[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Neck dissection is the standard staging procedure to ascertain the pathologic status of cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but it results in multiple morbidities. OBJECTIVE To examine outcomes of patients with OSCC who underwent sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as the sole neck staging procedure. DESIGN Retrospective review of patients who underwent SNB during the period 2005 through 2011. SETTING National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-eight patients with clinically T1 or T2N0 OSCC. INTERVENTIONS Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma probe localization was used. Sentinel lymph nodes were serially sectioned, formalin fixed, and examined at 3 levels. All patients with positive SNB results underwent neck dissection, and the patients with negative SNB results were observed clinically. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sensitivity and predictive value of SNB, recurrence rates, and disease-specific survival rates. RESULTS There were 18 T1 and 20 T2 tumors. Five patients had positive SNB results, of whom 3 had additional positive nodes on subsequent neck dissection. Two of 33 patients with negative SNB results developed a regional recurrence. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for staging the neck with SNB alone were 71% (5 of 7) and 94% (31 of 33), respectively. Mean follow-up was 31 months. The mean disease-free survival duration for patients with positive and negative SNB results was 30 and 65 months, respectively (P = .08). The disease-specific survival rate for patients with positive and negative SNB results was 80% and 91%, respectively. There was no significant difference in disease-specific survival between patients with true-negative and false-negative SNB results (34 vs 44 months; P = .38). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The majority of patients with positive results on SNB had additional positive nodes on neck dissection. A low rate of isolated neck recurrence was found in patients with negative results on SNB. Individuals with negative results on SNB exhibited better overall and disease-specific survival than those with positive results.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The purpose was to examine the effect of pretreatment weight status on loco-regional progression for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) after receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT).
In an expanded cohort of 140 patients, we retrospectively reviewed weight status and loco-regional progression of SCCHN patients treated with CCRT between 2004 and 2010.
Pretreatment ideal body weight percentage (IBW%) was statistically significantly different for patients with disease progression than for those without progression (p = 0.02) but was not an independent predictor of progression. Median pretreatment IBW% was 118 (72-193) for the progression-free group and was 101.5 (73-163) for the group with progression. Both groups suffered clinically severe weight loss of approximately 9 % from baseline to end treatment.
Pretreatment weight status, a very crude indicator of nutrition status, may have prognostic value in patients with SCCHN undergoing definitive CCRT. Inadequate nutritional status in these patients has been associated with poor clinical outcomes and decreased quality of life. Based on this report and others, the best next steps include routine validated malnutrition screening and the testing of evidence-based nutrition care protocols with the goals of minimizing weight loss and improvement of quality of life.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Supportive Care in Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to determine if markers of nutritional status predict for locoregional failure following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
We performed a retrospective chart review of 78 patients with SCCHN who received definitive CCRT. We compared patient factors, tumor characteristics, and nutritional status indicators between patients with and without locoregional failure.
Fifteen of 78 patients (19%) experienced locoregional failure. Median follow-up for live patients was 38 months. On univariate analysis, pretreatment percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) (p < .01), pretreatment hemoglobin (p = .04), and treatment duration (p < .01) were significant predictors of failure. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment %IBW (p = .04) and treatment time (p < .01) remained statistically significant.
Although treatment time is an accepted risk factor for failure, differences in outcome for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing definitive CCRT based on pretreatment %IBW should be examined further.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a common clinical pairing, the epidemiology and prognosis of lung cancer (LC) after head and neck cancer (HNC) is not well described.
Data from the database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to study the epidemiology and survival of patients with LC after HNC. These data were compared with those from our institutional cancer registry.
Of all patients with a history of HNC in the SEER database, 8,225 (5%) patients went on to develop LC. This was more than three times the incidence of second primary lung cancers (1.5%). Subsequent LCs in patients with a history of HNC were more common among those with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and those with localized HNC. Patients with HNC followed by LC had poorer overall survival than did the overall population of patients with LCs in the SEER database. Overall survival after the onset of LC was dismal (median survival, 8 months). Survival was not affected by histologic concordance between HNC and LC. An analysis of 72 patients with LC after HNC reported in our institutional tumor registry over the past 37 years yielded similar results.
Of patients who survive LC or HNC, the latter are much more likely to develop a new pulmonary malignancy. Lung cancers that develop after HNC have a poor prognosis. This phenomenon is not explained by misclassified metastases, because histologically discordant cases behave just as poorly. Enhanced surveillance and chemoprevention strategies are needed to detect and prevent subsequent primary LC in survivors of HNC.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are causally related to a sub-set of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers. However, a clear estimate of the prevalence of HPV-16/18 in oral cavity and oropharyngeal dysplasia (OOPD) is not available. This literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide a prevalence estimate for HPV-16/18 in OOPD. Twenty-two studies that reported prevalence of HPV-16 and/or 18 in 458 OOPD lesions were analyzed. Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the prevalence of HPV-16/18 and logistic regression was used for stratified analysis by age, gender, and histological grade. The overall prevalence of HPV-16/18 in OOPD lesions was 24.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 16.4-36.7%)]. The individual prevalence for HPV-16 alone was 24.4%. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 in oral cavity lesions alone was 25.3% (95% CI, 14.2-45.2%). The odds of detection of HPV-16/18 in dysplastic lesions in males were twice that of females [odds ratio (OR), 2.44]. HPV-16/18 were 3 times more common in dysplastic lesions (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.95-5.53%) and invasive cancers (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 2.07-5.69%), when compared to normal biopsies. There was no significant difference in HPV-16/18 rates between dysplastic lesions and cancers or between mild, moderate or severe dysplastic lesions. This meta-analysis provides a quantification of the prevalence of HPV types 16/18 in OOPD lesions. These results also support the assumption that HPV-16/18 infection occurs during the early phase of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a brief staff training program to improve the delivery of tobacco cessation services to patients with head and neck cancers. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design to compare the delivery of smoking cessation components and outcomes among patients exposed to either usual care (UC) or an enhanced cessation (EC) program implemented following a 1-h staff education program. Of the 179 subjects enrolled, 112 were recontacted by phone 1 month after their clinic visit. More patients in EC compared to UC reported that they were asked about their smoking status (94.2% vs. 76.6%, p = 0.01), advised to quit (92.3% vs. 72.3%, p = 0.01), prescribed cessation medications (30.8% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.001), and received a support call (53.8% vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001) at the 1-month follow-up. Quit attempts and quit rates between groups were similar. The EC intervention improved the delivery of cessation services in a busy clinical setting, but this failed to increase cessation rates after 1 month.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Cancer Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The overall purpose of this study was to establish human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts in mice by transplantation of surgical tumor tissue and to characterize the growth, histologic and vascular properties of these xenografts. Primary surgical specimens of HNSCC were xenografted into eight-to-twelve week old severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Histologic features of primary HNSCC specimens, initial and established xenografts were compared for tumors established from three different head and neck subsites, namely, oral cavity, larynx and base of tongue (one tumor per site). Growth rates of xenografts were compared along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of tumor vascularity and correlative CD31-immunostaining. Initial and established xenografts from all three sites demonstrated a squamous phenotype similar to the original patient tumor histology. Established xenografts of oral cavity and larynx exhibited increased keratinization (H&E) compared to initial xenografts and the primary tumor. No differences in tumor growth rates were observed between established xenografts from the different subsites. Xenografts established from SCC of the larynx exhibited increased microvessel density and lumen area (CD31 staining) along with enhanced permeability to the MR contrast agent compared to oral cavity and base of tongue tumors. Our results show that the combination of non-invasive imaging along with histologic evaluation of patient tumor xenografts offers a valuable platform for preclinical investigations in head and neck cancer. However, it is important to recognize the influence of tumor-host interactions on the histologic phenotype of transplanted tumors.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Cancer biology & therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early detection of oral premalignant lesions (OPL) and oral cancers (OC) is critical for improved survival. We evaluated if the addition of autofluorescence visualization (AFV) to conventional white-light examination (WLE) improved the ability to detect OPLs/OCs. Sixty high-risk patients, with suspicious oral lesions or recently diagnosed untreated OPLs/OCs, underwent sequential surveillance with WLE and AFV. Biopsies were obtained from all suspicious areas identified on both examinations (n = 189) and one normal-looking control area per person (n = 60). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for WLE, AFV, and WLE + AFV. Estimates were calculated separately for lesions classified by histopathologic grades as low-grade lesions, high-grade lesions (HGL), and OCs. Sequential surveillance with WLE + AFV provided a greater sensitivity than WLE in detecting low-grade lesions (75% versus 44%), HGLs (100% versus 71%), and OCs (100% versus 80%). The specificity in detecting OPLs/OCs decreased from 70% with WLE to 38% with WLE + AFV. Thirteen of the 76 additional biopsies (17%) obtained based on AFV findings were HGLs/OCs. Five patients (8%) were diagnosed with a HGL/OC only because of the addition of AFV to WLE. In seven patients, additional HGL/OC foci or wider OC margins were detected on AFV. Additionally, AFV aided in the detection of metachronous HGL/OC in 6 of 26 patients (23%) with a history of previously treated head and neck cancer. Overall, the addition of AFV to WLE improved the ability to detect HGLs/OCs. In spite of the lower specificity, AFV + WLE can be a highly sensitive first-line surveillance tool for detecting OPLs/OCs in high-risk patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Cancer Prevention Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether baseline hemoglobin level and radiation treatment interruptions predict for loco-regional failure after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy for definitive treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
This retrospective review identified 78 consecutive patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiation for SCCHN. Patients were treated with IMRT to 70 Gy in 35 daily fractions to the high-dose target volume and 56 Gy to the elective target volume.
Median age of the cohort was 62 (37-81). Median follow-up was 12 months. Tumor sites included: oropharynx (54%), larynx (36%), oral cavity (5%), and hypopharynx (5%). Fifteen of 78 patients (19%) experienced loco-regional failure. These included: 6 primary site failures, 5 regional failures, and 4 failures in both the primary site and regional lymph nodes. All but one failure occurred in the high-dose target volume. Only duration of radiation treatment and baseline hemoglobin levels were significant predictors of local control. Loco-regional failure occurred in 6 of 13 patients (46%) with radiation treatment interruptions (>1 week) versus 9 of 65 patients (14%) completing radiation therapy without interruption (P = 0.0148). Loco-regional failure occurred in 7 of 19 patients (37%) whose pretreatment hemoglobin level was <12 g/dL compared with 8 of 59 patients (14%) with hemoglobin levels > or = 12 (P = 0.042).
Overall radiation treatment time and pretreatment hemoglobin level were significant predictors for loco-regional failure after definitive concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for SCCHN.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · American journal of clinical oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address some of the challenges facing the incorporation of array comparative genomic hybridization technology as a clinical tool, including archived tumor tissue, tumor heterogeneity, DNA quality and quantity, and array comparative genomic hybridization platform selection and performance.
Experiments were designed to assess the impact of DNA source (e.g., archival material), quantity, and amplification on array comparative genomic hybridization results. Two microdissection methods were used to isolate tumor cells to minimize heterogeneity. These data and other data sets were used in a further performance comparison of two commonly used array comparative genomic hybridization platforms: bacterial artificial chromosome (Roswell Park Cancer Institute) and oligonucleotide (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA).
Array comparative genomic hybridization data from as few as 100 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cells isolated by laser capture microdissection and amplified were remarkably similar to array comparative genomic hybridization copy number alterations detected in the bulk (unamplified) population. Manual microdissection from frozen sections provided a rapid and inexpensive means to isolate tumor from adjacent DNA for amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization. Whole genome amplification introduced no appreciable allele bias on array comparative genomic hybridization. The array comparative genomic hybridization results provided by the bacterial artificial chromosome and Agilent platforms were concordant in general, but bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization showed far fewer outliers and overall less technical noise, which could adversely affect the statistical interpretation of the data.
This study demonstrates that copy number alterations can be robustly and reproducibly detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in DNA isolated from challenging tumor types and sources, including archival materials, low DNA yield, and heterogeneous tissues. Furthermore, bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization offers the advantage over the Agilent oligonucleotide platform of presenting fewer outliers, which could affect data interpretation.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NSM) is a self-limiting disorder affecting mainly the minor salivary glands. The significance of NSM resides in its clinical and histopathological resemblance to carcinoma. Few cases of NSM associated with eating disorders have been reported to date. We present here the clinical features and histomorphology of an additional case of bulimia-associated NSM closely mimicking an invasive carcinoma. A high index of suspicion and good communication between clinician and pathologist are essential in recognizing this entity and preventing unnecessary surgical therapy.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developments in the fluorescence detection of cancer aim either to distinguish tissue autofluorescence from that of injected fluorophores or to exploit differences in autofluorescent spectra of normal versus transforming, premalignant and malignant tissue. This study evaluates the utility of autofluorescence and Photofrin-induced fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy to distinguish tissue transformation associated with early malignant change in the oral cavity. The model of tissue transformation used was that induced by the carcinogen DMBA in the hamster buccal cheek pouch. Fluorescence spectra were obtained using a high-sensitivity fiber optic spectrometer, while imaging was performed using a Multispectral Fluorescence Guidance (MFG) system designed for use in intraoperative fluorescence imaging during photodynamic therapy. The results demonstrate that Photofrin fluorescence can be used to predict the pathologic state of tissue, the fluorescence intensity being directly proportional to the degree of malignant transformation. Autofluorescence detection measured two parameters that are altered by transformation stage: the red/green fluorescence ratio and the total fluorescence intensity. The most striking feature was the change in the latter in malignant tissue. The MFG imaging device performed as well as spectroscopy: the sensitivity and specificity for the imaging system were 65% and 90% for autofluorescence and 87% and 85% with Photofrin. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity index of the tissue or the Photofrin-induced fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the “first approximation” characterization of the tissue.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid cysts rarely cause primary hyperparathyroidism. In most cases, the resultant hypercalcemia is mild and detected before any significant skeletal disease develops. We report a patient with severe hypercalcemia, a synchronous brown tumor (osteitis fibrosa cystica) of the maxilla, and a large benign functional parathyroid cyst. The unusual patient presentation and management are described and illustrated. The pertinent literature is reviewed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · American Journal of Otolaryngology