in other unaffected members of these two families and 100 healthy controls.
In family 1, the proband displayed one novel splice site mutation, c.298-1G>A, which consisted of a homozygous G>A transition at nucleotide 298-1 in intron 4. The proband's mother displayed the heterozygous G/A ALPL gene mutation, but her father was identified as G/G homozygous. A paternity test ruled out false paternity and therefore confirmed that this splicing mutation occurred de novo either in the paternal germline or in the early development of the patient. In family 2, the proband revealed a novel missense mutation (c.1271T>C) in exon 11, which resulted in p.Val424Ala in the mature ALPL polypeptide. Furthermore, c.298-1G>A and c.1271T>C mutations were not found in unaffected family members of these two Chinese families and 100 unrelated controls.
Our study shows that the novel de novo splicing mutation c.298-1G>A in intron 4 and the missense mutation c.1271T>C in exon 11 of the ALPL gene are responsible for hypophosphatasia in some Chinese patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Archives of medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 gene (LRP2) is located next to the genomic region showing suggestive linkage with both hip and wrist bone mineral density (BMD) phenotypes. LRP2 knockout mice showed severe vitamin D deficiency and bone disease, indicating the involvement of LRP2 in the preservation of vitamin D metabolites and delivery of the precursor to the kidney for the generation of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). In order to investigate the contribution of LRP2 gene polymorphisms to the variation of BMD in Chinese population, a total of 330 Chinese female-offspring nuclear families with 1088 individuals and 400 Chinese male-offspring nuclear families with 1215 individuals were genotyped at six tagSNPs of the LRP2 gene (rs2389557, rs2544381, rs7600336, rs10210408, rs2075252 and rs4667591). BMD values at the lumbar spine 1-4 (L1-4) and hip sites were measured by DXA. The association between LRP2 polymorphisms and BMD phenotypes was assessed by quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests (QTDTs) in female- and male-offspring nuclear families separately. In the female-offspring nuclear families, rs2075252 and haplotype GA of rs4667591 and rs2075252 were identified in the nominally significant total association with peak BMD at L1-4; however, no significant within-family association was found between peak BMD at the L1-4 and hip sites and six tagSNPs or haplotypes. In male-offspring nuclear families, neither the six tagSNPs nor the haplotypes was in total association or within-family association with the peak BMD variation at the L1-4 and hip sites by QTDT analysis. Our findings suggested that the polymorphisms of LRP2 gene is not a major factor that contributes to the peak BMD variation in Chinese population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopetrosis is a heritable bone disorder resulting from a deficiency of or a functional defect in osteoclasts. We aimed to characterize the molecular defects and clinical manifestations in Chinese patients with osteopetrosis by studying 12 unrelated osteopetrosis families. The entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of the CLCN7, TCIRG1, LRP5 and SOST genes were amplified and directly sequenced. X-rays of hip and lumbar spine, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers were examined simultaneously. Family history and fracture history were collected using a questionnaire. Among 12 unrelated families, 10 families were diagnosed with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII) with 10 probands and 3 affected subjects. Two individuals in the other two families were diagnosed with uncategorized osteopetrosis because no mutations were detected in any of the four studied genes. Eight mutations, including two reported mutations (R767W and E798FS) and six novel mutations (E313K, A316G, R743W, G741R, W127G and S290F), were detected in the CLCN7 gene from 12 living ADOII patients. Among them, R767W and R743W mutations were two common mutations that were each found in 20% of 10 ADOII probands. In CLCN7-related ADOII patients, long bone fractures and elevated serum CK level were two major clinical phenotypes, especially in patients younger than 18 years. Further functional studies of the above eight mutations in the CLCN7 gene are needed in the future.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism