[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that involves progressive extrapyramidal manifestations. Classical and atypical clinical presentations are known. Clinical details of patients admitted to the neurology ward or attending the movement disorder clinic of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences between January 2001 and July 2007 were reviewed. Sixteen patients (9 males and 7 females) were included in the study (median age 14 years; range 6-25). The most common clinical presentation was limb or cranial onset progressive dystonia. The patients with early onset had more frequent truncal and axial dystonia, including retrocollis, oromandibular-facial dystonia and chorea, dysarthria, pyramidal signs, gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, delay in milestones, retinitis pigmentosa, optic atrophy, oculomotor abnormalities, positive family history and acanthocytosis. Although rare, cerebellar ataxia, behavioural abnormalities, parkinsonism and apraxia of eyelid opening were exclusively seen in late onset patients. The present study highlights the heterogeneity of this disease entity and also describes certain unusual clinical features.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the central basis of articulatory speech disorders in Parkinsonian syndromes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Twenty-two patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) were clinically evaluated for speech dysfunction. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was carried out in these patients using sustained phonation and phoneme tasks. Individual and group analysis using SPM2 was done for eight patients with PD, 7 with PSP and 6 healthy controls.
Tertiary Medical Teaching Institute.
For sustained phonation paradigm, superior temporal gyrus area was activated in PD patients, and occipital cortex in PSP subjects in comparison to controls. For phoneme paradigm, the patients with PD recruit lingual gyrus obviating the need for more efforts for the task. Also wider areas as well as more clusters were activated in PD patients compared to controls. Lingual gyrus was found to be strongly activated in PSP patients. Reduced activation of the primary areas with recruitment of remote areas was another prominent finding in PSP. Due to excessive motion (>1.5 mm, >1 degrees ) in all the MSA patients, they could not be considered for analysis.
The failure of the executive fronto-striatal network would lead to increased activation of other areas in PD, but in PSP, there is a widespread cortical dysfunction.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Speech abnormalities are common to the three Parkinsonian syndromes, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), the nature and severity of which is of clinical interest and diagnostic value.
To evaluate the clinical pattern of speech impairment in patients with PD, PSP and MSA and to identify significant differences on quantitative speech parameters when compared to controls.
Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary medical teaching institute.
Twenty-two patients with PD, 18 patients with PSP and 20 patients with MSA and 10 age-matched healthy controls were recruited over a period of 1.5 years. The patients were clinically evaluated for the presence and characteristics of dysarthria. This was followed by quantitative assessment of three parameters: maximum phonation time (MPT), semantic fluency and reading speed. The outcome measures were compared between the patient groups and with controls.
Patients with PD had hypophonic monotonous speech with occasional rushes of speech while patients with MSA and PSP had mixed dysarthria with ataxic and spastic elements respectively. All quantitative parameters were affected when compared to controls (P values<0.001, 0.012 and 0.008 respectively). Maximum phonation time was significantly less in PSP when compared to MSA and PD (P=0.015). Reading speed also showed a similar trend which was not statistically significant. Semantic fluency was comparable in all three groups.
Dysarthria in PD, PSP and MSA have many overlapping but certain distinctive features as well which could serve as a diagnostic clue. Patients with PSP had profound speech impairment probably indicative of the more severe frontostriatial pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid-state fermentation (SSF) involves the growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free water. This low moisture content makes the SSF different from submerged fermentation. Unlike the situation in submerged fermentation there is no systematic study guiding the design and operation of large scale SSF with proper controls. The understanding and modeling of microbial growth kinetics and transport phenomena play important roles in the SSF. The design of bioreactors from tray type to stirred tank is discussed. The packed bed, rotating drum, rocking drum, fluidized bed and stirred tank reactors are used in SSF with and without modifications. The parameters like pH, temperature, agitation and aeration also need to be controlled. There is a large gradient of temperature throughout the trays. By manipulating the nitrogen source requirement, the pH of the system is generally controlled. The different factors that control the agitation and aeration in the SSF are discussed. Finally the advantages and disadvantages of SSF compared to submerged fermentation were mentioned. Moreover, such understanding is very much required in the design, scale up and process control in SSF. This paper deals with the influence of environmental parameters such as airflow rate, temperature, pH, substrate concentration and other physico-chemical parameters on the production of specific metabolites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The syndrome of multiple enchondromas is known as Ollier′s disease. Enchondromas are benign tumours of hyaline cartilage arising within the medullary cavity of tubular bones. We are reporting the case of a 16 year old girl with Ollier′s disease who presented with seizures and brainstem compression. A MRI scan of brain showed an intracranial space-occupying lesion in the region of clivus. The intracranial tumour was surgically removed and the histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of enchondroma. Intracranial enchondroma is an extremely rare situation and reported for the first time from south India.