Derald E. Brackmann

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States

Are you Derald E. Brackmann?

Claim your profile

Publications (134)233.65 Total impact

  • Theodore R. McRackan · Derald E. Brackmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article gives a history of the major advances that have contributed to the current management of lateral skull base lesions. These advances include changes in surgical technique, better understanding of the natural history of these lesions, and the advent of stereotactic radiosurgery. An understanding of how treatment has evolved over time improves understanding of how the current treatment methods have been developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although several small individual series on stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for facial nerve schwannomas (FNSs) have been published, we aim to systematically aggregate data from the literature as well as from our institution to better understand the safety and efficacy of SRS for FNS. PubMed English language search for keywords "facial nerve schwannoma" AND "radiation therapy" published from January 1995 to 2014. Data from our institution were also included in the analysis. Minimum study inclusion criteria included tumor treatment outcomes yielding 10 studies in the literature. In addition, our institution's data on six patients were included. Data included radiation treatment type, radiation dose, tumor size, tumor control, tumor control definition, FN function, hearing outcome, and duration of follow-up. In total, there were 45 patients with at least 2-year follow-up. Forty-two patients (93.3%) had tumor control. Of those patients with described growth/shrinkage definitions, 50.0% had no growth, 43.3% had shrinkage, and 6.7% had growth. Of those articles that included FN functional outcomes, 26 patients (66.6%) had stable FN function, 8 (20.5%) had improved function, and 5 (12.8%) had worsened FN function after treatment. In total, there were 30 patients whose hearing outcomes were discussed in the literature. Of those with serviceable hearing before SRS (n = 14), nine (64.3%) had stable hearing and five (36.7%) had worsened function after SRS. The mean posttreatment follow-up period was 42.1 months. SRS seems to be effective at either stabilizing or shrinking FNS. However, significant morbidities of FN paralysis hearing loss do exist.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Otology & Neurotology
  • Eric P. Wilkinson · Marc S. Schwartz · Steven R. Otto · Derald E. Brackmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) present complex and challenging management dilemmas. Surgical removal of vestibular schwannomas (VS) often result in total hearing loss. Early diagnosis using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and refinements in hearing preservation surgery have improved our ability to prevent total hearing loss while achieving complete tumor removal in smaller tumors, but for patients with larger tumors or patients with no useful hearing in that ear, the auditory brainstem implant (ABI) allows restoration of some auditory function when the tumor is removed. Additionally, children with cochlear aplasia and cochlear nerve deficiency have begun to be implanted with auditory brainstem implants, with varied results. This article discusses surgical placement of the ABI.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Translabyrinthine resection of intracranial tumors results in single-sided deafness, which can be treated by surgical and nonsurgical means. Here we describe the first series examining complication and device usage rates among patients receiving a surgically implanted bone-anchored hearing device (BAHD) at the time of translabyrinthine tumor removal. Case series with chart review. Private tertiary neurotologic referral center. Patients (N = 154) undergoing concurrent BAHD placement and translabyrinthine tumor resection. Concurrent BAHD placement and translabyrinthine tumor removal. Postoperative complication rates and BAHD usage. Of the 154 patients, 121 (78.6%) had no device-related complications. The most common device-related complications were skin overgrowth (8.4%), acute infection (5.2%), and chronic infection (3.2%). The overall and specific complication rates did not differ from published BAHD complication rates. One patient (0.6%) developed a cerebrospinal leak through the surgical site for the device. At the time of last follow-up (mean, 39.8 months), 151 patients (95.0%) were still using their devices. Patients undergoing concurrent translabyrinthine tumor removal and BAHD placement exhibit similar device-related complication profiles as patients undergoing standard device placement. Based on these outcomes and the high long-term usage rates, BAHD insertion at the time of translabyrinthine intracranial surgery can be considered a safe and useful procedure. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the clinical and radiographic characteristics in a series of patients with non-vestibular schwannoma cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and intracanalicular (IAC) masses, who underwent microsurgery for presumed vestibular schwannoma (VS). Study Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Tertiary neurotologic referral center. Patients: One thousand five hundred ninety-three patients underwent microsurgery for apparent VS from 2002 to 2013. Of these, 53 patients (3%) were discovered to have a diagnosis other than VS. Interventions: Middle fossa, translabyrinthine, and retrosigmoid craniotomy. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical presentation, radiologic analysis, and histopathology examination. Results: There were 17 facial schwannomas, 15 meningiomas, 9 hemangiomas, 6 lipochoristomas, 3 inflammatory reactions, and one each of lymphoma, glial heterotopia, solitary fibrous tumor, ependymoma, and a non-diagnostic mass. Excluding facial schwannomas, 23 cases were misdiagnosed as VS in the first half of the study period, compared to only 15 cases in the latter half (p = 0.09). Ninety-six percent of patients presented with some combination of sensorineural hearing loss, balance disturbance, and tinnitus. In the subset of patients with available preoperative MRI scans for retrospective review, only 4 of 28 patients had radiologic findings suggestive of pathology other than VS. The most common missed radiologic diagnoses were facial schwannoma, lipochoristoma, and meningioma. Conclusion: A subgroup of patients with CPA and IAC masses who present with radiologic findings diagnostic of VS will have an alternative histopathologic diagnosis. Optimal radiologic imaging and experienced interpretation can improve diagnostic accuracy. The most common tumors that mimic VS despite ideal radiologic imaging are facial schwannomas, meningiomas, and hemangiomas.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Otology & Neurotology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: (1) Describe the safety profile of performing translabyrinthine tumor removal and bone-anchored hearing aid placement during the same surgical procedure. (2) Describe the overall patient satisfaction of those individuals who underwent the above procedure.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
  • Jose N Fayad · Maroun T Semaan · James Lin · Karen I Berliner · Derald E Brackmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Evaluate long-term prevalence of tumor growth and need for further treatment in patients with a vestibular schwannoma treated with conservative management. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Private neurotologic tertiary referral center. Patients: Vestibular schwannoma patients undergoing conservative management and previously studied (N = 114). Mean time to last magnetic resonance imaging was 4.8 years and to last follow-up was 6.4 years (maximum, 18.5 yr). Intervention: Serial gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with size measurement. Main Outcome Measures: Change in maximum tumor dimension of 2 mm or higher (growth), further treatment, audiologic measures-pure-tone average, word recognition, AAO-HNS (American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery) hearing class. Results: Thirty-eight percent of tumors demonstrated growth; an average of 6.5 mm (SD, 3.8) at a mean rate of 3.1 mm per year. Of patients with no growth at 1 year or less, 20% grew by last follow-up. Overall, 31% had further treatment after a mean of 3.8 years (SD, 3.5; maximum, 18.5 yr). Of those followed for 5 to 10 years, 18% eventually had further treatment. Only 56% of growing tumors had further treatment by last follow-up; 14.8% with nongrowing tumors also had further treatment. Pure-tone average declined more in tumors that grew (mean Delta = 28.8 dB) than those that did not (mean Delta = 16.5 dB) (p <= 0.025), but there was no correlation between the amount of change in hearing and in the size of the tumor. Of patients with an initial AAO-HNS hearing Class A, 85.7% retained serviceable hearing. Conclusion: For patients electing an observation approach to treatment of vestibular schwannoma, about 31% may eventually undergo further treatment. Of those followed for 5 to 10 years, 18% eventually had further treatment. However, some patients are followed with radiologic evaluations for many years without necessity for further treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Otology & Neurotology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present video of gross-total resection of a large cerebellopontine angle tumor consisting of both vestibular and facial schwannoma components via the translabyrinthine route in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2. The facial nerve is reconstructed using a greater auricular nerve graft, and an auditory brainstem implant is placed. Prior to surgery the patient had no facial nerve function on the operative side and had lost useful hearing. He also had usable vision only on the ipsilateral side and had contralateral vocal cord paralysis. The video can be found here: .
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Neurosurgical FOCUS
  • Jose N Fayad · Joseph Ursick · Derald E Brackmann · Rick A Friedman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Review experience using a titanium TORP with a footplate shoe; compare early and long-term hearing results and complications with those obtained using a TORP alone. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral neurotologic private practice. Patients undergoing total ossicular replacement with a titanium prosthesis (total ossicular reconstruction prosthesis [TORP]); 74 with a TORP + footplate shoe and 62 with TORP alone. Ossicular chain reconstruction with a titanium TORP. Short- and long-term air-bone gap (ABG), change in ABG from preoperative to postoperative and from postoperative to last recorded follow-up, sensorineural hearing loss. The shoe group had a smaller mean postoperative ABG (17.7 dB versus 21.6 dB, p ≤ 0.048) and a greater average amount of closure in ABG (21.9 dB versus 13.2 dB, p ≤ 0.004), but there was no significant difference in percentage of patients achieving a postoperative ABG of 20 dB or lesser (57.4% versus 61.6%). There were no differences between groups at long-term follow-up or in amount of change in ABG from postoperative to last audiogram or in amount of change in sensorineural hearing from preoperative to postoperative. Although surgical factors (number of previous surgeries, and presence of a cavity) impacted outcomes, there were no interactions with prosthesis group and no differences in complications between groups. Ossicular reconstruction still presents challenges. A titanium prosthesis with a "shoe" for stabilization may offer advantages. Results in this study consistently favored the TORP + shoe group,although not all differences achieved statistical significance. A larger study might better define possible advantages of the shoe prosthesis for specific subgroups of patients.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether partial tumor removal in large vestibular schwannoma improves facial nerve outcomes while maintaining a low risk of tumor regrowth/recurrence. Retrospective chart review and prospective database. Tertiary neurotologic referral center. Four hundred patients with a vestibular schwannoma of 2.5 cm or greater in maximum diameter undergoing translabyrinthine microsurgical resection from 2001 to 2011. There were 325 gross total resections (GTR), 44 near total resections (NTR), and 31 subtotal resections (STR), with an overall mean tumor size of 3.2 cm (standard deviation, 0.7). Translabyrinthine surgical tumor resection. House-Brackmann (H-B) facial nerve grade postoperatively and at 1 year, tumor regrowth/recurrence (≥2 mm), additional treatment, and complications. Higher rates of H-B facial nerve Grades I and II were achieved at both the postoperative and 1-year follow-ups in the NTR (78%, 97%) and STR (71%, 96%) groups compared with GTR (53%, 77%) (p ≤ 0.001). Eye treatment, medical or surgical, was required more often in GTR (28.0%) than NTR and STR (8% and 21%, respectively, p ≤ 0.04), with no other differences in complications. The NTR and STR groups had a significantly higher rate of regrowth than GTR resection (21% and 22% versus 3%) (p ≤ 0.001) at average follow-up times of 3.7, 3.7, and 5.1 years, respectively, and need for further treatment occurred at a higher rate, although infrequently, in NTR and STR (2% and 10% versus 0%) (p ≤ 0.001). Near total and subtotal removal in large tumors are viable treatment options to maintain facial nerve function. During the follow-up period examined in this study, there was a low risk of need for further treatment. Longer-term follow-up is needed to better assess the need for retreatment in patients treated with NTR and STR.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • Rick A Friedman · Michael Hoa · Derald E Brackmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To review the cumulative experience of surgical management of endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) in the literature. To review the experience with ELST management at a tertiary referral-based otology-neurotology practice and present our approach to management. Study Design Retrospective patient review at a referral-based otology-neurotology practice. Methods A review of all available records from the House Clinic of patients with ELSTs was performed. Presentation, diagnostic workup, microsurgical approach, and outcomes were reviewed. Literature review using MEDLINE of studies reporting surgical outcomes of patients with ELSTs was also performed. Results Retrospective chart review revealed 18 patients with ELSTs who underwent surgical management. Grouping of these patients provides surgical outcomes on the largest group of mostly non-von Hippel-Lindau patients with ELSTs in the literature. Patients most commonly presented with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and dizziness. A majority of patients presented with large tumors exhibiting significant destruction of surrounding structures including the cochlea, vestibule, and internal auditory canal. Patients underwent microsurgical resection with the intent of complete resection. Conclusions Although the extensive nature of ELSTs at time of diagnosis often precludes hearing preservation, complete microsurgical resection can be achieved safely with preservation of facial function in the majority of cases.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
  • Joseph A Ursick · Derald E Brackmann

    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • Joseph A Ursick · Derald E Brackmann

    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • Derald E Brackmann
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) or acoustic neuromas are benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of the vestibular branch of the eighth cranial nerve. The tumor was first described 1910 by Henschen, who provided evidence that it originates from the Schwann cells. Nevertheless, the term acoustic neuroma was commonly used. The National Institute of Health decided in 1992 in a Consensus Development Conference: “The term vestibular schannoma is preferred over acoustic neuroma as these tumors are composed of Schwann cells and typically involve the vestibular rather than the acoustic division of the eighth cranial nerve.” Therefore, we will use the term of VS, although acoustic neuroma is still more common in the literature.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) can provide highly beneficial hearing sensations to individuals deafened by bilateral vestibular schwannomas (neurofibromatosis type 2). Relatively little is known about the status of stimulated neurons after long-term ABI use. Direct examination of the cochlear nuclear complex (CN) of one 5-year ABI user indicated no deleterious effect. Recently, we examined the brainstem of a patient who used his ABI daily for 15 years with excellent performance. There was good preservation of CN cell size, morphology, and packing density, a very favorable sign considering that a number of infants are now receiving ABIs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · The Laryngoscope

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a tumor suppressor syndrome characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) which often result in deafness despite aggressive management. Meningiomas, ependymomas, and other cranial nerve and peripheral schwannomas are also commonly found in NF2 and collectively lead to major neurologic morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, the overall survival rate in patients with NF2 is estimated to be 38% at 20 years from diagnosis. Hence, there is a desperate need for new, effective therapies. Recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of NF2 related tumors has aided in the identification of potential therapeutic targets and emerging clinical therapies. In June 2010, representatives of the international NF2 research and clinical community convened under the leadership of Drs. D. Gareth Evans (University of Manchester) and Marco Giovannini (House Research Institute) to review the state of NF2 treatment and clinical trials. This manuscript summarizes the expert opinions about current treatments for NF2 associated tumors and recommendations for advancing therapies emerging from that meeting. The development of effective therapies for NF2 associated tumors has the potential for significant clinical advancement not only for patients with NF2 but for thousands of neuro-oncology patients afflicted with these tumors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine hearing preservation rates, facial nerve outcomes, and tumor recurrence rates in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 undergoing a primary middle cranial fossa approach for vestibular schwannoma removal. Retrospective chart review. Private practice tertiary neurotology referral center. All patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 undergoing attempted hearing preservation via a middle cranial fossa approach for removal of vestibular schwannoma from January 1, 2000, to June 1, 2010. Primary middle cranial fossa approach for removal of vestibular schwannoma. Preoperative, postoperative, and change in hearing thresholds, word recognition scores, and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery hearing class, House-Brackmann facial nerve grade, and tumor recurrence. Class A or B hearing according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery was maintained in 50% of cases, whereas 63.6% had Class A, B, or C hearing, with an average word recognition score of 93.8% at an average follow-up period of 32.5 months. Facial nerve outcomes were excellent; 75% of cases maintained House-Brackmann Grade 1, whereas 94.3% had Grade 1 or 2 at an average of 25 months after surgery. Tumor growth within the surgical field was observed radiographically in 59% of cases. In patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2, proactive treatment of smaller tumors provides a chance to maintain serviceable hearing and obtain tumor control for extended periods. When examining hearing outcomes, it is important to use word recognition scores, in addition to American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery hearing class, to better assess functionality. Although facial nerve outcomes tend to be favorable, the growth of new tumors, including facial schwannomas, may occur within the surgical field. Continued surveillance with serial magnetic resonance scans after surgery is mandatory.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To design a treatment algorithm based on experience with facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) over a 30-year period. Retrospective chart review. Seventy-nine patients with facial nerve schwannomas seen from 1979 through 2009 at a tertiary referral private otologic practice were categorized by treatment modality. Interventions included surgical resection with grafting, bony decompression, observation, or stereotactic radiation. Outcome measures included House-Brackmann facial nerve grade before and after intervention as well as change in facial nerve grade, tumor size, involved segments of nerve, time to intervention. Thirty-seven patients (46.8%) ultimately underwent surgical excision with grafting or primary anastomosis, 21 (26.6%) underwent bony decompression alone, 15 (19.0%) were managed with observation only, and 6 (7.6%) had stereotactic radiation. Through 1995, 85% of cases had surgical resection and none had observation only. Of the 52 patients seen after 1995, 27% had surgical resection and grafting, 33% had bony decompression, 29% were managed with observation alone, and 11% had radiotherapy. Facial nerve grade was maintained or improved over the follow-up period (mean time = 3.9 years) in 78.9% of the decompression group and 100% of the observation and radiation groups compared to 54.8% of the resection group (P ≤ .012). Surgical resection and grafting, once widely accepted and practiced, has in many cases given way to observation, bony decompression, or stereotactic radiation. A wide armamentarium of options is available to the neurotologist treating facial nerve schwannomas with the ability to preserve facial function for a longer period of time.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · The Laryngoscope

Publication Stats

3k Citations
233.65 Total Impact Points


  • 1977-2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Brain Research Institute
      • • Department of Head and Neck Surgery
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2003-2013
    • House Research Institute
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1978-2006
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Cologne
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1998
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1995
    • Oklahoma City University
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1992
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      Рочестер, Michigan, United States
  • 1991
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Otology and Laryngology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987
    • Shea Ear Clinic
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States