[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory processes play a role in asthma etiology, and interleukin-10 (IL10) is an important immunosuppressive cytokine. The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of IL10 promoter A-1082G (rs1800896), T-819C (rs3021097), A-592C (rs1800872) genetic polymorphisms to the risk of asthma in Taiwan.
Materials and methods:
Associations of three IL10 polymorphic genotypes with risk of asthma were investigated among 198 patients with asthma and 453 non-asthmatic healthy controls, by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping method.
The results showed that the percentages of TT, TC and CC for IL-10 T-819C genotypes were differentially represented at 63.1%, 32.3% and 4.6%, respectively, in the patient group and 53.0%, 36.4% and 10.6%, respectively, in the healthy control group (p for trend=0.0114). The CC genotype carriers were at lower risk for asthma (odds ratio=0.36, 95% confidence interval=0.17-0.76, p=0.0055). There was no difference in the distribution of A-1082G or A-592C genotype between the asthma and non-asthma groups. The protective effects of the CC genotype were obvious among males, but not females, and those aged 25 up to 40 years but not those aged over 40 years.
The CC genotype of IL10 T-819C compared to the TT genotype may have a protective effect on asthma risk in younger adults (25-40 years old), and males in Taiwan.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders (SD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) both play crucial roles in quality of life and have received increasing attention in the general population and among physicians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, immunologic defects, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, and frequent hydration and diuresis in lymphoma patients may affect the development of pleural effusion (PE). The study was to assess the clinical utility of “Light criteria” and the “recommended algorithm for investigating PEs” in patients with lymphoma.
The characteristics of 126 PEs of lymphoma patients who underwent diagnostic thoracentesis between January 1, 2003, and April 30, 2012, were reviewed. Using Light criteria, 29 (23%) PEs were incorrectly classified. The sensitivity for exudates in Light criteria was 88% and the specificity was only 44%. In 32 transudates, PE LDH correlated with blood LDH concentration (P < 0.001, r = 0.66). Nine transudates were misclassified as exudates (50%; 9/18) just due to PE LDH more than two-thirds the upper limits. Among the 56 bilateral PEs, 33 (59%) were exudates. Ten (63%) polymorphonuclear (PMN)-predominant exudative PEs were malignant. Infective PEs were often mononuclear (67%) rather than PMN predominant.
When a patient has lymphoma with either unilateral or bilateral PE, thoracentesis for microbiological testing and cytology is imperative. Carefully clinical correlation in addition to the result from Light criteria and differential cell count is essential for prompt management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although lymphoma and thymoma are common etiologies of anterior mediastinal masses (AMMs), smaller percentages and numbers of patients with these diseases have been enrolled in previous ultrasound-guided biopsy studies. To date, there has been no study of color Doppler sonographic features to support the differentiation of AMMs. For this retrospective cohort study, a search of the database of the China Medical University Hospital using the clinical coding “ultrasound-guided biopsy” was conducted for the period December 2003 to February 2013. We selected patients diagnosed with AMMs (not cysts) using radiographic records. This search yielded a list of 80 cases. Real-time ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed in all but 5 patients without a sufficient safety range. In 89% (67/75) of these ultrasound-guided CNB cases, the diagnostic accuracy achieved subclassification. Fine-needle aspiration cytology achieved subclassification in only 10% of cases. On color Doppler sonography, 71% of lymphomas were characterized as “rich vascular with central/crisscross collocations” and 29% as “avascular or localized/scattered peripheral vessels.” However, decreased proportions of “rich vascular with central/crisscross collocations” were found in lung cancer (4% [1/23], odds ratio = 0.018, 95% confidence interval: 0.002–0.154, p < 0.001) and thymoma/thymic carcinoma (25% [4/16]; odds ratio = 0.133, 95% confidence interval: 0.035–0.514, p = 0.003) compared with the lymphoma group. We conclude that the vessels in lymphoma AMMs have specific patterns on color Doppler sonography. Ultrasound-guided CNB of AMMs had an accuracy of ≤89% in diagnosis and subclassification. Fine-needle aspiration cytology itself cannot aid in the diagnosis. Color Doppler sonographic evaluation of AMMs followed by real-time CNB is a more efficient method.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the association and interaction of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) genetic polymorphisms with lung cancer risk in Taiwan, where lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related death.
In this hospital-based matched case-control study, associations of up to seven ATM single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs600931, rs652311, rs227060, rs228589, rs227092, rs624366 and rs189037) with lung cancer risk were investigated among Taiwanese. In this study, 358 lung cancer patients and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped and the genetic-lifestyle interaction were analyzed.
The results showed that the percentages of GG, AG and AA for ATM rs652311 genotypes were significantly different at 34.6%, 48.9% and 16.5% in the lung cancer patient group and 39.9%, 51.0% and 9.1% in non-cancer control group, respectively. We further analyzed the genetic-lifestyle effects on lung cancer risk and found that the contribution of ATM rs652311 A allele-bearing genotypes to lung cancer susceptibility was enhanced in the cigarette smokers and not enhanced in the non-smokers (p=0.0045 and 0.2758, respectively).
Our results provide evidence that the A allele of ATM rs652311 may be associated with lung cancer risk, and may enhance the effects of smoking habit on lung cancer development.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism the gene for DNA-apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APEX1) with personal smoking habit and lung cancer risk in Taiwan, the polymorphic variants of APEX1, Asp(148)Glu (rs1130409), were analyzed in association with lung cancer risk, and their joint effect with personal smoking habits on lung cancer susceptibility was discussed. In this hospital-based case-control study, 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 cancer-free controls, frequency-matched by age and sex, were recruited and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the percentages of TT, TG and GG APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes were not significantly different at 43.0%, 41.1% and 15.9% in the lung cancer patient group and 39.9%, 46.1% and 14.0% in non-cancer control group, respectively. We further analyzed the genetic-lifestyle effects on lung cancer risk and found the contribution of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes to lung cancer susceptibility was neither enhanced in the cigarette smokers nor in the non-smokers (p=0.3550 and 0.8019, respectively). Our results provide evidence that the non-synonymous polymorphism of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu may not be directly associated with lung cancer risk, nor enhance the effects of smoking habit on lung cancer development.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergy that causes the skin to be dry and itchy. It appears at an early age, and is closely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Thus, AD is an indicator that other allergies may occur later. Literatures indicate that the molecular basis of patients with AD is different from that of healthy individuals. According to the classics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the body constitution of patients with AD is also different. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in pulse spectrum analysis between patients with AD and nonatopic healthy individuals.
A total of 60 children (30 AD and 30 non-AD) were recruited for this study. A pulse spectrum analyzer (SKYLARK PDS-2000 Pulse Analysis System) was used to measure radial arterial pulse waves of subjects. Original data were then transformed to frequency spectrum by Fourier transformation. The relative strength of each harmonic wave was calculated. Moreover, the differences of harmonic values between patients with AD and non-atopic healthy individuals were compared and contrasted.
This study showed that harmonic values and harmonic percentage of C3 (Spleen Meridian, according to Wang's hypothesis) were significantly different.
These results demonstrate that C3 (Spleen Meridian) is a good index for the determination of atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the pulse spectrum analyzer is a valuable auxiliary tool to distinguish a patient who has probable tendency to have AD and/or other allergic diseases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous study, with relatively small number of patients, showed that prior Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) may precipitate SLE in patients from endemic areas. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between prior TB infection and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Cases of SLE and TB were identified from the NHIRD with corresponding ICD-9 codes 710.0 and 011-018, respectively, from January 2000 to December 2008. A total of 2,721 cases of SLE and 10,823 control subjects were included in data analysis. The average annual incidence rate was 8.1 per 100,000. The annual incidence rates of SLE decreased from 6.38 per 100,000 to 2.55 per 100,000 during 2000-2008. Compared with the control subjects, SLE patients were more likely to be white collar workers (P = 0.0005), reside in highly urbanized areas (P = 0.0140), and have higher incomes (P = 0.0088). TB was much more prevalent in SLE patients than in the control subjects (1.8 vs. 0.9%, P < 0.001). The mean time interval between diagnosis of TB and SLE was 45.58 ± 39.0 months. On multivariate analysis, TB was the greatest potential risk factor for precipitating SLE (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.49-3.00). In addition, patients with co-existing TB and DM had a higher risk of SLE than the control group (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.84-8.31). In conclusion, this study suggests that there is an increased risk of precipitating SLE among patients with TB in Taiwan from a nationwide health insurance research dataset. Mycobacterial infections could trigger autoimmune diseases in experimental studies. Furthermore, a study with relatively small number of patients revealed that prior TB may precipitate SLE in patients from endemic areas. There is an increased risk of precipitating SLE among patients with TB in Taiwan from a nationwide health insurance research dataset during a 9-year period.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Rheumatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided pigtail catheters for the management of various pleural diseases in the emergency department, ward, and intensive care unit.
We conducted a retrospective study in a university hospital during a 1-year interval.
A total of 276 patients (178 men and 98 women) underwent 332 pigtail catheters (the drain size ranged from 10F to 16F) under ultrasound guidance. The mean ± SEM patient age was 59 ± 18 years, and mean duration of drainage was 6.1 ± 2 days. A total of 64 drains (19.2%) were inserted for pneumothoraces; 98 drains (29.5%), for malignant effusions; 119 drains (35.8%), for parapneumonic effusions/empyemas; and 38 drains (11.4%), for massive transudate pleural effusions. The overall success rate was 72.9%. The success rate was highest when the drain was used to treat massive transudate effusions (81.6%) and malignant pleural effusions (75.5%), followed by parapneumonic effusions/empyemas (72.2%), hemothoraces (66.6%), and pneumothoraces (64.0%). Only 10 (3.0%) drains had complications due to the procedure, including infection (n = 4, 1.2%), dislodgment (n = 4, 1.2%), wound bleeding at the pigtail catheter puncture area complicated with hemothoraces (n = 1, 0.3%), and lung puncture (n = 1, 0.3%). There was no significant difference in success rate when different catheter sizes were used to treat pleural diseases.
Ultrasound-guided pigtail catheters provide a safe and effective method of draining various pleural diseases. We strongly suggest that ultrasound-guided pigtail catheters be considered as the initial draining method for a variety of pleural diseases.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The American journal of emergency medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been a paucity of data regarding the efficacy and safety of small-bore chest tubes (pigtail catheter) for the management of pneumothorax in mechanically ventilated patients.
We conducted a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated patients who underwent pigtail catheter drainage as their initial therapy for pneumothorax in the emergency department and intensive care unit from January 2004 through January 2007 in a university hospital.
Among the 62 enrolled patients, there were 41 men (66%) and 21 women (34%), with a mean age of 63.8 +/- 20.3 years. A total of 70 episodes of pneumothoraces occurred in the intensive care unit, and 48 episodes of pneumothoraces (68.6%) were successfully treated with pigtail catheters. The average duration of pigtail drainage was 5.9 days (1-27 days). No major complications occurred through use of this procedure, except for pleural infections (n = 3, 4.2%) and clogged tube (n = 1, 1.4%). Comparing the variables between the success and failure of pigtail treatment, the failure group had a significantly higher proportion of Fio(2) >60% requirement (45.5% vs. 14.6%, P = .005) and higher positive end-expiratory pressure levels (8.7 +/- 3.0 vs. 6.2+/- 2.3 mm Hg, P = .001) at the time of pneumothorax onset than the success group. Further comparing the efficacy of pigtail drainage between barotraumas and iatrogenic pneumothorax, pigtail catheters for management of iatrogenic pneumothorax had a significantly higher success rate than barotraumas (87.5% vs. 43.3%, P < .0001).
Pigtail catheter drainage is relatively effective in treating iatrogenic but less promising for barotraumatic pneumothoraces.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · The American journal of emergency medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the etiology, microbiology and outcome of hospital-acquired thoracic empyema (HATE) in adults.
From December 2001 to December 2006, 459 adult patients with a diagnosis of thoracic empyema in a tertiary hospital were screened for HATE. HATE was defined as a new pleural empyema which developed after 48 hours of hospitalization.
In total, 56 adult (>or=18 years) patients who were diagnosed with HATE were enrolled in our series, including 35 men (62.5%) and 21 women (37.5%), with ages ranging from 22 to 87 years old (mean = 59). Causes of HATE were classified into two categories: hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) related (n = 25) and non-HAP related (n = 31). Causes of non-HAP related empyema were comprised of catheter-related infections (n = 20), hepatobiliary tract infections (n = 6), septic emboli (n = 4), and postpneumonectomy (n = 1). Comparing the bacteriology between the two categories, HAP-related empyema had a significantly higher incidence of aerobic Gram-negative organisms (76% vs. 38.7%, P = 0.005), polymicrobial pathogens (40% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.008), and anaerobic pathogens (20% vs. 0%, P = 0.009) than non-HAP related empyema. However, there was no significant difference in mortality rate (60% vs. 52%, P = 0.52) between the two categories.
Choice of antibiotic treatment for HATE should be based on the etiology of the pleural infection. In treating HAP-related empyema, antibiotics should cover aerobic Gram-negative, polymicrobial, and anaerobic pathogens.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Southern medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether cytokine expression (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha), C-reactive protein, and endotoxins on the first day of intensive care unit (ICU) admission are associated with hospital mortality in severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
This was a prospective study with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood sampling.
This study was carried out in a 44-bed medical ICU of a 1700-bed university hospital.
Participants included 112 mechanically ventilated patients with severe CAP.
Serum and BAL fluid IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein, and endotoxins on the first day of ICU admission were obtained.
The concentrations of TNF-alpha in BALF and IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in serum were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivor patients with CAP. Of these 112 patients with severe CAP (39%), 44 developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); these patients seemed to have higher serum IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels than did the non-ARDS group. Furthermore, in the ARDS population, we found that the endotoxin levels in the BAL fluid were higher in the survival than in the nonsurvival group and BAL fluid concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1beta and sera levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were lower in the survival than in the nonsurvival group, and they were associated with a high negative predictive value.
Serum and BAL fluid levels of the studied cytokines on admission may provide valuable prognostic information for patients with severe CAP.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of critical care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic aneurysm is usually a potentially life-threatening medical problem, with a 5-year survival rate of 20% if there is no surgical repair. Upper airway compression due to aortic aneurysm usually presents with wheezing, coughing, hemoptysis, dyspnea, or pneumonitis. We report a 78-year-old male patient with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was admitted to our emergency department because of wheezing dyspnea for 2 days. Acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation with respiratory failure was impressed, but the patient had poor response to bronchodilators and systemic steroids treatment. Because chest radiography revealed a widening of the upper mediastinum and right lower lung collapse, fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed and revealed narrowing at the lower portion of trachea and orifice of right main bronchus. Chest computed tomography scan showed aortic aneurysm involving the aortic arch and near the entire thoracic aorta. Because of his poor condition, surgery for aortic aneurysm was not suggested by the thoracic surgeons. We deployed expandable metallic stents in the right main stem bronchi and in the distal trachea. The patient was then weaned from mechanical ventilation a few days later.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · The American journal of emergency medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the effectiveness of the pigtail catheter for drainage of pleural effusions in the intensive care unit (ICU).
We conducted a retrospective review of adult patients (>/=18 years) who underwent ultrasound-guided pigtail catheter drainage of pleural effusions in the ICUs from January 2005 to July 2007 in a university hospital.
Among the 133 enrolled patients, there were 93 (70%) males and 40 (30%) females, with a mean age of 63.7 +/- 15.4 years old. The reasons for pigtail drainage were as follows: thoracic empyema (n = 59, 44%), massive transudative pleural effusions (n = 33, 25%), postoperative pleural effusion (n = 29, 15%), malignant pleural effusion (n = 18, 14%) and traumatic hemothorax (n = 3, 2%). In comparing the total amount of fluids drained, the duration of drainage, success rate and complication rate among these different causes of pleural effusion, pigtail drainage for massive transudative pleural effusion yielded the largest amount of pleural fluids (5,382 +/- 4,844 ml), provided the longest duration of drainage (9 +/- 7 days), and had the highest complication rate (18%). The success rate was highest when used to treat traumatic hemothorax (100%) and postoperative pleural effusions (85%); drains inserted for empyema were more likely to fail (overall success rate, 42%). No significant insertion complications, such as hollow organ perforation, were caused by this procedure.
The ultrasound-guided pigtail catheter inserted by intensivists is a well-tolerated and effective method of draining all kinds of pleural effusions in critically ill patients. We suggest that pigtail catheter drainage be considered as the initial treatment of choice in the ICU.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Intensive Care Medicine