[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biochemical studies have indicated that p31comet and TRIP13 are critical for inactivating MAD2. To address unequivocally whether p31comet and TRIP13 are required for mitotic exit at the cellular level, their genes were ablated either individually or together in human cells. Neither p31comet nor TRIP13 were absolutely required for unperturbed mitosis. MAD2 inactivation was only partially impaired in p31comet-deficient cells. In contrast, TRIP13-deficient cells contained MAD2 exclusively in the C-MAD2 conformation. Our results indicate that although p31comet enhanced TRIP13-mediated MAD2 conversion, it was not absolutely necessary for the process. Paradoxically, TRIP13-deficient cells were unable to activate the spindle-assembly checkpoint, revealing that cells lacking the ability to inactivate MAD2 were incapable in mounting a checkpoint response. These results establish a paradigm of the roles of p31comet and TRIP13 in both checkpoint activation and inactivation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell cycle is the sequence of events through which a cell duplicates its genome, grows, and divides. Key cell cycle transitions are driven by oscillators comprising cyclin-dependent kinases and other kinases. Different cell cycle oscillators are inextricably linked to ensure orderly activation of oscillators. A recurring theme in their regulation is the abundance of auto-amplifying loops that ensure switch-like and unidirectional cell cycle transitions. The periodicity of many cell cycle oscillators is choreographed by inherent mechanisms that promote automatic inactivation, often involving dephosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. These inhibitory signals are subsequently suppressed to enable the next cell cycle to occur. Although the activation and inactivation of cell cycle oscillators are in essence autonomous during the unperturbed cell cycle, a number of checkpoint mechanisms are able to halt the cell cycle until defects are addressed. Together, these mechanisms orchestrate orderly progression of the cell cycle to produce more cells and to safeguard genome integrity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell cycle is the sequence of events through which a cell duplicates its genome, grows, and divides. Major cell cycle transitions are driven by cyclin-dependent kinases and other kinases. Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is also a major driving force for cell cycle transitions. Checkpoint mechanisms delay the cell cycle to ensure that each stage of the cell cycle is completed before the next stage is initiated. A recurring theme in cell cycle control is the abundance of feedback controls. Together, these mechanisms orchestrate the orderly progression of the cell cycle to maintain genome stability and to produce more cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shugoshin (SGO1) plays a pivotal role in sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis by protecting the centromeric cohesin from mitotic kinases and WAPL. Mammalian cells contain at least six alternatively spliced isoforms of SGO1. The relationship between the canonical SGO1A with shorter isoforms including SGO1C remains obscure. Here we show that SGO1C was unable to replace the loss of SGO1A. Instead, expression of SGO1C alone induced aberrant mitosis similar to depletion of SGO1A, promoting premature sister chromatid separation, activation of the spindle-assembly checkpoint, and mitotic arrest. In disagreement with previously published data, we found that SGO1C was localized to kinetochores. However, the ability to induce aberrant mitosis did not correlate with its kinetochore localization. SGO1C mutants that abolished binding to kinetochores still triggered premature sister chromatid separation. We provide evidence that SGO1C-mediated mitotic arrest involved the sequestering of PP2A-B56 pool. Accordingly, SGO1C mutants that abolished binding to PP2A localized to kinetochores but did not induce aberrant mitosis. These studies imply that the expression of SGO1C should be tightly regulated to prevent dominant-negative effects on SGO1A and induce genome instability.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare but highly invasive cancer. As radiotherapy is the primary treatment for NPC, this offers a rationale to investigate if uncoupling the DNA damage responses can sensitize this cancer type. The G2 DNA damage checkpoint is controlled by a cascade of protein kinases: ATM/ATR, which phosphorylates CHK1/CHK2, which in turn phosphorylates WEE1. A number of small molecule inhibitors have been developed against these kinases as potential therapeutic agents. Here we demonstrated that compare to that in immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, ATR, CHK1, and WEE1 were overexpressed in NPC cell lines. Inhibitors of these kinases were unable to promote extensive mitotic catastrophe in ionizing radiation-treated NPC cells, indicating that they are not very effective radiosensitizer for this cancer. In the absence of prior irradiation, however, mitotic catastrophe could be induced with inhibitors against CHK1 (AZD7762) or WEE1 (MK-1775). NPC cells were more sensitive to WEE1 inactivation than nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Targeting CHK1 and WEE1 together induced more extensive mitotic catastrophe than the individual components alone. Taken together, our results show that NPC cells depend on CHK1 and WEE1 activity for growth and that inhibitors of these kinases may serve as potential therapeutics for NPC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitosis is choreographed by a number of protein kinases including polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases. As these kinases are frequently dysregulated in cancers, small-molecule inhibitors have been developed for targeted anticancer therapies. Given that PLK1 and Aurora kinases possess both unique functions as well as co-regulate multiple mitotic events, whether pharmacological inhibition of these kinases together can enhance mitotic catastrophe remains an outstanding issue to be determined. Using concentrations of inhibitors that did not induce severe mitotic defects on their own, we found that both the metaphase arrest and mitotic slippage induced by inhibitors targeting Aurora A and Aurora B (MK-5108 and Barasertib respectively) were enhanced by a PLK1 inhibitor (BI 2536). We found that PLK1 is overexpressed in cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis, in comparison to normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were more sensitive to BI 2536 as a single agent and co-inhibition with Aurora kinases than normal cells. These observations underscore the mechanism and potential benefits of targeting PLK1 and Aurora kinases to induce mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATR-CHK1-WEE1 kinase cascade's functions in the DNA damage checkpoints are well established. Moreover, its roles in the unperturbed cell cycle are also increasingly being recognized. In this connection, a number of small-molecule inhibitors of ATR, CHK1, and WEE1 are being evaluated in clinical trials. Understanding precisely how cells respond to different concentrations of inhibitors is therefore of paramount importance and has broad clinical implications. Here we present evidence that in the absence of DNA damage, pharmacological inactivation of ATR was less effective in inducing mitotic catastrophe than inhibition of WEE1 and CHK1. Small-molecule inhibitors of CHK1 (AZD7762) or WEE1 (MK-1775) induced mitotic catastrophe, as characterized by dephosphorylation of CDK1Tyr15, phosphorylation of histone H3Ser10, and apoptosis. Unexpectedly, partial inhibition of WEE1 and CHK1 had the opposite effect of accelerating the cell cycle without inducing apoptosis, thereby increasing the overall cell proliferation. This was also corroborated by the finding that cell proliferation was enhanced by kinase-inactive versions of WEE1. We demonstrated that these potential limitations of the inhibitors could be overcome by targeting more than one components of the ATR-CHK1-WEE1 simultaneously. These observations reveal insights into the complex responses to pharmacological inactivation of the ATR-CHK1-WEE1 axis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the label-free enumeration of human colorectal-carcinoma cells from blood lymphocytes by using interdigitated ring-array microelectrodes; this enumeration was based on the dielectrophoretic selection of cells. Because of the novel design of the device, a continuous flow of cells is uniformly distributed into parallel streams through 300 rings (~40μm in diameter each) that are integrated into the electrode digits. Using this array, 82% of cancer cells were recovered and 99% of blood lymphocytes were removed. Most of the cancer cells recovered were viable (94%) and could be cultivated for >8 days, during which period they retained their normal cell morphology and proliferation rates. The recovery rate correlated closely with cancer-cell loadings in spiked samples and this relationship was linear over a range of at least 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, because of the 3D structure of the rings, these results were obtained at a high cell-loading concentration (10(7)cells/mL). The rings could be further optimized for use in accurate label-free identification and measurement of circulating tumor cells in cancer research and disease management.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Biosensors & Bioelectronics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitotic kinesin KIF11 (also called Eg5) plays critical roles in spindle functions. Although a number of small-molecule inhibitors of KIF11 are currently in clinical development, drug-resistance could be developed through compensation by another kinesin called KIF15. Using a newly developed infrared-based cell system, we discovered that the effectiveness of one of the latest generations of KIF11 inhibitor (SB743921) could be enhanced with several inhibitors of Aurora A kinase. Evidence including live-cell imaging and isobologram analysis indicated that targeting KIF11 and Aurora A together promoted monoastral spindle formation and mitotic catastrophe synergistically, supporting a model of parallel pathways of centrosome regulation by Aurora A and KIF11. We also developed a KIF15-dependent SB743921-resistance cell model. Significantly, the drug-resistance could also be overcome with Aurora A inhibitors. These results provide a molecular basis for increasing the effectiveness of Aurora A and KIF11 inhibitors and tackling problems of drug resistance.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Molecular Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis. One of the recurring themes of NPC biology and treatments is DNA damage. Epstein–Barr virus infection, which is generally accepted as a key etiological factor for NPC, triggers DNA damage responses. In normal cells, DNA damage checkpoints are able to prevent cell cycle progression following DNA damage and are critical for maintaining genome stability. Main features of the checkpoints include activation of ATM and ATR by sensors of DNA damage, which activates effector kinases CHK1 and CHK2; they in turn targets the CDC25/WEE1–cyclin B1–CDK1 axis to cause G2 arrest, or the p53–p21CIP1/WAF1 and pRb pathways to cause G1 arrest. Significantly, these checkpoints are typically disrupted in NPC cells. While mutations are relatively rare, mechanisms including promoter modifications, miRNAs, and actions of Epstein–Barr virus-encoded proteins such as EBNA3C and LMP1 have been described. Paradoxically, radiation-mediated DNA damage remains the primary treatment of NPC. How dysregulation of the DNA damage checkpoints contribute to NPC tumorigenesis and responses to treatment remain poorly understood. In this review, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the various DNA damage checkpoints and what is known about them in NPC are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many mitotic kinases are both critical for maintaining genome stability and are important targets for anticancer therapies. We provide evidence that SIK3 (salt-inducible kinase 3), an AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase, is important for mitosis to occur properly in mammalian cells. Downregulation of SIK3 resulted in an extension of mitosis in both mouse and human cells but did not affect the DNA damage checkpoint. Time-lapse microscopy and other approaches indicated that mitotic exit but not mitotic entry was delayed. Although repression of SIK3 alone simply delayed mitotic exit, it was able to sensitize cells to various antimitotic chemicals. Both mitotic arrest and cell death caused by spindle poisons were enhanced after SIK3 depletion. Likewise, the antimitotic effects due to pharmacological inhibition of mitotic kinases including Aurora A, Aurora B, and polo-like kinase 1 were enhanced in the absence of SIK3. Finally, in addition to promoting the sensitivity of a small-molecule inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin Eg5, SIK3 depletion was able to overcome cells that developed drug resistance. These results establish the importance of SIK3 as a mitotic regulator and underscore the potential of SIK3 as a druggable antimitotic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dovitinib (TKI258; formerly CHIR-258) is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. Interestingly, Dovitinib triggered a G2 /M arrest in cancer cell lines from diverse origins including HeLa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Single-cell analysis revealed that Dovitinib promoted a delay in mitotic exit in a subset of cells, causing the cells to undergo mitotic slippage. Higher concentrations of Dovitinib induced a G2 arrest similar to the G2 DNA damage checkpoint. In support of this, DNA damage was triggered by Dovitinib as revealed by γ-H2AX and comet assays. The mitotic kinase CDK1 was found to be inactivated by phosphorylation in the presence of Dovitinib. Furthermore, the G2 arrest could be overcome by abrogation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint using small molecule inhibitors of CHK1 and WEE1. Finally, Dovitinib-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest and subsequent cell death could be promoted after DNA damage repair was disrupted by inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. These results are consistent with the recent finding that Dovitinib can also target topoisomerases. Collectively, these results suggest additional directions for use of Dovitinib, in particular with agents that target the DNA damage checkpoint.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare but highly invasive cancer. As options of agents for effective combination chemoradiotherapy of advanced NPC are limited, novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. The ubiquitin ligase CHFR is known to target poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) for degradation and is epigenetically inactivated in NPC. We present evidence that PARP1 protein is indeed overexpressed in NPC cells in comparison to immortalized normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Tissue microarray analysis also indicated that PARP1 protein is significantly elevated in primary NPC tissues, with strong correlation with all stages of NPC development. We found that the PARP inhibitor AZD2281 (Olaparib) increased DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in NPC cells challenged with ionizing radiation or temozolomide. Isobologram analysis confirmed that the cytotoxicity triggered by AZD2281 and DNA damaging agents was synergistic. Finally, AZD2281 also enhanced the tumor-inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation in animal xenograft models. These observations implicate that PARP1 overexpression is an early event in NPC development and provide a molecular basis of using PARP inhibitors to potentiate treatment of NPC with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases have been developed and are undergoing clinical trials for anti-cancer therapies. Different Aurora kinases, however, behave as very different targets: while inhibition of Aurora A (AURKA) induces a delay in mitotic exit, inhibition of Aurora B (AURKB) triggers mitotic slippage. Furthermore, while it is evident that p53 is regulated by Aurora kinase-dependent phosphorylation, how p53 may in turn regulate Aurora kinases remains mysterious. To address these issues, isogenic p53-containing and -negative cells were exposed to classic inhibitors that target both AURKA and AURKB (Alisertib and ZM447439), as well as to new generation of inhibitors that target AURKA (MK-5108), AURKB (Barasertib) individually. The fate of individual cells was then tracked with time-lapse microscopy. Remarkably, loss of p53, either by gene disruption or small interfering RNA-mediated depletion, sensitized cells to inhibition of both AURKA and AURKB, promoting mitotic arrest and slippage respectively. As the p53-dependent post-mitotic checkpoint is also important for preventing genome reduplication after mitotic slippage, these studies indicate that the loss of p53 in cancer cells represents a major opportunity for anti-cancer drugs targeting the Aurora kinases.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 August 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.325.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sister chromatid separation depends on the activity of separase, which in turn requires the proteolysis of its inhibitor,
securin. It has been speculated that securin also supports the activation of separase. In this study, we found that PTTG1
was the major securin isoform expressed in most normal and cancer cell lines. Remarkably, a highly homologous isoform called
PTTG2 was unable to interact with separase. Using chimeras between PTTG1 and PTTG2 and other approaches, we pinpointed a single
amino acid that accounted for the loss of securin function in PTTG2. Mutation of the homologous position in PTTG1 (H134) switched PTTG1 from an inhibitor into an activator of separase. In agreement with this, PTTG1 lacking H134 was able to trigger premature sister chromatid separation. Conversely, introduction of H134 into PTTG2 is sufficient to allow it to bind separase. These data demonstrate that while the motif containing H134 has a strong affinity for separase and is involved in inhibiting it, another domain(s) is involved in activating separase
and has a weaker affinity for it. Although PTTG2 lacks securin function, its differences from PTTG1 provide evidence of independent
inhibitory and activating functions of PTTG1 on separase.
Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication stress- and DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints are critical for maintaining genome stability. To identify protein phosphatases involved in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoints, we have carried out RNA interference-based screens with a human phosphatome shRNA library. Several phosphatases, including SHP2 (also called PTPN11) were found to be required for cell survival upon hydroxyurea-induced replicative stress in HeLa cells. More detailed studies revealed that SHP2 was also important for the maintenance of the checkpoint after DNA damage induced by cisplatin or ionizing radiation in HeLa cells. Furthermore, SHP2 was activated after replicative stress and DNA damage. Although depletion of SHP2 resulted in a delay in cyclin E accumulation and an extension of G(1) phase, these cell cycle impairments were not responsible for the increase in apoptosis after DNA damage. Depletion of SHP2 impaired CHK1 activation, checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest, and DNA repair. These effects could be rescued with a shRNA-resistant SHP2. These results underscore the importance of protein phosphatases in checkpoint control and revealed a novel link between SHP2 and cell cycle checkpoints.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) by phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for both the unperturbed cell cycle and the DNA damage checkpoint. Although both WEE1 and MYT1 can phosphorylate CDK1, little is known about the contribution of MYT1. We found that in contrast to WEE1, MYT1 was not important for the normal cell cycle or checkpoint activation. Time-lapse microscopy indicated that MYT1 did, however, have a rate-determining role during checkpoint recovery. Depletion of MYT1 induced precocious mitotic entry when the checkpoint was abrogated with inhibitors of either CHK1 or WEE1, indicating that MYT1 contributes to checkpoint recovery independently of WEE1. The acceleration of checkpoint recovery in MYT1-depleted cells was due to a lowering of threshold for CDK1 activation. The kinase activity of MYT1 was high during checkpoint activation and reduced during checkpoint recovery. Importantly, although depletion of MYT1 alone did not affect long-term cell growth, it potentiated with DNA damage to inhibit cell growth in clonogenic survival and tumor xenograft models. These results reveal the functions of MYT1 in checkpoint recovery and highlight the potential of MYT1 as a target for anti-cancer therapies.Oncogene advance online publication, 12 November 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.504.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aurora kinases are overexpressed in many cancers and are targets for anticancer drugs. The yeast homolog of Aurora B kinase, IPL1, was found to be a ploidy-specific lethality gene. Given that polyploidization is a common feature of many cancers, we hypothesized polyploidization also sensitizes mammalian cells to inhibition of Aurora kinases. Using two models of apparent diploid vs. tetraploid cell lines (one based on the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B and another on untransformed mouse fibroblasts), we found that tetraploid cells were more sensitive to Aurora B inhibition than their diploid counterparts. Apoptosis could be induced in tetraploid cells by two different Aurora B inhibitors. Furthermore, tetraploid cells were sensitive to Aurora B inhibition but were not affected by Aurora A inhibition. Interestingly, the underlying mechanism was due to mitotic slippage and the subsequent excessive genome reduplication. In support of this, abolition of cytokinesis with dihydrocytochalasin B resulted in similar effects on tetraploid cells as Aurora B inhibition. These results indicate that inhibition of Aurora B or cytokinesis can promote apoptosis effectively in polyploid cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimitotic spindle poisons are among the most important chemotherapeutic agents available. However, precocious mitotic exit by mitotic slippage limits the cytotoxicity of spindle poisons. The MAD2-binding protein p31(comet) is implicated in silencing the spindle assembly checkpoint after all kinetochores are attached to spindles. In this study, we report that the levels of p31(comet) and MAD2 in different cell lines are closely linked with susceptibility to mitotic slippage. Down-regulation of p31(comet) increased the sensitivity of multiple cancer cell lines to spindle poisons, including nocodazole, vincristine, and Taxol. In the absence of p31(comet), lower concentrations of spindle poisons were required to induce mitotic block. The delay in checkpoint silencing was induced by an accumulation of mitotic checkpoint complexes. The increase in the duration of mitotic block after p31(comet) depletion resulted in a dramatic increase in mitotic cell death upon challenge with spindle poisons. Significantly, cells that are normally prone to mitotic slippage and resistant to spindle disruption-mediated mitotic death were also sensitized after p31(comet) depletion. These results highlight the importance of p31(comet) in checkpoint silencing and its potential as a target for antimitotic therapies.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry