S Albrecht

Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany

Are you S Albrecht?

Claim your profile

Publications (52)159.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) monitoring systems should be reliable and safe. Monitoring via electromyographical systems on an endotracheal tube (ETT) is widely spread. The MagStim™ system consists of an adhesive electrode to be fixed on an endotracheal tube. The Xomed™ endotracheal tube provides integrated electrodes. Reliability and side effects had never been compared. As both systems have very different morphological properties, we hypothesized that there might be differences in reliability and the incidence of side effects. In a retrospective quality management analysis of 118 patients (MagStim™ electrode, 57 patients; Xomed™ ETT, 61 patients), we compared laryngeal side effects according to the Chilla score and detection rate of the RLN. Both systems had comparable detection rates of the RLN above 95%. Both electrode systems seemed to have similar reliability. Difficulties to detect the nerve were observed in seven patients (four with MagStim, three with Xomed). In the group with the Xomed™ ETT, significantly less mild laryngeal side effects were observed. Both MagStim™ and Xomed™ ETT were reliable in detecting the RLN. The Xomed™ ETT, however, might cause milder laryngeal side effects compared with the MagStim™ electrode.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery
  • Source
    C Jeleazcov · J Schmidt · B Schmitz · K Becke · S Albrecht
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical benefits of measuring processed EEG during anaesthesia in adults, such as improved recovery and reduced risk of awareness, may also be valid in children. This study evaluated a rational selection of EEG variables as measures of arousal during surgical anaesthesia in children. Sixty children undergoing surgical anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil were enrolled. The performance of 33 single EEG variables and bispectral index (BIS) was assessed by simultaneous analysis of prediction probability (Pk) of Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Sedation Scores and their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Variables performing best in Pk and SNR analysis were selected as potential measures of arousal. Their performance was investigated in five age groups, 0-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5-8, and 8-13 yr. Single EEG variables such as relative power from frequency bands 13-20 and 20-26 Hz, SEF95, and approximate entropy performed best with Pk>0.59 and SNR>5.50. The Pk and SNR of BIS were 0.71 and 15.76, respectively. Their performance was significantly better in children aged 1-13 yr than in 0-1 yr. BIS may provide a measure of arousal during propofol anaesthesia in children, but its accuracy is less in infants younger than 12 months. Single EEG variables such as high-frequency components of EEG, SEF95, and approximate entropy may be of limited value to detect arousal in the individual paediatric patient.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
  • J Schmidt · S Albrecht · N Petterich · J Fechner · P Klein · A Irouschek
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Priming can significantly shorten the onset of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NNBA) measured at the adductor pollicis muscle (APM). In spite of the known risks, priming is very popular especially in cases where NNBAs with a long onset time are used. However, there are no data regarding the onset of action for a priming technique measured at the laryngeal muscles although these muscles are of great importance for conditions of intubation and patient safety. The aim of this study was to compare a bolus application and a priming technique with respect to the laryngeal onset time and peak effect. After approval of the local ethics committee and written informed consent, 36 patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery were enrolled in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with a target controlled infusion of propofol (target concentration 2.7-6.0 microg/ml) and infusion of remifentanil (0.25-0.75 microg/kgbw/min). After loss of consciousness, a tube with a surface electrode was placed into the trachea without the application of any neuromuscular blocking agent. Neuromuscular monitoring consisted of evoked electromyography (EMG) of the laryngeal adductor muscles via the surface electrode and evoked acceleromyography (TOF Guard) of the right adductor pollicis muscle (APM). After transcutaneous stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and ulnar nerve, either 0.9% NaCl followed by 0.1 mg/kgbw cisatracurium after 3 min (bolus group, n=12), a priming dose of 0.01 mg/kgbw cisatracurium followed by 0.09 mg/kgbw 3 min later (low dose priming group, n=12) or a priming dose of 0.015 mg/kgbw cisatracurium followed by cisatracurium 0.085 mg/kgbw 3 min later (high dose priming group, n=12) were injected. Lag time, onset time and peak effect of NMB were recorded and compared between the groups. Demographic data, lag time and peak effect were comparable between the three groups. Onset time at the laryngeal muscles was significantly shorter in the high dose priming group (80+/-17 s), when compared to the low dose priming group (128+/-23 s) and bolus group (142+/-29 s). Onset time at the APM was also significantly shorter in the high dose priming group (154+/-35 s), when compared with the bolus group (226+/-76 s). The recovery of the neuromuscular function measured at the APM showed no differences between the groups. Our results show that only high dose priming of cisatracurium can significantly shorten the laryngeal onset time. However, clinical routine use is not recommended due to possible side-effects.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Der Anaesthesist
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although a considerable amount of promising experimental research has been performed on cardiopulmonary resuscitation, clinical data indicate an ongoing limited outcome in human beings. One reason for this discrepancy could be that experimental studies use healthy animals whereas most human beings undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation suffer from acute or chronic myocardial dysfunction. To overcome this problem, we sought to develop a new model of myocardial infarction, that is easy to perform in all kind of laboratories and compromises on the myocardial function significantly. Following approval by the local authorities, 14 domestic pigs were instrumented for measurement of arterial, central venous, left atrial and left ventricular pressures. Myocardial infarction was induced in eight pigs by clipping the circumflex artery close to its origin from the left coronary artery (infarction group; n = 8). Six animals (no infarction group, n = 6) served as no-infarct controls. Following a 4-min period of cardiac arrest, internal cardiac massage was performed in these two groups, and haemodynamics were recorded during the first 30 min of reperfusion. All animals were resuscitated successfully. Compared to the no-infarction group, the infarction group showed significantly decreased myocardial contractility, coronary perfusion pressure and cardiac index (30 min after restoration of spontaneous circulation: infarction group: 57 +/- 7 and 89 +/- 19 mL min-1 kg-1 in the no-infarction group; mean +/- SD; P < 0.05) during reperfusion. Two animals from the infarction group (25%), but none of the animals in the no-infarction group, died during the reperfusion period. These data demonstrate that clipping of the circumflex artery leads to a reduced myocardial performance after successful resuscitation, whereas the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation is not reduced. Therefore, this set-up provides a reproducible model for future studies of post-resuscitation haemodynamics and treatment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · European Journal of Anaesthesiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Milrinone used for acute cardiac insufficiency could be of interest during cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of its positive inotropic effects. In this study, the combination of milrinone-vasopressin was compared with epinephrine and vasopressin, as well as with the combination of epinephrine-vasopressin, in reference to hemodynamics. Thirty-two pigs underwent ligation of the circumflex coronary artery and induction of ventricular fibrillation lasting for 4 min. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed after randomization to one of four groups: epinephrine (30-microg/kg bolus), vasopressin (0.4-U/kg bolus), epinephrine-vasopressin (15-microg/kg epinephrine bolus, 0.2-U/kg vasopressin bolus), or milrinone-vasopressin (0.4-U/kg vasopressin bolus, 50-microg/kg milrinone bolus over 5 min and a continuous infusion of 0.4 microg.kg.min). The hemodynamic variables were measured before cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as 4, 8, 15, and 30 min after return of spontaneous circulation. All animals were resuscitated successfully. The animals of the milrinone-vasopressin group displayed significantly (P<0.05) higher cardiac index values (30 min after return of spontaneous circulation: epinephrine, 65.8+/-13.2; vasopressin, 70.7+/-18.3; epinephrine-vasopressin, 69.1+/-36.2; milrinone-vasopressin, 120.7+/-34.8 ml.min.kg) without a decrease in mean arterial pressure or coronary perfusion pressure. The combination of vasopressin-milrinone as compared with epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation leads to an improved cardiac index without relevant decrease of mean arterial pressure or coronary perfusion pressure.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Anesthesiology
  • Source
    M Messner · S Albrecht · W Lang · R Sittl · M Dinkel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rapid and reliable neurological evaluation soon after carotid artery surgery is feasible with modern methods of general anesthesia, but postoperative pain therapy remains a challenge. Use of opioids can mask neurological deficits. We investigated whether superficial cervical plexus block reduced postoperative opioid consumption after carotid endarterectomy. Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. 46 patients undergoing unilateral carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia were randomized to either superficial cervical block with ropivacaine (n=23) or placebo (n=23). A patient controlled analgesia device (PCA) delivering morphine was provided for all patients. Subjective pain levels (visual analog scale, VAS) were recorded. The primary outcome was total morphine consumption on discharge from the recovery room. Secondary outcomes included arterial pCO2 (as an indicator of central nervous effects of morphine) and patient satisfaction. No adverse effects of the superficial cervical plexus block were reported. Four patients in the placebo group were excluded because of other drug use post-operatively. Per protocol analysis compared 23 patients in ropivacaine group and 19 patients in the placebo group. The ropivacaine group had a significant reduction in morphine consumption (3.8+/-2.0 versus 12.9+/-4.0, p<0.001), lower maximal pain scores (2.6+/-2.0 versus 5.8+/-1.6, p<0.001), and paCO2 levels (39.0+/-2.6 versus 41.9+/-3.4, p=0.008) at discharge from the recovery room. Patient satisfaction (1=very good to 6=insufficient) was substantially higher in the ropivacaine group (1.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-1.2, p<00.01). The significant and clinically relevant lower morphine consumption and pain score, as well as the substantially higher patient satisfaction demonstrate that superficial cervical plexus block provides effective pain relief for patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common inborn error of the urea cycle. Several specific factors require care during anesthesia in patients with this condition to avoid metabolic decompensation with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy. We report monozygous twins with severe neonatal-onset OTCD undergoing general anesthesia twice each, with midazolam, s-ketamine, fentanyl and isoflurane in combination with surgical field infiltration with ropivacaine. Alternative pathway medication and high-caloric diet with 10% glucose solutions were continuously administered during the perioperative course. Both children were extubated within 10 min of the final suture, and their neurological state remained unchanged. Perioperatively, blood ammonia levels remained within the normal range.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Pediatric Anesthesia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common inborn urea cycle disorder. Patients with OTCD are at risk of acute metabolic decompensation with hyperammonemia and subsequent encephalopathy, coma and death. Symptoms may be triggered by infections, drugs and stress, evoked by trauma, pain, fear, surgery and anaesthesia or by episodes of protein catabolism, i.e. fasting-induced, post partum or during gastrointestinal bleeding. Several specific considerations must be made for anaesthetic and intensive care management in patients with this disease in order to avoid metabolic decompensation. We report the intensive care management of the first manifestation of late-onset OTCD in a 16-year-old girl and a course of inconspicuous general anaesthesia with midazolam, s-ketamine, fentanyl and isoflurane in a 22-year-old girl with known OTCD.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Der Anaesthesist
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This randomised, open-label, multicentre study compared the safety and efficacy of an analgesia-based sedation regime using remifentanil with a conventional hypnotic-based sedation regime in critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation for up to 10 days. One hundred and five randomised patients received either a remifentanil-based sedation regime (initial dose 6 to 9 microg kg(-1) h(-1) (0.1 to 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) titrated to response before the addition of midazolam for further sedation (n = 57), or a midazolam-based sedation regime with fentanyl or morphine added for analgesia (n = 48). Patients were sedated to an optimal Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) score of 3 or 4 and a pain intensity (PI) score of 1 or 2. The remifentanil-based sedation regime significantly reduced the duration of mechanical ventilation by more than 2 days (53.5 hours, P = 0.033), and significantly reduced the time from the start of the weaning process to extubation by more than 1 day (26.6 hours, P < 0.001). There was a trend towards shortening the stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) by 1 day. The median time of optimal SAS and PI was the same in both groups. There was a significant difference in the median time to offset of pharmacodynamic effects when discontinuing study medication in patients not extubated at 10 days (remifentanil 0.250 hour, comparator 1.167 hours; P < 0.001). Of the patients treated with remifentanil, 26% did not receive any midazolam during the study. In those patients that did receive midazolam, the use of remifentanil considerably reduced the total dose of midazolam required. Between days 3 and 10 the weighted mean infusion rate of remifentanil remained constant with no evidence of accumulation or of a development of tolerance to remifentanil. There was no difference between the groups in SAS or PI score in the 24 hours after stopping the study medication. Remifentanil was well tolerated. Analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil was well tolerated; it reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation and improves the weaning process compared with standard hypnotic-based sedation regimes in ICU patients requiring long-term ventilation for up to 10 days.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Critical care (London, England)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies suggest low-dose ketamine may have preemptive effects on postoperative pain in adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether intraoperative low-dose S-ketamine reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption in children undergoing major urological surgery. Thirty children scheduled for major urological surgery were included in this prospective study. Anesthesia was performed as total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with alfentanil and propofol. Fifteen patients additionally received an intravenous bolus of S-ketamine (0.2 mg.kg-1) followed by a continuous infusion of 5 microg.kg-1.min-1, which was stopped immediately after skin closure (Ketamine Group). Another 15 patients received an infusion of saline (Control group). After transfer to the PACU, pain intensity was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS). First patient controlled analgesia (PCA) request, cumulative morphine consumption and pain intensities within the first 72 h were compared. Morphine consumption was not significantly different during the first 72 h (Control: 0.4 mg.kg-1, 0.24-0.51 mg.kg-1, Ketamine: 0.32 mg.kg-1, 0.19-0.61 mg.kg-1; median, 25-75% percentile; n.s.). However, differences were found in pain intensity during the first postoperative hour (Control: 4.0, 3.2-4.6, Ketamine: 2.5, 1.3-3.5; median, 25-75% percentile; P<0.05) and in the time to first PCA use (Control: 37, 28-46 min, Ketamine: 62, 38-68 min; median, 25-75% percentile; P<0.05). Intraoperative low-dose S-ketamine had no effect on morphine consumption during the first 72 h after surgery. The differences in pain intensity and time to first PCA use probably reflect additional sedation and antinociceptive effects of S-ketamine rather than a true 'prevention' of pain.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Pediatric Anesthesia

  • No preview · Article · May 2005 · European Journal of Anaesthesiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Priming is a known technique to accelerate onset of neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Its effect on NMB of the larynx has not been studied yet. We compared a priming technique with a bolus application of rocuronium on the onset of NMB at the laryngeal adductor and the adductor pollicis muscles (AP). In 30 female patients, after induction of anesthesia a tube with a surface electrode was placed into the trachea prior to the administration of any neuromuscular blocking agent to monitor electromyography (EMG) of the laryngeal adductor muscles. Neuromuscular monitoring consisted of EMG of the laryngeal adductor muscles and the left AP. Patients were randomized into two groups. After transcutaneous stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and ulnar nerve, a bolus of rocuronium 0.6 mg x kg(-1) (Bolus group) or a priming dose of rocuronium 0.06 mg x kg(-1) followed by rocuronium 0.54 mg x kg(-1) three minutes later (Priming group) were injected. Lag time, onset 90%, onset time and peak effect of NMB were recorded and compared; a P < 0.05 was considered significant. The onset 90% and onset time measured at the laryngeal adductor muscles (onset: 44.7 +/- 7.4 vs 74.0 +/- 23.8 sec) and at the AP (onset: 105.4 +/- 29.9 vs 139.2 +/- 51.5 sec) were significantly shorter in the Priming group than in the Bolus group. Within groups, the onset times were significantly shorter at the laryngeal muscles in comparison to AP. Our results indicate that a priming technique with rocuronium significantly accelerates the onset of NMB at the laryngeal adductor muscles. Our results further support the use of rocuronium as an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia
  • J Schmidt · W Hering · S Albrecht
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy and tolerability of propofol, remifentanil and cisatracurium or mivacurium in routine anesthetic practice. A total of 6,161 patients scheduled for abdominal or orthopedic surgery were included in this open multicenter phase IV study. Perioperative hemodynamics as well as induction, recovery and discharge times, anesthetics, frequency of PONV and side-effects were studied. Quality of induction and maintenance of anesthesia were evaluated by anesthesiologists to be good or very good in 88%. 86% of the patients assessed anesthesia as good or very good. Adverse events were reported for 28 patients (0.45%), with hypotension and bradycardia being most frequent. Recovery was evaluated by anesthesiologists to be good or very good in 88%, surgeons and nursing staff assessed the TIVA as good or very good in 90%. Most frequent postoperative complaints were pain (16.7%), nausea (6.1%), shivering (3.1%) and vomiting (0.7%). The study showed that total intravenous anesthesia using propofol, remifentanil and cisatracurium or mivacurium is safe, tolerable and effective and has a high degree of acceptance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Der Anaesthesist

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · European Journal of Anaesthesiology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · European Journal of Anaesthesiology
  • Source
    M Pitsiu · A Wilmer · A Bodenham · D Breen · V Bach · J Bonde · P Kessler · S Albrecht · G Fisher · A Kirkham
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of remifentanil, an opioid analgesic metabolized by non-specific esterases, and its principal metabolite, remifentanil acid (RA), which is excreted via the kidneys, were assessed as part of an open-label safety study in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. Forty adult ICU patients with normal/mildly impaired renal function (creatinine clearance [CL(cr)] 62.9 (sd) 14.5 ml min(-1); n=10) or moderate/severe renal impairment (CL(cr) 14.7 (15.7) ml min(-1); n=30) were included. Remifentanil was infused for up to 72 h, at a starting rate of 6-9 microg kg(-1) h(-1) titrated to achieve a target sedation level, with additional propofol (0.5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) if required. Intensive arterial sampling was performed for up to 72 h after infusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters obtained by simultaneous modelling of remifentanil and RA data were statistically compared between the two groups. Remifentanil pharmacokinetics were not significantly affected by renal status. RA clearance in the moderate/severe group was reduced to about 25% that of the normal/mild group (41 (29) vs 176 (49) ml kg(-1) h(-1), P<0.0001). Metabolic ratio, a predictor of the ratio of RA to remifentanil concentrations at steady state, was approximately eight-fold higher in the moderate/severe group relative to the normal/mild group (116 (110) vs 15 (4), P<0.0001). Maximum RA levels approached 700 ng ml(-1) in the moderate/severe group. Although RA accumulates in patients with moderate/severe renal impairment, pharmacokinetic modelling predicts that RA concentrations during a 9 microg kg(-1) h(-1) remifentanil infusion for up to 15 days would not exceed those reported in the present study, for which no associated prolongation of mu-opioid effects was observed.
    Preview · Article · May 2004 · BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to induce analgesia mainly via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). Although the inhibition of COX in the periphery is commonly accepted as the primary mechanism, experimental and clinical data suggest a potential role for spinal COX-inhibition to produce antinociception and reduce hypersensitivity. We used an experimental model of electrically evoked pain and hyperalgesia in human skin to determine the time course of central analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of intravenous parecoxib and paracetamol (acetaminophen). Fourteen subjects were enrolled in this randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled cross-over study. In three sessions, separated by 2-week wash-out periods, the subjects received intravenous infusions of 40 mg parecoxib, 1000 mg paracetamol, or placebo. The magnitude of pain and areas of pinprick-hyperalgesia and touch evoked allodynia were repeatedly assessed before, and for 150 min after the infusion. While pain ratings were not affected, parecoxib as well as paracetamol significantly reduced the areas of secondary hyperalgesia to pinprick and touch. In conclusion, our results provide clear experimental evidence for the existence of central antihyperalgesia induced by intravenous infusion of two COX inhibitors, parecoxib and paracetamol. Since the electrical current directly stimulated the axons, peripheral effects of the COX inhibitors on nociceptive nerve endings cannot account for the reduction of hyperalgesia. Thus, besides its well-known effects on inflamed peripheral tissues, inhibition of central COX provides an important mechanism of NSAID-mediated antihyperalgesia in humans.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Pain
  • Source
    M Malbrain · A Karabinis · R Morais · S Albrecht · D Breen · P Parkinson

    Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Critical Care
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the development of acute tolerance to the EEG effect of midazolam and the new benzodiazepine Ro 48-6791. Nine young (24-28 years) and nine elderly (67-81 years) male volunteers received midazolam and Ro 48-6791 computer-controlled, targeting linearly increasing plasma concentrations for 30 min (targeted slopes: 40 and 20 ng ml-1 min-1 for midazolam, 3 and 1.5 ng ml-1 min-1 for Ro 48-6791, for young and elderly, respectively) and a constant concentration for the following 15 min. After recovery, the same infusion scheme was repeated. Plasma concentrations of midazolam, Ro 48-6791 and its metabolite Ro 48-6792 were determined from arterial blood samples. The hypnotic effect was assessed using the median frequency of the EEG power spectrum. The concentration-effect relationship in each infusion cycle could be described by a sigmoid Emax model. The half-maximum concentration EC50 was higher in the second infusion cycle compared with the first one (midazolam, 47% (2.3-91.6%) and 37% (5.3-69.5%); Ro 48-6791, 22% (-2.8% to 44.6%) and 43% (3.4-82.4%) for young and elderly; mean and 95% confidence interval). The complete time course of the EEG median frequency could be described by an interaction between the parent drug in an effect compartment and a hypothetical competitive drug in an additional tolerance compartment. For Ro 48-6791, the use of its metabolite Ro 48-6792 as competitive compound also gave appropriate results. Midzolam and Ro 48-6791 showed acute tolerance to the EEG effect which might be caused by competitive interaction with the metabolite.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This open label, multicentre study was conducted to assess the times to offset of the pharmacodynamic effects and the safety of remifentanil in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment requiring intensive care. A total of 40 patients, who were aged 18 years or older and had normal/mildly impaired renal function (estimated creatinine clearance >/= 50 ml/min; n = 10) or moderate/severe renal impairment (estimated creatinine clearance <50 ml/min; n = 30), were entered into the study. Remifentanil was infused for up to 72 hours (initial rate 6-9 microgram/kg per hour), with propofol administered if required, to achieve a target Sedation-Agitation Scale score of 2-4, with no or mild pain. There was no evidence of increased offset time with increased duration of exposure to remifentanil in either group. The time to offset of the effects of remifentanil (at 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours during scheduled down-titrations of the infusion) were more variable and were statistically significantly longer in the moderate/severe group than in the normal/mild group at 24 hours and 72 hours. These observed differences were not clinically significant (the difference in mean offset at 72 hours was only 16.5 min). Propofol consumption was lower with the remifentanil based technique than with hypnotic based sedative techniques. There were no statistically significant differences between the renal function groups in the incidence of adverse events, and no deaths were attributable to remifentanil use. Remifentanil was well tolerated, and the offset of pharmacodynamic effects was not prolonged either as a result of renal dysfunction or prolonged infusion up to 72 hours.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Critical care (London, England)

Publication Stats

1k Citations
159.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2007
    • Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
      • Department of Anaesthesiology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1997-2005
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      • Department of Anaesthesiology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Bonn
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany