[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucormycosis is a fungal infection commonly affecting structures in the head and neck, such as the air sinuses, orbits, and the brain. Common predisposing factors include diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression. We describe our clinical experience with four cases of mucormycosis of the maxillary antrum associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus managed at our centre. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection.
We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital.
It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern.
Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widespread resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has necessitated evaluation of the use of older antimicrobials such as polymyxins. In the present study we evaluated the different susceptibility testing methods for polymyxins B and E against Gram-negative bacteria using the new Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.
The susceptibility of 281 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) to polymyxin B was evaluated, comparing broth microdilution (BMD; reference method), agar dilution, E-test, and disk diffusion. Disk diffusion testing of polymyxin B was also performed against 723 MDR GNB.
Twenty-four of 281 (8.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to polymyxin B by the reference BMD method. The rates of very major errors for agar dilution and E-test (for polymyxin B) were 0.7% and 1%, respectively, and those for disk diffusion (for polymyxin B and polymyxin E) were 1% and 0.7%, respectively. For the 257 isolates found sensitive by reference BMD, the rates of major errors by agar dilution and E-test (for polymyxin B) were 2.4% and 0%, respectively, and those for disk diffusion (polymyxin B and polymyxin E) were 0% and 0.7%, respectively. Twenty-six (3.6%) of the 723 Gram-negative isolates were resistant to polymyxin B by disk diffusion.
The E-test and agar dilution methods showed good concordance with BMD. The disk diffusion method can be useful for initial screening in diagnostic laboratories.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ziehl Neelson, a carbol fuschin based stain, using the 3 component hot process is a standard staining technique for staining sputum smears for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated a 2 step cold staining method for detection of acid fast bacilli in sputum smears. 1836 sputum samples from patients of pulmonary tuberculosis were studied. Smears were prepared from each sample and slides were simultaneously stained by both methods and examined. The 2 step cold stain method was found to be equally sensitive as the ZN method detecting 20% of cases, when the primary stain was kept for a period of 20 min. The CS method also has the advantage of being simple, economical and less cumbersome and in the procedure of staining, heating, a much too precise step in ZN method for large scale application, is eliminated. The CS method may therefore prove as a good alternative for diagnosis of M.tuberculosis, particularly in smaller laboratories and peripheral centers where there is limitation of the funds and equipments.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · African journal of microbiology research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myiasis of different organs has been reported off and on from various regions in the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, for the first time from Meerut city in Western Uttar Pradesh, India. A 25-year-old farmer presented with severe symptoms of conjunctivitis. The larvae, 3 in number, were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva, and following removal the symptoms of eye inflammation improved within a few hours.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · The Korean Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of serious life threatening infections due to multi-drug resistant pathogens presents a difficult challenge due to the limited therapeutic options. Therefore, we studied the in vitro susceptibility of tigecycline, a new glycylcycline with promising broad spectrum of activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at a tertiary care hospital in north India.
A total of 75 multi-drug resistant isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (21), vancomycin resistant enterococci (14), vancomycin resistant Streptococcus spp. (3), extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Gram negative bacteria (11) and multi-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (26) were tested for tigecycline susceptibility by the E-test and disc diffusion methods. An additional 83 multi-resistant Gram negative clinical isolates were screened by disc diffusion method alone.
All the isolates of MRSA, VRE, vancomycin resistant Streptococcus spp. and ESBL producing enteric bacteria were sensitive to tigecycline by the E-test and disc diffusion methods. However, only 42 per cent of Acinetobacter spp. were found to be sensitive to tigecycline by the E-test method.
In conclusion, tigecycline was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative members of Enterobacteriaceae, but a high prevalence of resistance in members of Acinetobacter spp. is worrisome.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research