[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With 3-4 million of new infections occurring annually, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global Public Health problem. In fact, hepatitis C virus infection is one of the leading causes of liver disease in the world; in Western countries, two thirds of the new HCV infections are associated with injection drug use.The treatment of hepatitis C will change in the coming years with the irruption of new anti-HCV drugs, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) that attack key proteins of the HCV life cycle. The new antiviral drugs are effective, safer and better tolerated. The 2014 WHO HCV treatment guidelines include some of them. The new DAA are used in combination and it is expected that Interferon will be not necessary in future treatment regimens against HCV infection.The irruption of new and potent antivirals mandate the review of the current standards of care in the HCV infected population. More inclusive and proactive treatment policies will be necessary in those individuals with substance use disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation and intestinal permeability are believed to be paramount features in the development of alcohol-related liver damage. We aimed to assess the impact of 3 surrogate markers of inflammation (anemia, fibrinogen, and ferritin levels) on mid-term mortality of patients with alcohol dependence.
This longitudinal study included patients with alcohol dependence admitted for hospital detoxification between 2000 and 2010. Mortality was ascertained from clinical charts and the mortality register. Associations between markers of inflammation and all-cause mortality were analyzed with mortality rates and Cox proportional hazards regression models.
We also performed a subgroup analysis of mortality rates in patients with anemia, based on their mean corpuscular volume (MCV).
We included 909 consecutive patients with alcohol dependence. Patients were mostly male (80.3%), had a median age of 44 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 38–50), and upon admission, their median alcohol consumption was 192 g/day (IQR: 120–265). At admission, 182 (20.5%) patients had anemia; 210 (25.9%) had fibrinogen levels >4.5 mg/dL; and 365 (49.5%) had ferritin levels >200 ng/mL. At the end of follow-up (median 3.8 years [IQR: 1.8–6.5], and a total of 3861.07 person-years), 118 patients had died (12.9% of the study population). Cox regression models showed that the presence of anemia at baseline was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–2.52, P < 0.01); no associations were found between mortality and high fibrinogen or high ferritin levels.
A subgroup of patients with anemia was analyzed and compared to a control group of patients without anemia and a normal MCV. The mortality ratios of patients with normocytic and macrocytic anemia were 3.25 (95% CI: 1.41–7.26; P < 0.01) and 3.39 (95% CI: 1.86–6.43; P < 0.01), respectively.
Patients with alcohol dependence admitted for detoxification had an increased risk of death when anemia was present at admission. More accurate markers of systemic inflammation are needed to serve as prognostic factors for poor outcomes in this subset of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent among patients with alcohol use disorders. We aimed to analyse the impact of HCV infection on survival of patients seeking treatment for alcohol use. This was a longitudinal study in a cohort of patients who abused alcohol recruited in two detoxification units. Socio-demographic and alcohol use characteristics, liver function tests for the assessment of alcohol-related liver disease and HCV and HIV infection serologies were obtained at admission. Patients were followed until December 2008; causes of death were ascertained through clinical records and death registry. Cox models were used to analyse predictors of death. A total of 675 patients (79.7% men) were admitted; age at admission was 43.5 years (IQR: 37.9–50.2 years), duration of alcohol abuse was 18 years (IQR: 11–24 years), and median alcohol consumption was 200 g/day (IQR: 120–275 g/day). Distribution of patients according to viral infections was as follows: 75.7% without HCV or HIV infection, 14.7% HCV infection alone and 8.1% HCV/HIV coinfection. Median follow-up was 3.1 years (IQR: 1.5–5.1 years) accounting for 2,345 person-years. At the end of study, 78 patients (11.4%) had died. In the multivariate analysis, age at admission (HR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.05–2.80), alcohol-related liver disease (HR = 3.55, 95%CI: 1.93–6.53) and HCV/HIV co-infection (HR = 3.86 95%CI: 2.10–7.11) were predictors of death. Younger patients (≤43 years) with HCV infection were more likely to die than those without viral infections (HR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.3–7.3; P = 0.007). Among patients with alcohol-related liver disease, mortality rate was high, irrespective of viral infections. These data show that HCV infection confers a worse prognosis in patients with alcohol use disorders.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Viral Hepatitis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality of alcohol and drug abusers is much higher than the general population. We aimed to characterize the role of the primary substance of abuse on the survival of patients admitted to treatment and to analyze changes in mortality over time.
Longitudinal study analyzing demographic, drug use, and biological data of 5023 patients admitted to three hospital-based treatment units in Barcelona, Spain, between 1985 and 2006. Vital status and causes of death were ascertained from clinical charts and the mortality register. Piecewise regression models were used to analyze changes in mortality.
The primary substances of dependence were heroin, cocaine, and alcohol in 3388 (67.5%), 945 (18.8%), and 690 patients (13.7%), respectively. The median follow-up after admission to treatment was 11.6 years (IQR: 6.6-16.1), 6.5 years (IQR: 3.9-10.6), and 4.8 years (IQR: 3.1-7.8) for the heroin-, cocaine-, and alcohol-dependent patients, respectively. For heroin-dependent patients, mortality rate decreased from 7.3×100person-years (p-y) in 1985 to 1.8×100p-y in 2008. For cocaine-dependent patients, mortality rate decreased from 10.7×100p-y in 1985 to <2.5×100p-y after 2004. The annual average decrease was 2% for alcohol-dependent patients, with the lowest mortality rate (3.3×100p-y) in 2008.
Significant reductions in mortality of alcohol and drug dependent patients are observed in recent years in Spain. Preventive interventions, treatment of substance dependence and antiretroviral therapy may have contributed to improve survival in this population.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between alcohol use disorders and increased risk of mortality is well known; however, there have been few systematic evaluations of alcohol-related organ damage and its impact on survival in younger alcoholics. Therefore, we assessed medical comorbidity with a clinical index to identify subgroups of alcoholic patients at high risk of premature death.
Hospital-based cohort of alcohol-dependent patients admitted for detoxification between 1999 and 2008 in Barcelona, Spain. At admission, sociodemographic characteristics and a history of alcohol dependence and abuse of illegal drugs were obtained through clinical interviews and questionnaires. Medical comorbidity was assessed with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (Substance Abuse) (CIRS-SA). Dates and causes of death were obtained from clinical records and death registers. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods, and Cox regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for premature death.
Median age of the patients (686 total, 79.7% men) was 43.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 37.8 to 50.4), average alcohol consumption was 200 g/d (IQR, 120 to 280 g/d), and duration of alcohol use disorder was 18 years (IQR, 11 to 24). Medical comorbidity by CIRS-SA at admission showed that the organs/systems most affected were liver (99%), respiratory (86%), and cardiovascular (58%). After median follow-up of 3.1 years (IQR, 1.5 to 5.1), 78 (11.4%) patients died with a mortality rate of 3.28 × 100 person-years; according to Kaplan-Meier estimates, 50% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 24 to 69%) of patients with severe medical comorbidity died in the first decade after treatment. In multivariate analysis, severe medical comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR], 5.5; 95% CI, 3.02 to 10.07) and being treated with methadone at admission (HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.51) were independent risk factors for premature death.
Systematic assessment of alcohol-related organ damage is relevant for the identification and treatment of those at increased risk of death.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.
To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.
Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.
20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.
Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.
Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.
Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Annals of internal medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze gender differences in the hepatic, nutritional and metabolic complications associated with alcoholism.
Cross-sectional study in alcoholic patients admitted to detoxification in two university hospitals of Barcelona between 1999 and 2006. During admission, co-morbidity prior to admission was assessed and blood samples to analyze biological markers were collected. Demographic and anthropometric data, daily alcohol consumption and other drug use characteristics were also obtained at admission.
There were 566 admissions in 480 patients (375 males). Age at admission was 43 years (IQR: 36.3-49.0 years). Overall, 68.4% showed macrocytosis (MCV > 95 fl), 81.7% GGT>40 U/L and 57.7% AST>37 U/L. Regarding liver function tests, frequency of alkaline phosphatase > 120 U/L was significantly higher in women (18.5 vs 10.5%, p=0.037). However, the prevalence of hyperferritinemia (> 90 ng/mL) was significantly higher in alcoholic men (85.7% vs 62.2%) (p=0.000). Having multiple liver function test alterations was significantly higher in men (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.65) (p=0.043). Women showed significant differences regarding the prevalence of macrocytosis (77.5% vs 65.8%, p=0.026), low serum creatinine (< 0.7 mg/100mL) (28.2 vs 14.6%, p=0.001), low serum ferritin (< 30 ng/mL) (10.8 vs 3.9%, p=0.020), as well as of multiple nutritional alterations (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.02-2.48) (p=0.040). However, men had higher prevalence of anemia than women (32.3 vs 21.4%, p=0.032). Prevalence of type I obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) was significantly higher in alcoholic women (29.2 vs 7.9%, p=0.007).
Hepatic, nutritional and metabolic complications of alcoholism in women are frequent, thus increasing the risk of developing adverse clinical outcomes.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Medicina Clínica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance abuse greatly impacts the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We analyzed antiretroviral use in drug users positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that sought substance abuse treatment.
This cross-sectional study recruited 705 patients HIV positive (74.6% men) between 1997 and 2007. Patients were grouped by calendar periods when different HAART regimens were available in Spain (p1: 1997-1999, n=299; p2: 2000-2003, n=249; and p3: 2004-2007, n=157).
The mean age at admission was 34 years; 94.7% had a past history of injection drug use (IDU) and 67.7% were current IDUs. The average CD4 cell count was 399 cells/µL [interquartile range:203-632 cells/µL]. Lifetime prevalence of antiretroviral use was 59.4% (416/705; p1: 48.1%; p2: 64.6%; p3: 72.6%; p<0.05). The overall prevalence of antiretroviral use at admission was 40.7% (p1: 31.4%; p2: 41.0%; p3: 58.0%; p<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, calendar period, and non-IDU were predictors of antiretroviral use at admission. Among those taking antiretrovirals, 21.6% were on suboptimal HAART, mostly in the p1 group. Overall, 44.6% of patients were taking protease inhibitor and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI-NNRTI), 21.9% were taking NRTI-NNRTI, and 9.4% were taking three NRTIs. Although not significant, the three-NRTI regimen was associated with CD4 >350 cells/µL and HIV RNA <400 copies/mL.
HAART use is steadily increasing in HIV positive heavy drug users. However, part of this population remains antiretroviral therapy-naïve despite advanced immunodeficiency. Interventions that focus on integrating substance abuse with HIV/AIDS treatments are needed.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Current HIV research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injection drug users are at increased risk for hepatitis B. Surveillance of the unexposed to infection and of the vaccinated is necessary to understand the impact of interventions. We aimed to analyze HBV serum profiles and rates of HBV vaccination over 20 years.
Cross-sectional study in IDUs admitted to detoxification between 1987 and 2006 in two hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. Clinical data and serum samples for HBV, HCV and HIV infections were collected. HBV serostatus was assessed with HBsAg, Anti-HBs and Anti-HBc.
A total of 1223 IDUs were eligible; 80.3% were men; median age at admission was 28 years. Prevalence of HCV infection and HIV infection was 84.2% and 44.3%, respectively. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase of the rates of HBV vaccine-induced immunity from 3.7% in period 1987-1991 to 19.9% in period 2002-2006 and, a significant (p<0.001) decline of those with HBsAg from 9.3% in 1987-1991 to <2% after 1997. The rates of absence of HBV markers and of natural immunity remained stable from 1992 onwards. In multivariate logistic regression model, HBV vaccination was significantly (p<0.001) less frequent in older individuals (OR=0.61 [95% CI: 0.50-0.74] for a 5-year increase in age) and in HIV infected patients (p=0.014) (OR=0.51 [95% CI: 0.30-0.87]).
In the 20-year period from 1987 to 2006, HBV vaccine-induced immunity in IDUs has shown an upward trend, although overall prevalence remained low. More effective interventions are needed to reduce high rates of HBV infection in this population.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lobular panniculitis, together with polyarthritis and intraosseous fat necrosis, may occasionally complicate pancreatic disease. This triad is known in the literature as the pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP syndrome). We describe a case of the PPP syndrome and review the available literature to summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with this condition.
A patient with the PPP syndrome, with evidence of extensive intraosseous fat necrosis in the joints involved revealed by magnetic resonance imaging, is described and the relevant literature based on a PubMed search from 1970 to February 2008 is reviewed. The keywords used were pancreatitis or pancreatic disease, panniculitis, arthritis, and intraosseous fat necrosis.
Including our case, 25 well-documented patients with the PPP syndrome have been reported. Our patient had few abdominal symptoms despite high serum levels of pancreatic enzymes. In our review of the literature, almost 2/3 of patients had absent or mild abdominal symptoms, leading to misdiagnosis. The delay in diagnosis and specific treatment of the underlying pancreatitis worsens the prognosis of this condition, which has a mortality rate as high as 24%. In nearly 45% of the patients, the arthritis follows a chronic course with a poor response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids, and the rapid development of radiographic joint damage.
Certain forms of pancreatic disease can very occasionally cause arthritis and panniculitis. Although uncommon, physicians should be alert to the possible presence of this syndrome for 2 reasons: first, unrecognized pancreatic disease can be fatal if not treated promptly; second, to avoid inappropriate and risky therapy to improve joint symptoms.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within the framework of hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence monitoring, we evaluated oral fluid (OF), which is richer in IgG than whole saliva, as a possible alternative to serum for the detection of HCV antibodies. Paired OF and serum samples were collected from 90 individuals, including 45 HCV-positives and 45 HCV-negatives. The detection of HCV antibodies in both serum and OF was performed using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Inc., Raritan, NJ), but a modified, more sensitive protocol was used to process OF. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were 86.67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72.51-94.46%) and 100% (95% CI: 90.20-99.80%) in OF and 100% in serum. The correlation obtained between both types of clinical specimens was excellent (k: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.66-1.07). However, the negative predictive value (NPV) of the assay in OF decreased with the prevalence of HCV infection in the population studied. Our results suggest that the modified Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe ELISA is suitable for the detection of HCV antibodies in OF for epidemiological studies. Using this assay, we observed an unadjusted anti-HCV prevalence of 78.6% among a population of intravenous drug users; when adjusted to account for assay sensitivity, this prevalence may be closer to 90%.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) on immune restoration in 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients during treatment with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) was prospectively evaluated. After 48 weeks of treatment, HCV-coinfected patients had lower increases in CD4% (P = .05), total CD4+ (P = .01), and naïve CD4+ (P = .06) T cells than did single-infected subjects. Higher baseline naïve CD4+ T-cell levels were associated with better CD4+ (P = .05) and naïve CD4+ (P < .001) T-cell recovery. After a 4-year follow up, the differences disappeared (median CD4+ increase: 291 and 306 cells for HCV-positive and HCV-negative patients, respectively, P = .9). No significant differences were seen in memory CD4+ T cells (P = .30), and CD8+ cells expressing CD38 (P = .10) and CD28 (P = .73). These results suggest that, independently of other factors, infection with HCV blunts early CD4+ T-cell recovery in HIV-infected patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, as good control of viral replication is maintained, satisfactory long-term immune restoration can nonetheless be achieved.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize trends from 1987 to 2001 in the prevalence of HIV and HCV infections among 2219 injection drug users (IDUs) starting treatment for substance abuse in two large hospitals in metropolitan Barcelona.
The study population comprised IDUs with HIV tests completed from 1987 to 2001 and admitted for detoxification. Testing for HCV started in 1991 (n=1132). Characterization of temporal trends was carried out using logistic regression methods. Stratification was used to describe possible heterogeneities of the temporal trends.
The overall prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV (HBsAg+) was 55%, 88%, and 7%, respectively. Adjusted by duration of IDU, sex, and age at initiation, the prevalence of HIV infection declined significantly (p<0.001) from 1989 to 2004. The substantially higher prevalence of HCV showed a decline (p=0.065) of lesser magnitude. The decline of HIV infection was consistently observed among those with duration of IDU of less than 10 years. In turn, the decline of HCV was restricted to those with short duration of IDU (<4 years) because the prevalence of HCV infection was close to 100% for durations longer than 4 years in all calendar periods.
Preventive interventions and treatment for substance abuse might have contributed to the waning of the HIV epidemic in Spain. However, the extremely high levels of HCV infection and the underlying prevalence of HIV might lead to a large health burden of liver disease.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Drug and Alcohol Dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as a screening test for detecting HIV-1 antibody in urine in a population at risk for HIV infection in Catalonia, Spain. Paired urine and serum samples were collected consecutively from 99 patients who attended two drug-dependency treatment centres and 151 patients who attended a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Barcelona. Antibodies against HIV in urine samples were detected using the Calypte HIV-1 Urine EIA (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Berkeley, CA, USA) and confirmed by urine-based Western blot (WB) analysis. Sera were analysed using Bioelisa HIV-1+2 EIA (Biokit Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain), and the results were verified using serum-based WB analysis. Results of both urine and serum testing were available for 246 of 250 participants. For 52 individuals the results of both urine and serum testing were positive and for five the results were discordant (2 with urine-negative/serum-positive results and 3 with urine-positive/serum-negative results). The respective sensitivity and specificity values obtained for the urine EIA were 100% and 96.2% for intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 80% and 99.3% for persons attending the STD clinic. According to the 1997 UNAIDS/WHO strategy I recommendations, these values are acceptable for surveillance purposes, particularly in populations with a high prevalence of HIV infection.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence is lacking on the possible efficacy and effectiveness of non-occupational postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, because of its biological plausibility, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to prevent the development of infection in certain cases of accidental or sporadic exposure has begun to be considered as common clinical practice. Previous studies performed in Spain have demonstrated both the demand and the prescription of ARV as PEP and especially the diversity and inconsistency in the criteria used. In this context, in April of 2000 the Centre for Epidemiological Studies on AIDS of Catalonia (CEESCAT) (Department of Health and Social Security of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia), in collaboration with the National AIDS Plan and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA), promoted the creation of a working group for the drafting of recommendations for PEP against HIV outside the occupational health context. The recommendations have been made bearing in mind the exceptional character of the exposure, the time elapsed since exposure, as well as evaluation of the risk of infection according to the type of exposure and the information available on the source of infection. In addition, the recommendations include the immediate measures necessary, as well as the preventive measures and clinical follow-up required both for HIV and for other infectious agents. All PEP regimens should be started within 72 hours of exposure and appropriate daily doses of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a protease inhibitor (PI), or two NRTIs and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs), should be administered for four weeks, bearing in mind the pharmacological and clinical situation of the source person. These recommendations should be updated periodically.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence is lacking on the possible efficacy and effectiveness of non-occupational postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, because of its biological plausibility, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to prevent the development of infection in certain cases of accidental or sporadic exposure has begun to be considered as common clinical practice.
Previous studies performed in Spain have demonstrated both the demand and the prescription of ARV as PEP and especially the diversity and inconsistency in the criteria used. In this context, in April of 2000 the Centre for Epidemiological Studies on AIDS of Catalonia (CEESCAT) (Department of Health and Social Security of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia), in collaboration with the National AIDS Plan and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA), promoted the creation of a working group for the drafting of recommendations for PEP against HIV outside the occupational health context. The recommendations have been made bearing in mind the exceptional character of the exposure, the time elapsed since exposure, as well as evaluation of the risk of infection according to the type of exposure and the information available on the source of infection. In addition, the recommendations include the immediate measures necessary, as well as the preventive measures and clinical follow-up required both for HIV and for other infectious agents. All PEP regimens should be started within 72 hours of exposure and appropriate daily doses of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a protease inhibitor (PI), or two NRTIs and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs), should be administered for four weeks, bearing in mind the pharmacological and clinical situation of the source person. These recommendations should be updated periodically.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in several Spanish subpopulations with different risk levels of acquiring HIV-1 infection and from different geographical regions.
Cross-sectional seroprevalence study.
A total of 1699 serum samples from blood donors (613), children under the age of 12 years (100), injecting drug users (IDU) (382), heterosexuals attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic (273) and homosexual men attending a STD clinic or a HIV-based hospital unit (331) were analysed for anti-HHV-8 antibodies. The presence of antibodies against HHV-8 was tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A subsample of HHV-8-positive samples was also tested for antibody titre against HHV-8.
The overall seroprevalence of antibodies against HHV-8 for the blood donor population was 6.5% (7.0% in Andalusia, 8.0% in Catalonia and 4.5% in the Basque Country). None of the children tested positive for HHV-8. The HHV-8 prevalence was 86.7% in HIV-positive homosexual men and 28.0% in HIV-negative homosexual men (P < 0.001). Of heterosexual men attending STD clinics, 17.2% tested positive for HHV-8; 11.5% of IDU tested positive for HHV-8. HHV-8 antibody titres by groups parallel the distribution of HHV-8 prevalence. No association between HHV-8 antibody titres and CD4 cell count or HIV viral load was identified.
The HHV-8 prevalence among blood donors in Spain is higher than in Northern Europe and the USA, but is similar to that in Northern Italy. The distribution of HHV-8 is compatible with a sexually transmitted agent. The distribution of HHV-8 correlates with that of Kaposi's sarcoma but factors other than HHV-8 seem to explain the Kaposi sarcoma distribution.