R G Israel

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States

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Publications (78)258.68 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · May 2001 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 2001 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1999 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1999 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in menopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we addressed the following question: What effects would combined oral hormone replacement therapy have on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles independent of the other known CHD risk factors? We analyzed the plasma lipoproteins of two groups of menopausal women who were randomly selected from a large database of individuals. One group (n = 10) was not taking any hormone replacement therapy (NO HRT), while the second group (n = 8) was taking a daily dose of 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone orally (PremPro, Wyeth-Ayerst, Philadelphia, PA) for at least 6 months (HRT). The two groups were not different in age, body weight, percent body fat, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, or insulin and glucose levels. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly higher (P < .05) in the HRT group. The total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-cholesterol ratio was significantly lower for HRT versus NO HRT (P < .05). Apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, the apo ratio, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were significantly higher in HRT (P < .05). Lipoprotein subclass profiles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed an increase in larger HDL subpopulations (H3 and H4) in HRT (P < .05), which are considered antiatherogenic. No differences were seen in the cholesterol concentration or size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subpopulations in HRT compared with NO HRT. These results indicate that the combined estrogen and progesterone treatment leads to beneficial effects on plasma lipoproteins. The beneficial effects include (1) increases in HDL-cholesterol and predominance of HDL2, (2) no adverse effects on LDL subpopulation distribution, and (3) increases in apo A-1 levels and LCAT activity, which indicate an improvement in reverse cholesterol transport.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1998 · Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare blood markers associated with eccentrically biased exercise and muscle damage, after two bouts of downhill running. Nine active, untrained males performed 2 x 45 min bouts of downhill running (-0.16 radians), at a speed that would elicit 70% of each subjects VO2max, on a level grade; runs were spaced 14d apart (RUN1, RUN2). Blood samples were obtained before, after, and every hour for 12 h after exercise, as well as every 24 h for 5 d, to assess numbers of circulating neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, serum cortisol, creatine kinase (CK); subjective sensations of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were monitored. To control for diurnal variation, two weeks prior to the RUN1, subjects had blood draws performed at the same time as would occur after exercise, but did no exercise (CONTROL). During the 5 d after exercise, DOMS and CK were significantly greater (p < 0.05) after RUN1 compared to RUN2 and CONTROL. During the 12 h after RUN1 and RUN2, neutrophils showed similar responses compared to CONTROL. However, neutrophils were significantly elevated at 96 h after RUN1 and 24 h after RUN2. Monocytes were significantly elevated during 5-11 h after RUN1 and RUN2, compared to CONTROL. Cortisol showed a similar significant diurnal decrease for all three conditions during the 12 h following exercise. The significantly lower levels of CK and DOMS seen after RUN2, compared with the initial run is consistent with the literature. The similar changes in neutrophils and monocytes during the 12 h following RUN1 and RUN2, followed by disparate responses over the subsequent 5 d, requires further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · International Journal of Sports Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported, in a study of 608 patients, that the gastric bypass operation (GB) controls type 2 diabetes mellitus in the morbidly obese patient more effectively than any medical therapy. Further, we showed for the first time that it was possible to reduce the mortality from diabetes; GB reduced the chance of dying from 4.5% per year to 1% per year. This control of diabetes has been ascribed to the weight loss induced by the operation. These studies, in weight-stable women, were designed to determine whether weight loss was really the important factor. Fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, minimal model-derived insulin sensitivity and leptin levels were measured in carefully matched cohorts: six women who had undergone GB and had been stable at their lowered weight 24 to 30 months after surgery versus a control group of six women who did not undergo surgery and were similarly weight-stable. The two groups were matched in age, percentage of fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and aerobic capacity. Even though the two groups of patients were closely matched in weight, age, percentage of fat, and even aerobic capacity, and with both groups maintaining stable weights, the surgical group demonstrated significantly lower levels of serum leptin, fasting plasma insulin, and fasting plasma glucose compared to the control group. Similarly, minimal model-derived insulin sensitivity was significantly higher in the surgical group. Finally, self-reported food intake was significantly lower in the surgical group. Weight loss is not the reason why GB controls diabetes mellitus. Instead, bypassing the foregut and reducing food intake produce the profound long-term alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin action. These findings suggest that our current paradigms of type 2 diabetes mellitus deserve review. The critical lesion may lie in abnormal signals from the gut.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 1998 · Annals of Surgery
  • M. S. Hickey · K. P. Davy · J. A. Houmard · R. G. Israel

    No preview · Article · May 1998 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1997 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1997 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1997 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is elevated in obese humans and appears to be closely related to body fat content. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise training on systemic leptin levels in humans. Eighteen sedentary middle-aged men (n = 9) and women (n = 9) who did not differ in aerobic capacity (29.4 +/- 1.2 vs. 27.5 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or insulin sensitivity index (3.41 +/- 1.12 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.55) were studied. Fat mass was significantly lower in females vs. males (21.83 +/- 2.25 vs. 26.99 +/- 2.37 kg, P < 0.05). Despite this, fasting serum leptin was significantly higher in the females vs. males (18.27 +/- 2.55 vs. 9.88 +/- 1.26 ng/ml, P < 0.05). Serum leptin concentration decreased 17.5% in females (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training (4 day/wk, 30-45 min/day) but was not significantly reduced in males. Fat mass was not altered after training in either group. In contrast, both aerobic capacity (+13% males, +9.1% females) and insulin sensitivity (+35% males, +82% females) were significantly improved subsequent to training. These data suggest that 1) women have higher circulating leptin concentrations despite lower fat mass and 2) exercise training appears to have a greater effect on systemic leptin levels in females than in males.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1997 · The American journal of physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has been reported to be related to body fat in humans (Considine et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 292, 1996). However, little is known about the physiology of this putative satiety signal in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether leptin is related to body fat content in relatively lean endurance-trained adults. In addition, the effect of acute exercise on circulating leptin concentration was studied. Thirteen male runners, whose mean age, height, weight, %fat, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were 32.2 +/- 2.5 yr, 176.2 +/- 1.6 cm, 71.9 +/- 6.9 kg, 9.7 +/- 0.9%, and 62.9 +/- 2.2 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, were studied. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast and again immediately after the completion of a 20-mile run at 70% VO2max under controlled environmental conditions. Serum leptin was closely related to fat mass (r = 0.92) in the runners. Acute exercise had no detectable effect on serum leptin levels (PRE = 2.19 +/- 0.32 ng/ml, POST = 2.14 +/- 0.36 ng/ml). These data indicate that, even at a biological extreme of body fat, circulating leptin concentration is closely related to fat content. Furthermore, the data suggest that, in trained individuals with low leptin concentrations, acute exhaustive exercise has no immediate effect on circulating leptin concentration.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · The American journal of physiology

  • No preview · Article · May 1996 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1996 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training with maximal eccentric (lengthening) muscle actions results in greater gains in muscle strength and size than training with concentric (shortening) actions. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fiber size, and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the quadriceps muscle were compared after 36 sessions of isokinetic concentric (n = 8) or eccentric (n = 7) exercise training over 12 wk with use of a one-leg model. Eccentric training increased eccentric strength 3.5 times more (pre/post 46%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased concentric strength (pre/post 13%). Eccentric training increased concentric strength and concentric training increased eccentric strength by about the same magnitude (5 and 10%, respectively, P > 0.05). Eccentric training increased EMG activity seven times more during eccentric testing (pre/post 86%, P < 0.05) than concentric training increased EMG activity during concentric testing (pre/post 12%). Eccentric training increased the EMG activity measured during concentric tests and concentric training increased the EMG activity measured during eccentric tests by about the same magnitude (8 and 11%, respectively, P > 0.05). Type I muscle fiber percentages did not change significantly, but type IIa fibers increased and type IIb fibers decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both training groups. Type I fiber areas did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but type II fiber area increased approximately 10 times more (P < 0.05) in the eccentric than in the concentric group. It is concluded that adaptations to training with maximal eccentric contractions are specific to eccentric muscle actions that are associated with greater neural adaptation and muscle hypertrophy than concentric exercise.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1996 · Journal of Applied Physiology

  • No preview · Article · May 1995 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

  • No preview · Article · May 1995 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists among skeletal muscle fiber composition, adiposity, and in vitro muscle glucose transport rate in humans. Rectus abdominus muscle was obtained during elective abdominal surgery from nonobese control (n = 12), obese (n = 12), and obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients (n = 10). The obese NIDDM group had a significantly lower percentage of type I muscle fibers (32.2 +/- 1.9%) than the obese group (40.4 +/- 2.7%), and both obese groups were significantly lower than the control group (50.0 +/- 2.6%). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport, determined on 28 subjects, was significantly lower in both the obese (3.83 +/- 0.48 nmol.min-1.mg-1) and NIDDM (3.93 +/- 1.0 nmol.min-1.mg-1) groups vs. the control group (7.35 +/- 1.50 nmol.min-1.mg-1). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely correlated to percent type I fibers (r = -0.50, P < 0.01) and to the insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate (r = -0.53, P < 0.01). The percentage of type I muscle fibers was related to the insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate (r = 0.57, P < 0.01), although this relationship was not significant after adjusting for BMI. Although these data do not support an independent relationship between fiber type and insulin action in obesity, a reduced skeletal muscle type I fiber population may be one component of a multifactorial process involved in the development of insulin resistance.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · The American journal of physiology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any beneficial or detrimental effects regarding delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), serum creatine kinase (CK), and maximum concentric strength at 80% of 1-RMconc, if a bout of eccentric exercise was repeated at 48 h after an initial bout. A secondary purpose was to determine whether unaccustomed eccentrics might affect plasma cholesterol (TC). Twenty-six men were randomly assigned to a control (Group 1) or experimental group (Group 2). Both groups performed three sets (12 repetitions per set) of the eccentric phase of a chest press, at 80% of one repetition maximum (1-RMconc); Group 2 repeated this exercise 48 h later. DOMS and CK were measured before, and every 24 h for 8 days after; TC was measured before, and every 24 h for 4 days. Maximum strength during the concentric phase of a chest press (1-RMconc) was measured before and at 48-h intervals after. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant time effect (P < 0.05) for DOMS, CK and strength, but no significant difference between groups (P < 0.05). An interesting finding was the significant (P < 0.05) reduction in TC at 24, 48 and 72 h, after exercise in both groups, which we hypothesized was associated with cellular repair. From these results we concluded that when a bout of eccentrics is repeated 48 h after an initial bout, there is no change in the characteristic time-course and/or intensity of DOMS, CK or 1-RMconc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1994 · British Journal of Sports Medicine

Publication Stats

2k Citations
258.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2006
    • Colorado State University
      • Department of Health and Exercise Science
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 1985-1998
    • East Carolina University
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      • • Human Performance Laboratory
      Гринвилл, North Carolina, United States
  • 1997
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Nebraska at Kearney
      Керни, Nebraska, United States