[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The implementation of genomic-based medicine is hindered by unresolved questions regarding data privacy and delivery of interpreted results to health-care practitioners. We used DNA-based prediction of HIV-related outcomes as a model to explore critical issues in clinical genomics.
We genotyped 4,149 markers in HIV-positive individuals. Variants allowed for prediction of 17 traits relevant to HIV medical care, inference of patient ancestry, and imputation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Genetic data were processed under a privacy-preserving framework using homomorphic encryption, and clinical reports describing potentially actionable results were delivered to health-care providers.
A total of 230 patients were included in the study. We demonstrated the feasibility of encrypting a large number of genetic markers, inferring patient ancestry, computing monogenic and polygenic trait risks, and reporting results under privacy-preserving conditions. The average execution time of a multimarker test on encrypted data was 865 ms on a standard computer. The proportion of tests returning potentially actionable genetic results ranged from 0 to 54%.
The model of implementation presented herein informs on strategies to deliver genomic test results for clinical care. Data encryption to ensure privacy helps to build patient trust, a key requirement on the road to genomic-based medicine.Genet Med advance online publication 14 January 2016Genetics in Medicine (2016); doi:10.1038/gim.2015.167.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequencing projects have identified large numbers of rare stop-gain and frameshift variants in the human genome. As most of these are observed in the heterozygous state, they test a gene's tolerance to haploinsufficiency and dominant loss of function. We analyzed the distribution of truncating variants across 16,260 autosomal protein coding genes in 11,546 individuals. We observed 39,893 truncating variants affecting 12,062 genes, which significantly differed from an expectation of 12,916 genes under a model of neutral de novo mutation (p<10-4). Extrapolating this to increasing numbers of sequenced individuals, we estimate that 10.8% of human genes do not tolerate heterozygous truncating variants. An additional 10 to 15% of truncated genes may be rescued by incomplete penetrance or compensatory mutations, or because the truncating variants are of limited functional impact. The study of protein truncating variants delineates the essential genome and, more generally, identifies rare heterozygous variants as an unexplored source of diversity of phenotypic traits and diseases.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS Computational Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of HIV-1-infected populations have been underpowered to detect common variants with moderate impact on disease outcome and have not assessed the phenotypic variance explained by genome-wide additive effects. By combining the majority of available genome-wide genotyping data in HIV-infected populations, we tested for association between ∼8 million variants and viral load (HIV RNA copies per milliliter of plasma) in 6,315 individuals of European ancestry. The strongest signal of association was observed in the HLA class I region that was fully explained by independent effects mapping to five variable amino acid positions in the peptide binding grooves of the HLA-B and HLA-A proteins. We observed a second genome-wide significant association signal in the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR) gene cluster on chromosome 3. Conditional analysis showed that this signal could not be fully attributed to the known protective CCR5Δ32 allele and the risk P1 haplotype, suggesting further causal variants in this region. Heritability analysis demonstrated that common human genetic variation-mostly in the HLA and CCR5 regions-explains 25% of the variability in viral load. This study suggests that analyses in non-European populations and of variant classes not assessed by GWAS should be priorities for the field going forward.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The magnitude of the human antibody response to viral antigens is highly variable. To explore the human genetic contribution to this variability, we performed genome-wide association studies of the immunoglobulin G response to 14 pathogenic viruses in 2,363 immunocompetent adults. Significant associations were observed in the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 6 for influenza A virus, Epstein-Barr virus, JC polyomavirus, and Merkel cell polyomavirus. Using local imputation and fine mapping, we identified specific amino acid residues in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II proteins as the most probable causal variants underlying these association signals. Common HLA-DRβ1 haplotypes showed virus-specific patterns of humoral-response regulation. We observed an overlap between variants affecting the humoral response to influenza A and EBV and variants previously associated with autoimmune diseases related to these viruses. The results of this study emphasize the central and pathogen-specific role of HLA class II variation in the modulation of humoral immune response to viral antigens in humans.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outcome after infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a complex phenotype determined by interactions among the pathogen, the human host and the surrounding environment. An impact of host genetic variation on HIV-1 susceptibility was identified early in the pandemic, with a major role attributed to the genes encoding class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and the chemokine receptor CCR5. Studies using genome-wide data sets have underscored the strength of these associations relative to variants located throughout the rest of the genome. However, the extent to which additional polymorphisms influence HIV-1 disease progression, and how much of the variability in outcome can be attributed to host genetics, remain largely unclear. Here we discuss findings concerning the functional impact of associated variants, outline methods for quantifying the host genetic component and examine how available genome-wide data sets may be leveraged to discover gene variants that affect the outcome of HIV-1 infection.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Nature Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Known antiretroviral restriction factors are encoded by genes that are under positive selection pressure, induced during HIV-1 infection, up-regulated by interferons, and/or interact with viral proteins. To identify potential novel restriction factors, we performed genome-wide scans for human genes sharing molecular and evolutionary signatures of known restriction factors and tested the anti-HIV-1 activity of the most promising candidates.
Our analyses identified 30 human genes that share characteristics of known restriction factors. Functional analyses of 27 of these candidates showed that over-expression of a strikingly high proportion of them significantly inhibited HIV-1 without causing cytotoxic effects. Five factors (APOL1, APOL6, CD164, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10D) suppressed infectious HIV-1 production in transfected 293T cells by >90% and six additional candidates (FCGR3A, CD3E, OAS1, GBP5, SPN, IFI16) achieved this when the virus was lacking intact accessory vpr, vpu and nef genes. Unexpectedly, over-expression of two factors (IL1A, SP110) significantly increased infectious HIV-1 production. Mechanistic studies suggest that the newly identified potential restriction factors act at different steps of the viral replication cycle, including proviral transcription and production of viral proteins. Finally, we confirmed that mRNA expression of most of these candidate restriction factors in primary CD4+ T cells is significantly increased by type I interferons.
A limited number of human genes share multiple characteristics of genes encoding for known restriction factors. Most of them display anti-retroviral activity in transient transfection assays and are expressed in primary CD4+ T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid expansion of genomic technologies has resulted in an unprecedented ability to interrogate the impact of human genetic variation on disease. HIV-1 infection is a unique model for studying this impact because host genetic variation influences both clinical outcome and the genetic sequence and evolution of the pathogen itself.
Several candidate gene studies have proposed novel associations with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression; however, many of these are not supported by larger genome-wide association studies. Thus, controversy remains as to which host and viral genetic factors truly impact HIV infection. Novel methods for assessing the genetic (viral and host) component of disease progression are becoming important areas of investigation.
To fully understand the impact of human genetic variation in HIV disease, the field will need to come together to set a standard for discovery of new genes. Additionally, novel avenues of investigation such as sequencing studies (to define the role of rare variants), studies of epistasis and host/viral genome interaction will be of great value.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Best long-term practice in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) remains unknown for the individual. A risk-based scoring system associated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease progression could be helpful to stratify patients with PHI at highest risk for HIV-1 disease progression. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 290 individuals with well-documented PHI in the Zurich Primary HIV-1 Infection Study, an open-label, non-randomized, observational, single-center study. Patients could choose to undergo early antiretroviral treatment (eART) and stop it after one year of undetectable viremia, to go on with treatment indefinitely, or to defer treatment. For each patient we calculated an a priori defined "Acute Retroviral Syndrome Severity Score'' (ARSSS), consisting of clinical and basic laboratory variables, ranging from zero to ten points. We used linear regression models to assess the association between ARSSS and log baseline viral load (VL), baseline CD4(+) cell count, and log viral setpoint (sVL) (i.e. VL measured >= 90 days after infection or treatment interruption). Results: Mean ARSSS was 2.89. CD4(+) cell count at baseline was negatively correlated with ARSSS (p=0.03, n=289), whereas HIV-RNA levels at baseline showed a strong positive correlation with ARSSS (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efavirenz and abacavir are components of recommended first-line regimens for HIV-1 infection. We used genome-wide genotyping and clinical data to explore genetic associations with virologic failure among patients randomized to efavirenz-containing or abacavir-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocols.
Virologic response and genome-wide genotype data were available from treatment-naive patients randomized to efavirenz-containing (n=1596) or abacavir-containing (n=786) regimens in ACTG protocols 384, A5142, A5095, and A5202.
Meta-analysis of association results across race/ethnic groups showed no genome-wide significant associations (P<5×10) with virologic response for either efavirenz or abacavir. Our sample size provided 80% power to detect a genotype relative risk of 1.8 for efavirenz and 2.4 for abacavir. Analyses focused on CYP2B genotypes that define the lowest plasma efavirenz exposure stratum did not show associations nor did analysis limited to gene sets predicted to be relevant to efavirenz and abacavir disposition.
No single polymorphism is associated strongly with virologic failure with efavirenz-containing or abacavir-containing regimens. Analyses to better consider context, and that minimize confounding by nongenetic factors, may show associations not apparent here.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated approximately 2,000, approximately 3,700 and approximately 9,500 SNPs explained approximately 21%, approximately 24% and approximately 29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ecology, "disease tolerance" is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA-B genotypes with a relative standard deviation of 34%. Furthermore, we found that HLA-B homozygotes are less tolerant than heterozygotes. Lastly, tolerance was observed to decrease with age, resulting in a 1.7-fold difference in disease progression between 20 and 60-y-old individuals with the same viral load. Thus, disease tolerance is a feature of infection with HIV, and the identification of the mechanisms involved may pave the way to a better understanding of pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in HIV-infected individuals and vitamin D supplementation is proposed according to standard care. This study aimed at characterizing the kinetics of 25(OH)D in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals of European ancestry to better define the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on 25(OH)D levels. These data were used for the optimization of vitamin D supplementation in order to reach therapeutic targets.
1,397 25(OH)D plasma levels and relevant clinical information were collected in 664 participants during medical routine follow-up visits. They were genotyped for 7 SNPs in 4 genes known to be associated with 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed using a population pharmacokinetic approach. The percentage of individuals with 25(OH)D concentrations within the recommended range of 20-40 ng/ml during 12 months of follow-up and several dosage regimens were evaluated by simulation.
A one-compartment model with linear absorption and elimination was used to describe 25(OH)D pharmacokinetics, while integrating endogenous baseline plasma concentrations. Covariate analyses confirmed the effect of seasonality, body mass index, smoking habits, the analytical method, darunavir/ritonavir and the genetic variant in GC (rs2282679) on 25(OH)D concentrations. 11% of the inter-individual variability in 25(OH)D levels was explained by seasonality and other non-genetic covariates, and 1% by genetics. The optimal supplementation for severe vitamin D deficient patients was 300,000 IU two times per year.
This analysis allowed identifying factors associated with 25(OH)D plasma levels in HIV-infected individuals. Improvement of dosage regimen and timing of vitamin D supplementation is proposed based on those results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic HCV infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity globally. The innate and adaptive immune responses are thought to be important in determining viral outcomes. Polymorphisms associated with the IFNL3 (IL28B) gene are strongly associated with spontaneous clearance and treatment outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the importance of HLA genes in the context of genetic variation associated with the innate immune genes IFNL3 and KIR2DS3.
DESIGN: We assess the collective influence of HLA and innate immune genes on viral outcomes in an Irish cohort of women (n=319) who had been infected from a single source as well as a more heterogeneous cohort (Swiss Cohort, n=461). In the Irish cohort, a number of HLA alleles are associated with different outcomes, and the impact of IFNL3-linked polymorphisms is profound.
RESULTS: Logistic regression was performed on data from the Irish cohort, and indicates that the HLA-A*03 (OR 0.36 (0.15 to 0.89), p=0.027) -B*27 (OR 0.12 (0.03 to 0.45), p=<0.001), -DRB1*01:01 (OR 0.2 (0.07 to 0.61), p=0.005), -DRB1*04:01 (OR 0.31 (0.12 to 0.85, p=0.02) and the CC IFNL3 rs12979860 genotypes (OR 0.1 (0.04 to 0.23), p<0.001) are significantly associated with viral clearance. Furthermore, DQB1*02:01 (OR 4.2 (2.04 to 8.66), p=0.008), KIR2DS3 (OR 4.36 (1.62 to 11.74), p=0.004) and the rs12979860 IFNL3 'T' allele are associated with chronic infection. This study finds no interactive effect between IFNL3 and these Class I and II alleles in relation to viral clearance. There is a clear additive effect, however. Data from the Swiss cohort also confirms independent and additive effects of HLA Class I, II and IFNL3 genes in their prediction of viral outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: This data supports a critical role for the adaptive immune response in the control of HCV in concert with the innate immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function variants in innate immunity genes are associated with Mendelian disorders in the form of primary immunodeficiencies. Recent resequencing projects report that stop-gains and frameshifts are collectively prevalent in humans and could be responsible for some of the inter-individual variability in innate immune response. Current computational approaches evaluating loss-of-function in genes carrying these variants rely on gene-level characteristics such as evolutionary conservation and functional redundancy across the genome. However, innate immunity genes represent a particular case because they are more likely to be under positive selection and duplicated. To create a ranking of severity that would be applicable to innate immunity genes we evaluated 17,764 stop-gain and 13,915 frameshift variants from the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project and 1,000 Genomes Project. Sequence-based features such as loss of functional domains, isoform-specific truncation and nonsense-mediated decay were found to correlate with variant allele frequency and validated with gene expression data. We integrated these features in a Bayesian classification scheme and benchmarked its use in predicting pathogenic variants against Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) disease stop-gains and frameshifts. The classification scheme was applied in the assessment of 335 stop-gains and 236 frameshifts affecting 227 interferon-stimulated genes. The sequence-based score ranks variants in innate immunity genes according to their potential to cause disease, and complements existing gene-based pathogenicity scores. Specifically, the sequence-based score improves measurement of functional gene impairment, discriminates across different variants in a given gene and appears particularly useful for analysis of less conserved genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in order to combat invading viruses and trigger antiviral responses. Paradoxically, in the case of HIV-1, DCs might contribute to viral pathogenesis through trans-infection, a mechanism that promotes viral capture and transmission to target cells, especially after DC maturation. In this review, we highlight recent evidence identifying sialyllactose-containing gangliosides in the viral membrane and the cellular lectin Siglec-1 as critical determinants for HIV-1 capture and storage by mature DCs and for DC-mediated trans-infection of T cells. In contrast, DC-SIGN, long considered to be the main receptor for DC capture of HIV-1, plays a minor role in mature DC-mediated HIV-1 capture and trans-infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving patients with hemophilia A who were exposed to but uninfected with
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) did not reveal genetic variants associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection,
beyond homozygosity for CCR5-Δ32. Since variation in HLA class I and KIR genes is not well interrogated by standard GWAS techniques, we tested whether these 2 loci were involved in protection from
HIV-1 infection in the same hemophilia cohort, using controls from the general population. Our data indicate that HLA class I alleles, presence or absence of KIR genes, and functionally relevant combinations of the HLA/KIR genotypes are not involved in resistance to parenterally transmitted HIV-1 infection.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a genome-wide association study to explore whether common host genetic variants (>5% frequency) were associated with presence of virus able to use CXCR4 for entry.
Phenotypic determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor usage was performed on pretreatment plasma HIV-1 samples from treatment-naive participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5095, a study of initial antiretroviral regimens. Associations between genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), CCR5 Δ32 genotype, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles and viral coreceptor usage were explored.
Viral phenotypes were obtained from 593 patients with available genome-wide SNP data. Forty-four percent of subjects had virus capable of using CXCR4 for entry as determined by phenotyping. Overall, no associations, including those between polymorphisms in genes encoding viral coreceptors and their promoter regions or in HLA genes previously associated with HIV-1 disease progression, passed the statistical threshold for genome-wide significance (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) in any comparison. However, the presence of viruses able to use CXCR4 for entry was marginally associated with the CCR5 Δ32 genotype in the nongenome-wide analysis.
No human genetic variants were significantly associated with virus able to use CXCR4 for entry at the genome-wide level. Although the sample size had limited power to definitively exclude genetic associations, these results suggest that host genetic factors, including those that influence coreceptor expression or the immune pressures leading to viral envelope diversity, are either rare or have only modest effects in determining HIV-1 coreceptor usage.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Open Forum Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stavudine (d4T) was, until recently, one of the most widely prescribed antiretroviral drugs worldwide. While there has been a major shift away from d4T use in resource-limited countries, a large number of patients have previously received (or continue to receive) d4T, and many have developed peripheral neuropathy. The identification of genetic predictors of increased risk might suggest novel therapeutic targets for such patients. In AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, antiretroviral-naïve patients were randomized to d4T/didanosine (ddI)- or zidovudine/lamivudine-containing regimens. Data from d4T/ddI recipients were analyzed for genome-wide associations (approximately 1 million genetic loci) with new onset distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Analyses involved 254 patients (49 % White, 34 % Black, 17 % Hispanic), comprising 90 peripheral neuropathy cases (32 grade 1, 35 grade 2, 23 grade 3) and 164 controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no polymorphism was consistently associated with neuropathy among all patients, among White, Black, and Hispanic patients analyzed separately, both in genome-wide analyses (threshold, P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and focused on 46 neuropathy-associated genes (threshold, P < 3.5 × 10(-5)). In the latter analyses, the lowest P values were in KIF1A among Whites (rs10199388, P = 8.4 × 10(-4)), in LITAF among Blacks (rs13333308, P = 6.0 × 10(-6)), and in NEFL among Hispanics (rs17763685, P = 5.6 × 10(-6)). Susceptibility to d4T/ddI-associated neuropathy is not explained by a single genetic variant with a marked effect.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of NeuroVirology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia can cause premature discontinuation of atazanavir and avoidance of its initial prescription. We used genomewide genotyping and clinical data to characterize determinants of atazanavir pharmacokinetics and hyperbilirubinemia in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202.
Plasma atazanavir pharmacokinetics and indirect bilirubin concentrations were characterized in HIV-1-infected patients randomized to atazanavir/ritonavir-containing regimens. A subset had genomewide genotype data available.
Genomewide assay data were available from 542 participants, of whom 475 also had data on estimated atazanavir clearance and relevant covariates available. Peak bilirubin concentration and relevant covariates were available for 443 participants. By multivariate analysis, higher peak on-treatment bilirubin levels were found to be associated with the UGT1A1 rs887829 T allele (P=6.4×10), higher baseline hemoglobin levels (P=4.9×10), higher baseline bilirubin levels (P=6.7×10), and slower plasma atazanavir clearance (P=8.6×10). For peak bilirubin levels greater than 3.0 mg/dl, the positive predictive value of a baseline bilirubin level of 0.5 mg/dl or higher with hemoglobin concentrations of 14 g/dl or higher was 0.51, which increased to 0.85 with rs887829 TT homozygosity. For peak bilirubin levels of 3.0 mg/dl or lower, the positive predictive value of a baseline bilirubin level less than 0.5 mg/dl with a hemoglobin concentration less than 14 g/dl was 0.91, which increased to 0.96 with rs887829 CC homozygosity. No polymorphism predicted atazanavir pharmacokinetics at genomewide significance.
Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia is best predicted by considering UGT1A1 genotype, baseline bilirubin level, and baseline hemoglobin level in combination. Use of ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer may have abrogated genetic associations with atazanavir pharmacokinetics.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an ever-increasing volume of data on host genes that are modulated during HIV infection, influence disease susceptibility or carry genetic variants that impact HIV infection. We created GuavaH (Genomic Utility for Association and Viral Analyses in HIV, http://www.GuavaH.org), a public resource that supports multipurpose analysis of genome-wide genetic variation and gene expression profile across multiple phenotypes relevant to HIV biology.
We included original data from 8 genome and transcriptome studies addressing viral and host responses in and ex vivo. These studies cover phenotypes such as HIV acquisition, plasma viral load, disease progression, viral replication cycle, latency and viral-host genome interaction. This represents genome-wide association data from more than 4,000 individuals, exome sequencing data from 392 individuals, in vivo transcriptome microarray data from 127 patients/conditions, and 60 sets of RNA-seq data. Additionally, GuavaH allows visualization of protein variation in ~8,000 individuals from the general population. The publicly available GuavaH framework supports queries on (i) unique single nucleotide polymorphism across different HIV related phenotypes, (ii) gene structure and variation, (iii) in vivo gene expression in the setting of human infection (CD4+ T cells), and (iv) in vitro gene expression data in models of permissive infection, latency and reactivation.
The complexity of the analysis of host genetic influences on HIV biology and pathogenesis calls for comprehensive motors of research on curated data. The tool developed here allows queries and supports validation of the rapidly growing body of host genomic information pertinent to HIV research.