[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that 28-day exposure to hepatocarcinogens that facilitate cell proliferation specifically alters the expression of G1/S checkpoint-related genes and proteins, induces aberrant early expression of ubiquitin D (UBD) at the G2 phase, and increases apoptosis in the rat liver, indicating G1/S and spindle checkpoint dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the time of onset of carcinogen-specific cell-cycle disruption after repeated administration of renal carcinogens for up to 28 days. Rats were orally administered the renal carcinogens nitrofurantoin (NFT), 1-amino-2,4-dibromoantraquinone (ADAQ), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) or the non-carcinogenic renal toxicants 1-chloro-2-propanol, triamterene, and carboxin for 3, 7 or 28 days. Both immunohistochemical single-molecule analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that carcinogen-specific expression changes were not observed after 28 days of administration. However, the renal carcinogens ADAQ and TCP specifically reduced the number of cells expressing phosphorylated-histone H3 at Ser10 in both UBD+ cells and proliferating cells, suggestive of insufficient UBD expression at the M phase and early transition of proliferating cells from the M phase, without increasing apoptosis, after 28 days of administration. In contrast, NFT, which has marginal carcinogenic potential, did not induce such cellular responses. These results suggest that it may take 28 days to induce spindle checkpoint dysfunction by renal carcinogens; however, induction of apoptosis may not be essential. Thus, induction of spindle checkpoint dysfunction may be dependent on carcinogenic potential of carcinogen examined, and marginal carcinogens may not exert sufficient responses even after 28 days of administration.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the hepatocarcinogen-specific disruption of cell cycle checkpoint functions and its time course after repeated administration of hepatocarcinogens. Thus, rats were repeatedly administered with hepatocarcinogens (methapyrilene, carbadox and thioacetamide), a marginal hepatocarcinogen (leucomalachite green), hepatocarcinogenic promoters (oxfendazole and β-naphthoflavone) or non-carcinogenic hepatotoxicants (promethazine and acetaminophen) for 7, 28 or 90 days, and the temporal changes in cell proliferation, expression of G1/S and spindle checkpoint-related molecules, and apoptosis were examined using immunohistochemistry and/or real-time RT-PCR analysis. Hepatocarcinogens facilitating cell proliferation at day 28 of administration also facilitated cell proliferation and apoptosis at day 90. Hepatocarcinogen- or hepatocarcinogenic promoter-specific cellular responses were not detected by immunohistochemical single molecule analysis even after 90 days. Expression of Cdkn1a, Mad2l1, Chek1 and Rbl2 mRNA also lacked specificity to hepatocarcinogens or hepatocarcinogenic promoters. In contrast, all hepatocarcinogens and the marginally hepatocarcinogenic leucomalachite green induced Mdm2 upregulation or increase in the number of phosphorylated MDM2+ cells from day 28, irrespective of the lack of cell proliferation facilitation by some compounds. However, different Tp53 expression levels suggest different mechanisms of induction or activation of MDM2 among hepatocarcinogens. On the other hand, hepatocarcinogenic methapyrilene and carbadox downregulated the number of both ubiquitin D+ cells and proliferating cells remaining in M phase at day 28 and/or day 90, irrespective of the lack of cell proliferation facilitation in the latter. These results suggest that hepatocarcinogens disrupt spindle checkpoint function after 28 or 90 days of administration, which may be induced ahead of cell proliferation facilitation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmental cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs rat hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we captured the developmental neurotoxicity profile of CPZ using a region-specific expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex and cerebellar vermis of rat offspring exposed to 0, 0.1, or 0.4% CPZ in the maternal diet from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Transcripts of those genes identified as altered were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis on PNDs 21 and 77. Our results showed that transcripts for myelinogenesis-related genes, including Cnp, were selectively downregulated in the cerebral cortex by CPZ at ≥0.1% or 0.4% on PND 21. CPZ at 0.4% decreased immunostaining intensity for 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and CNPase(+) and OLIG2(+) oligodendrocyte densities in the cerebral cortex, whereas CNPase immunostaining intensity alone was decreased in the corpus callosum. By contrast, a striking transcript upregulation for Klotho gene and an increased density of Klotho(+) oligodendrocytes were detected in the corpus callosum at ≥0.1%. In the dentate gyrus, CPZ at ≥0.1% or 0.4% decreased the transcript levels for Gria1, Grin2a and Ptgs2, genes related to the synapse and synaptic transmission, and the number of GRIA1(+) and GRIN2A(+) hilar γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and cyclooxygenase-2(+) granule cells. All changes were reversed at PND 77. Thus, developmental CPZ exposure reversibly decreased mature oligodendrocytes in both cortical and white matter tissues, and Klotho protected white matter oligodendrocyte growth. CPZ also reversibly targeted glutamatergic signals of GABAergic interneuron to affect dentate gyrus neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in granule cells.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the developmental exposure effects of T-2 toxin on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant ICR mice were provided a diet containing T-2 toxin at 0, 1, 3, or 9 ppm from gestation day 6 to day 21 on weaning after delivery. Offspring were maintained through postnatal day (PND) 77 without T-2 toxin exposure. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus of male PND 21 offspring, GFAP(+) and BLBP(+) type-1 stem cells and PAX6(+) and TBR2(+) type-2 progenitor cells decreased in the subgranular zone (SGZ) at 9 and ≥3 ppm, respectively, in parallel with increased apoptosis at ≥3 ppm. In the dentate hilus, reelin(+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons increased at 9 ppm, suggesting reflection of neuronal mismigration. T-2 toxin decreased transcript levels of cholinergic and glutamate receptor subunits (Chrna4, Chrnb2 and Gria2) and glutamate transporter (Slc17a6) in the dentate gyrus, suggesting decreased cholinergic signals on hilar GABAergic interneurons innervating type-2 cells and decreased glutamatergic signals on type-1 and type-2 cells. T-2 toxin decreased SGZ cells expressing stem cell factor (SCF) and increased cells accumulating malondialdehydes. Neurogenesis-related changes disappeared on PND 77, suggesting that T-2 toxin reversibly affects neurogenesis by inducing apoptosis of type-1 and type-2 cells with different threshold levels. Decreased cholinergic and glutamatergic signals may decrease type-2 cells at ≥3 ppm. Additionally, decreased SCF/c-Kit interactions and increased oxidative stress may decrease type-1 and type-2 cells at 9 ppm. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 1 ppm (0.14-0.49 mg/kg body weight/day).
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Archives of Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 — identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis — increased in the subpopulation of GST-P+ foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P+ lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P+ foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P− foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad-dependent signaling prerequisites for induction of GST-P+ proliferative lesions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wy-14,643 (WY), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a pesticide synergist, induce oxidative stress and promote hepatocarcinogenesis in the liver of rodents. These chemicals belong to a class of non-genotoxic carcinogens, but DNA damage secondary to the oxidative stress resulting from reactive oxygen species generation is suspected in rodents given these chemicals. To examine whether WY or PBO have DNA-damaging potential in livers of rats subjected to repeated oral administration for 14 days, the in vivo liver comet assay was performed in partially hepatectomized rats, and the expression of some DNA-repair genes was examined. Then, to examine whether they have genotoxic potential, the in vivo liver initiation assay was performed in rats. In the comet assay, positive results were obtained at 3 h after the last treatment of WY, and some DNA-repair genes such as Apex1, Mlh1, Xrcc5, and Gadd45 were up-regulated in the liver. In the liver initiation assay, negative results were obtained for both WY and PBO. The results of the present study suggest that WY, but not PBO, causes some DNA damage in livers of rats, but such DNA damage was repaired by the increased activity of some DNA repair genes and may not lead to a DNA mutation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Archives of Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the role of metal-related molecules in hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined immunolocalization of transferrin receptor (Tfrc), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and metallothionein (MT)-1/2 in relation to liver cell foci positive for glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) in the early stage of tumor promotion by fenbendazole (FB), phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide or thioacetamide in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. To estimate the involvement of oxidative stress responses to the promotion, immunolocalization of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, malondialdehyde and acrolein was similarly examined. Our findings showed that MT-1/2 immunoreactivity was not associated with the cellular distribution of GST-P and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suggesting no role of MT-1/2 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We also found enhanced expression of Tfrc after treatment with strong tumor-promoting chemicals. With regard to Cp, the population showing down-regulation was increased in the GST-P-positive foci in relation to tumor promotion. Up-regulation of Tfrc and down-regulation of Cp was maintained in GST-P-positive neoplastic lesions induced after long-term promotion with FB, suggesting the expression changes occurring downstream of the signaling pathway involved in the formation of GST-P-positive lesions. Furthermore, enhanced accumulation of lipid peroxidation end products was observed in the GST-P-positive foci by promotion. Post-initiation treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists did not enhance any such distribution changes in GST-P-negative foci. The results thus suggest that facilitation of lipid peroxidation is involved in the induction of GST-P-positive lesions by tumor promotion from an early stage, and up-regulation of Tfrc and down-regulation of Cp may be a signature of enhanced oxidative cellular stress in these lesions.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Archives of Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate liver tumor promotion mechanisms of copper (Cu)- and iron (Fe)-overloading, immunolocalization of metal-related biomolecules and lipid peroxidation end products was examined in preneoplastic liver cell foci that expressed glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) in early-stage tumor promotion over 6 weeks in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. Gene expression and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in the liver were also analyzed. Cu-overloading alone exerted a weak promoting activity, which was enhanced by Fe-overloading. By Cu-overloading, GST-P(+) foci that co-expressed transferrin receptors or downregulated ceruloplasmin increased, suggesting preneoplastic lesion-specific enhancement of oxidative cellular stress. Cu-overloading also increased transcripts of antioxidant enzymes (Gstm3 and Gst Yc2 subunit), cell proliferation, and numbers of single liver cells expressing GST-P or heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the liver, suggesting that oxidative stress induces single-cell toxicity, with the ensuing regeneration contributing to tumor promotion. Fe-overloading increased liver TBARS and HO-1-expressing Kupffer cells, the latter suggesting protection against inflammatory stimuli causing fluctuating proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. By co-overloading of Cu and Fe, Cu-overload-related single liver cell toxicity and regeneration increased, as did cytokine imbalances involving increased cyclooxygenase-2-producing Kupffer cells and accumulation of malondialdehyde within GST-P(+) foci. These results suggest an involvement of oxidative stress responses in Cu-induced tumor promotion and Fe-induced enhancement by increasing cytokine imbalances and GST-P(+) foci-specific lipid peroxidation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the modifying effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) on hepatocellular tumor promotion induced by beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) treatment, male rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and were fed a diet containing BNF (0.5%) for 6 weeks with or without EMIQ (0.2%) in the drinking water after DEN initiation. One week after the commencement of the administration of BNF, rats were subjected to a two-thirds partial hepatectomy. The number and area of GST-P positive foci, the number of COX2-positive cells and the area of elastica-van Gieson (EVG)-positive connective tissue fibers promoted by BNF were significantly suppressed by the administration of the antioxidant EMIQ. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that EMIQ treatment decreased mRNA expression levels of Gstm1, Serpine1, Cox2 and Nfkbia and increased mRNA expression levels of Yc2 compared with those in the DEN-BNF group. These results suggest that co-administration of EMIQ suppresses the hepatocellular tumor-promoting activity of BNF in rats through the anti-inflammatory effects of EMIQ and restores the cellular redox balance altered by BNF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of benign sex cord-stromal tumor consisted largely of luteoma with minor portion of Sertoli cell tumor located at the position of the left ovary excision in an 11-year-old ovariectomized bitch. Granulosa cell component was lacking, and both luteal and Sertoli cell portions were entirely positive for inhibin alpha and neuron-specific enolase, whereas luteoma portion alone was positive for Wilms' tumor-1 (WT1), immunohistochemically. The results suggest that this tumor is a possible complication of incomplete ovarian excision at the time of ovariectomy and consisted of uncommon hybrid of luteal and Sertoli cells to be diagnosed as an unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor if applied in human cases. WT1-expression pattern suggested the signature of the difference in the phenotype of these cell types.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science