Patricia C Parkin

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (154)580.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To prevent iron deficiency, 2014 Canadian recommendations for healthy term infants from six to 24 months recommend iron-rich complementary foods such as meat/meat alternatives two or more times a day. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between meat/meat alternatives consumption and iron status in young children and the association between red meat consumption and iron status among children meeting recommendations. Methods: Healthy children, ages 12-36 months, were recruited. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Meat/meat alternatives consumption was measured using the NutriSTEP® questionnaire. Adjusted multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate an association between meat consumption and serum ferritin, and iron deficiency (serum ferritin <14 μg/L). Results: 1043 children were included. 73% of children met the recommended daily intake of meat/meat alternatives and 66% ate red meat in the past three days. Eating meat/meat alternatives was not associated with serum ferritin (0.13 μg/L, 95% CI:-0.05 to 0.31, P=0.16), but was associated with a decreased odds of iron deficiency (odds ratio=0.97, 95% CI:0.94 to 0.99, P=0.03). Associations between red meat consumption and iron status were not statistically significant. Statistically significant covariates associated with increased odds of iron deficiency included longer breastfeeding duration, daily cow's milk intake >2 cups, and a higher zBMI. Discussion: Daily cow's milk intake > 2 cups, longer breastfeeding duration, and a higher zBMI are modifiable risk factors associated with iron deficiency. Eating meat according to recommendations may be a promising additional target for the prevention of iron deficiency in early childhood.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Academic pediatrics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora. Objectives: The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose) used for the prevention of AAD in children. Search methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, AMED, and the Web of Science (inception to November 2014) were searched along with specialized registers including the Cochrane IBD/FBD review group, CISCOM (Centralized Information Service for Complementary Medicine), NHS Evidence, the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements as well as trial registries. Letters were sent to authors of included trials, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical companies, and experts in the field requesting additional information on ongoing or unpublished trials. Conference proceedings, dissertation abstracts, and reference lists from included and relevant articles were also searched. Selection criteria: Randomized, parallel, controlled trials in children (0 to 18 years) receiving antibiotics, that compare probiotics to placebo, active alternative prophylaxis, or no treatment and measure the incidence of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic use were considered for inclusion. Data collection and analysis: Study selection, data extraction as well as methodological quality assessment using the risk of bias instrument was conducted independently and in duplicate by two authors. Dichotomous data (incidence of diarrhea, adverse events) were combined using a pooled risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD), and continuous data (mean duration of diarrhea, mean daily stool frequency) as mean difference (MD), along with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). For overall pooled results on the incidence of diarrhea, sensitivity analyses included available case versus extreme-plausible analyses and random- versus fixed-effect models. To explore possible explanations for heterogeneity, a priori subgroup analysis were conducted on probiotic strain, dose, definition of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, as well as risk of bias. We also conducted post hoc subgroup analyses by patient diagnosis, single versus multi-strain, industry sponsorship, and inpatient status. The overall quality of the evidence supporting the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE criteria. Main results: Twenty-three studies (3938 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Trials included treatment with either Bacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacilli spp., Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc cremoris, Saccharomyces spp., orStreptococcus spp., alone or in combination. Eleven studies used a single strain probiotic, four combined two probiotic strains, three combined three probiotic strains, one combined four probiotic strains, two combined seven probiotic strains, one included ten probiotic strains, and one study included two probiotic arms that used three and two strains respectively. The risk of bias was determined to be high or unclear in 13 studies and low in 10 studies. Available case (patients who did not complete the studies were not included in the analysis) results from 22/23 trials reporting on the incidence of diarrhea show a large, precise benefit from probiotics compared to active, placebo or no treatment control. The incidence of AAD in the probiotic group was 8% (163/1992) compared to 19% (364/1906) in the control group (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.61; I(2) = 55%, 3898 participants). A GRADE analysis indicated that the overall quality of the evidence for this outcome was moderate. This benefit remained statistically significant in an extreme plausible (60% of children loss to follow-up in probiotic group and 20% loss to follow-up in the control group had diarrhea) sensitivity analysis, where the incidence of AAD in the probiotic group was 14% (330/2294) compared to 19% (426/2235) in the control group (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.89; I(2) = 63%, 4529 participants). None of the 16 trials (n = 2455) that reported on adverse events documented any serious adverse events attributable to probiotics. Meta-analysis excluded all but an extremely small non-significant difference in adverse events between treatment and control (RD 0.00; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.01). The majority of adverse events were in placebo, standard care or no treatment group. Adverse events reported in the studies include rash, nausea, gas, flatulence, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, vomiting, increased phlegm, chest pain, constipation, taste disturbance, and low appetite. Authors' conclusions: Moderate quality evidence suggests a protective effect of probiotics in preventing AAD. Our pooled estimate suggests a precise (RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.61) probiotic effect with a NNT of 10. Among the various probiotics evaluated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony forming units/day may be appropriate given the modest NNT and the likelihood that adverse events are very rare. It is premature to draw conclusions about the efficacy and safety of other probiotic agents for pediatric AAD. Although no serious adverse events were observed among otherwise healthy children, serious adverse events have been observed in severely debilitated or immuno-compromised children with underlying risk factors including central venous catheter use and disorders associated with bacterial/fungal translocation. Until further research has been conducted, probiotic use should be avoided in pediatric populations at risk for adverse events. Future trials would benefit from a standard and valid outcomes to measure AAD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity has its origins in early childhood; however, there is limited evidence of the association between anthropometric indicators and cardiometabolic risk factors in young children. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors and to explore the clustering of these factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 1-5 years through TARGet Kids! (n = 2917). Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between BMI and WC z-scores and individual traditional and possible non-traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. The underlying clustering of these measures was evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA). Results: Child obesity (BMI z-score >2) was associated with high (>90th percentile) leptin [odds ratio (OR) 8.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.56, 14.58] and insulin (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.05, 2.94). WC z-score >1 was associated with high insulin (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.11, 2.28), leptin (OR 5.48, 95% CI 3.48, 8.63) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 75 nmol/L (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79). BMI and WC were not associated with other traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, including non-High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glucose. Among children 3-5 years (n = 1035) the PCA of traditional risk factors identified three components: adiposity/blood pressure, metabolic, and lipids. The inclusion of non-traditional risk factors identified four additional components but contributed minimally to the total variation explained. Conclusions: Anthropometric indicators are associated with selected cardiometabolic risk factors in early childhood, although the clustering of risk factors suggests that adiposity is only one distinct component of cardiometabolic risk. The measurement of other risk factors beyond BMI and WC may be important in defining cardiometabolic risk in early childhood.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
  • Natasha Ruth Saunders · Teresa To · Patricia C. Parkin · Astrid Guttmann
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To examine the relationship between family immigrant status and unscheduled 7-day revisits to the emergency department (ED) and to test this relationship within subgroups of immigrants by visa class (family, economic, refugee), native tongue on landing in Canada, and region of origin. Study design: Population-based cohort study that used multiple linked health administrative and demographic datasets of landed immigrant and nonimmigrant children (<18 years) in urban Ontario who visited an ED and were discharged between April 2003 and March 2010. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of 7-day ED revisits with family immigrant status, with adjustment for patient and ED characteristics. Results: Of 3 322 901 initial visits to the ED, 249 648 (7.5%) resulted in a 7-day revisit. There was no significant association of immigrant status with either ED revisits or poor revisit outcomes (greater acuity visit or need for admission) in the adjusted models. Within immigrants, the odds of revisit were not associated with immigrant classes or region of origin; however, immigrants whose native tongue was not English or French had a slightly greater odds of revisiting the ED (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09). Significant predictors of revisits included younger age, greater triage acuity score, greater predilection for using an ED, daytime shifts, and greater deprivation index. Conclusions: Immigrant children are not more likely to have short-term revisits to the ED, but there may be barriers to care related to language fluency that need to be addressed. These findings may be relevant for improving translation services in EDs.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their wide usage, it has recently been suggested that stroller use may reduce physical activity levels of young children. However, there have been no studies on stroller use as it relates to physical activity outcomes. The objectives of this study were to understand the context of stroller use for young children and parents' perceptions of the relationship between stroller use and their children's physical activity. Parents of children 1 to 5 years of age were recruited through two sites of TARGet Kids!, a primary-care, practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and two independent reviewers conducted thematic analysis. A number of strategies were employed to ensure the trustworthiness of the data. Parents discussed reasons for stroller use (i.e., transportation; storage; leisure; supervision/confinement; parent physical activity; and sleep), factors that influence the decision to use a stroller (i.e., caregiver choice; convenience, timing, distance; family lifestyle; and child preference), and perceived impact of stroller use on physical activity (i.e., most parents did not recognize a connection between stroller use and physical activity). This study provides a context for researchers and policy makers to consider when developing stroller related physical activity guidelines for young children.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Three decades of research suggests that prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in the primary care setting may be an unrealized and unique opportunity to prevent poor developmental outcomes in children. A longitudinal study of infants with IDA showed that the developmental disadvantage persists long term despite iron therapy. Early stages of iron deficiency, termed non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID), provide an opportunity for early detection and treatment before progression to IDA. There is little research regarding NAID, which may be associated with delayed development in young children. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of four months of oral iron treatment plus dietary advice, with placebo plus dietary advice, in improving developmental outcomes in children with NAID and to conduct an internal pilot study. From a screening cohort, those identified with NAID (hemoglobin ≥110 g/L and serum ferritin <14 μg/L) are invited to participate in a pragmatic, multi-site, placebo controlled, blinded, parallel group, superiority randomized trial. Participating physicians are part of a primary healthcare research network called TARGet Kids! Children between 12 and 40 months of age and identified with NAID are randomized to receive four months of oral iron treatment at 6 mg/kg/day plus dietary advice, or placebo plus dietary advice (75 per group). The primary outcome, child developmental score, is assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning at baseline and at four months after randomization. Secondary outcomes include an age appropriate behavior measure (Children's Behavior Questionnaire) and two laboratory measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels). Change in developmental and laboratory measures from baseline to the end of the four-month follow-up period will be analyzed using linear regression (analysis of covariance method). This trial will provide evidence regarding the association between child development and NAID, and the effectiveness of oral iron to improve developmental outcomes in children with NAID. The sample size of the trial will be recalculated using estimates taken from an internal pilot study. This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01481766 ) on 22 November 2011.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The OptEC trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of oral iron in young children with non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID). The initial sample size calculated for the OptEC trial ranged from 112-198 subjects. Given the uncertainty regarding the parameters used to calculate the sample, an internal pilot study was conducted. The objectives of this internal pilot study were to obtain reliable estimate of parameters (standard deviation and design factor) to recalculate the sample size and to assess the adherence rate and reasons for non-adherence in children enrolled in the pilot study. Methods: The first 30 subjects enrolled into the OptEC trial constituted the internal pilot study. The primary outcome of the OptEC trial is the Early Learning Composite (ELC). For estimation of the SD of the ELC, descriptive statistics of the 4 month follow-up ELC scores were assessed within each intervention group. The observed SD within each group was then pooled to obtain an estimated SD (S2) of the ELC. Correlation (ρ) between the ELC measured at baseline and follow-up was assessed. Recalculation of the sample size was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method which uses the design factor (1- ρ2). Adherence rate was calculated using a parent reported rate of missed doses of the study intervention. Conclusion: The new estimate of the SD of the ELC was found to be 17.40 (S2). The design factor was (1- ρ2) = 0.21. Using a significance level of 5 %, power of 80 %, S2 = 17.40 and effect estimate (Δ) ranging from 6-8 points, the new sample size based on ANCOVA method ranged from 32-56 subjects (16-28 per group). Adherence ranged between 14 % and 100 % with 44 % of the children having an adherence rate ≥86 %. Information generated from our internal pilot study was used to update the design of the full and definitive trial, including recalculation of sample size, determination of the adequacy of adherence, and application of strategies to improve adherence.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, physician practice patterns and longitudinal hematological outcome of children following screening for non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID). Methods: The present analysis was a longitudinal cohort study invovling healthy children one to five years of age. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence, risk factors, practice patterns and hematological outcome of children identified with NAID. The association between NAID and potential risk factors were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 2276 children undergoing screening, 155 had NAID, corresponding to a prevalence of 7% (95% CI 5.95% to 8.05%). Risk factors significantly associated with NAID included: younger age (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.06 to 1.11]), higher body mass index z-score (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.48]), longer duration of breastfeeding (OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.08]) and increased volume of cow's milk intake (OR 1.13 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.26]). An assessment of practice patterns revealed that for 37% of children, an intervention for NAID was documented; and for 8.4% a physician-ordered follow-up laboratory test was completed to re-evaluate iron status. A total of 58 (37%) children underwent a follow-up laboratory test, of whom 38 (65.5%) had resolution of NAID, 15 (25.9%) had persistence of NAID and two (3.4%) had progression of NAID to anemia. Conclusion: NAID is common in early childhood and is associated with modifiable risk factors. Substantial practice variation exists in the management of NAID. Further research is necessary to understand the benefits of screening for NAID and evidence-informed practice guidelines may reduce practice variation in the management of NAID in early childhood.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Paediatrics & child health
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is associated with established cardiovascular risk factors such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) in adults. It is unknown whether these associations are present in early childhood. To determine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is associated with serum non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol during early childhood we conducted a cross-sectional study of children aged 1 to 5 years. Healthy children were recruited through the TARGet Kids! practice based research network from 2008-2011 (n=1,961). The associations between 25(OH)D and non-fasting non-HDL cholesterol (the primary endpoint), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, were evaluated using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, skin pigmentation, milk intake, vitamin D supplementation, season, body mass index, outdoor play, and screen time. Each 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a decrease in non-HDL cholesterol concentration of -0.89 mg/dl (95% CI: -1.16,-0.50), total cholesterol of -1.08 mg/dl (95%CI: -1.49,-0.70), and triglycerides of -2.34 mg/dl (95%CI: -3.23,-1.45). The associations between 25(OH)D and LDL and HDL were not statistically significant. 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with circulating lipids in early childhood, suggesting that vitamin D exposure in early life may be an early modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevention of near and actual cardiopulmonary arrest in hospitalized children is a patient safety imperative. Prevention is contingent upon the timely identification, referral and treatment of children who are deteriorating clinically. We designed and validated a documentation-based system of care to permit identification and referral as well as facilitate provision of timely treatment. We called it the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (BedsidePEWS). Here we describe the rationale for the design, intervention and outcomes of the study entitled Evaluating Processes and Outcomes of Children in Hospital (EPOCH). Methods/Design: EPOCH is a cluster-randomized trial of the BedsidePEWS. The unit of randomization is the participating hospital. Eligible hospitals have a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), are anticipated to have organizational stability throughout the study, are not using a severity of illness score in hospital wards and are willing to be randomized. Patients are >37 weeks gestational age and <18 years and are hospitalized in inpatient ward areas during all or part of their hospital admission. Discussion: Following funding by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and local ethical approvals, site enrollment started in 2010 and was closed in February 2014. Patient enrollment is anticipated to be complete in July 2015. The results of EPOCH will strengthen the scientific basis for local, regional, provincial and national decision-making and for the recommendations of national and international bodies. If negative, the costs of hospital-wide implementation can be avoided. If positive, EPOCH will have provided a scientific justification for the major system-level changes required for implementation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) occurs in 1-2 % of infants in developed countries, peaks at 1-3 years of age and is associated with later cognitive deficits. The objectives of the present study were to describe the characteristics of young children with severe IDA and examine modifiable risk factors in a developed-country setting. Two prospective samples: a national surveillance programme sample and a regional longitudinal study sample. Canada, 2009-2011. Two samples of young children recruited from community-based health-care practices: a national sample with severe anaemia (Hb<80 g/l) due to Fe deficiency and a regional sample with non-anaemic Fe sufficiency. Children with severe IDA (n 201, mean Hb 55·1 g/l) experienced substantial morbidity (including developmental delay, heart failure, cerebral thrombosis) and health-care utilization (including a 42 % hospitalization rate). Compared with children with Fe sufficiency (n 597, mean Hb 122·4 g/l), children with severe IDA consumed a larger volume of cow's milk daily (median 1065 ml v. 500 ml, P<0·001) and were more likely to be using a bottle during the day (78 % v. 43 %, OR=6·0; 95 % CI 4·0, 8·9) and also in bed (60 % v. 21 %, OR=6·5; 95 % CI 4·4, 9·5). Severe IDA is associated with substantial morbidity and may be preventable. Three potentially modifiable feeding practices are associated with IDA: (i) cow's milk consumption greater than 500 ml/d; (ii) daytime bottle use beyond 12 months of age; and (iii) bottle use in bed. These feeding practices should be highlighted in future recommendations for public health and primary-care practitioners.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Public Health Nutrition
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Background It is unknown if young children’s parent-reported physical activity and sedentary time are correlated with direct measures. The study objectives were to compare parent-reported physical and sedentary activity versus directly measured accelerometer data in early childhood. Methods From 2013 to 2014, 117 healthy children less than 6 years of age were recruited to wear Actical accelerometers for 7 days. Accelerometer data and questionnaires were available on 87 children (74 %). Average daily physical activity was defined as the sum of activity ≥100 counts per minute, and sedentary time as the sum of activity <100 counts per minute during waking hours. Parents reported daily physical activity (unstructured free play in and out of school, and organized activities) and selected sedentary behaviors (screen time, stroller time, time in motor vehicle). Spearman correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used to assess the validity of parent-reported measures compared to accelerometer data. Results Total physical activity was significantly greater when measured by accelerometer than parent-report; the median difference was 131 min/day (p < 0.001). Parent-reported child physical activity was weak to moderately correlated with directly measured total physical activity (r = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.19, 0.56). The correlations between types of physical activity (unstructured free play in and outside of school/daycare, and organized structured activity) and accelerometer were r = 0.30 (95 % CI 0.09, 0.49); r = 0.42 (95 % CI 0.23, 0.58); r = 0.26 (95 % CI 0.05, 0.46), respectively. There was no correlation between parent-reported and accelerometer-measured total sedentary time in children (r = 0.10, 95 % CI −0.12, 0.33). When the results were stratified by age group (<18, 18–47, and 48–70 months of age) no statistically significant correlations were observed and some inverse associations were observed. Conclusions The correlation between parent-report of young children’s physical activity and accelerometer-measured activity was weak to moderate depending on type of activity and age group. Parent-report of children’s sedentary time was not correlated with accelerometer-measured sedentary time. Additional validation studies are needed to determine if parent-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary time are valid among children less than 6 years of age and across these young age groups. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1648-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Paediatrics & child health

Publication Stats

3k Citations
580.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1993-2015
    • SickKids
      • • Division of Paediatric Medicine
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Department of Surgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States