Victoria González

Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain

Are you Victoria González?

Claim your profile

Publications (49)128.48 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection and associated risk factors between new (injecting for ≤5 years) and long-term injectors and to estimate HIV/HCV incidence among new injectors. Methods: Cross-sectional study among people who inject drugs (PWID) who attended harm reduction centers in Catalonia in 2010-11. Anonymous questionnaires and oral fluid samples were collected. Poisson regression models were applied to determine the association between HIV/HCV infection and risk factors. Results: Of the 761 participants, 21.4% were new injectors. New injectors were younger than long-term injectors (mean age = 31.6 vs. 37.8) and were more likely to be immigrants (59.0% vs. 33.4%). HIV and HCV prevalence was 20.6% and 59.4% among new injectors, and estimated HIV and HCV incidence 8.7 and 25.1 /100 person-years, respectively. Among new injectors, HIV infection was associated with homelessness (PR = 3.10) and reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (PR = 1.79). Reporting front/backloading (PR = 1.33) and daily injection (PR = 1.35) were risk-factors for HCV infection. For long-term injectors, HIV risk factors were: having shared syringes (PR = 1.85), having injected cocaine (PR = 1.38), reporting front/backloading (PR = 1.30) and ever having been in prison (PR = 2.03). Conclusion: A large proportion of PWID in Catalonia are new injectors, a subgroup with a high level of both sexual and parenteral exposure and a high incidence rate of HIV/ HCV infections. It is important to improve early diagnosis of these infections among this group, in particular among migrants. To identify and address risk factors for homelessness PWID should be a priority.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Substance Use & Misuse
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis (clamidia) causa la infección de transmisión sexual (ITS) bacteriana más frecuente. Sin embargo, la prevalencia entre los jóvenes es desconocida en nuestro país. En 2007 la monitorización de la prevalencia y conductas relacionadas con su adquisición se inició en Cataluña en jóvenes ≤ 25 años.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are currently on the increase worldwide. New molecular tools have been developed in the past few years in order to improve their diagnosis. An evaluation was carried out using a new commercially available real-time PCR assay, Anyplex™ II STI-7 (Seegene, Seoul, Korea), which detects seven major pathogens in a single reaction - Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum - and compared with conventional methods performed in our laboratory. Materials and methods: Two different populations were included, and 267 specimens from different sites of infection (urines, endocervical swabs, rectal swabs, vaginal swabs, urethral swabs and one inguinal adenopathy) were processed for both methods. Results: The parameters of clinical performance were calculated for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and the assay achieved sensitivities (SE) from 93.94% to 100%, and specificities (SP) from 96.55% to 100%, with negative predictive values (NPV) from 93.33% to 98.85%, and positive predictive values (PPV) from 96.88% to 100%, with a very good agreement (kappa index from 0.88 to 1). Conclusions: Anyplex™ II STI-7 is a good tool for the reliable diagnosis of STI. Its ease of use and processing allows it to be incorporated into the day to day laboratory work.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
  • Evelin López-Corbeto · Victoria González · Jordi Casabona
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease. Re-infections are a major problem in its control as they increase the probability of developing sequellae. To estimate the prevalence of C.trachomatis and re-infection rate after 6 months of treatment by determining the possible causes. Cross-sectional study in which a urine sample was analysed by PCR in a convenience sample of 506 sexually active youths aged 16-25years. An epidemiological survey and re-test was performed at 3months. The prevalence of C.trachomatis was 8.5%. The age (OR=2.34; 95%CI: 1.21-4.55) and concurrency (OR=3.64; 95% CI: 3.58-26.39) were determining factors for acquiring C.trachomatis. The re-infection rate was 10.34%. The high prevalence of C.trachomatis, as well as the rate of reinfection, suggest the need to assess the effectiveness of the opportunistic screening program and ensure high levels of reporting of sexual partners. Ensuring these approaches facilitate the control of C.trachomatis among young people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Gaceta Sanitaria
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the results of the diagnostic performances of VITROS Syphilis TPA (a chemiluminescence treponemal assay), compared with two treponemal enzyme immunoassays and of traditional versus reverse syphilis algorithms. Its ease of use, automation and high throughput make assay a good choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this article is to assess the distribution of undiagnosed HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Southern and Eastern European countries, to describe the differences in epidemiology and behaviour between undiagnosed, diagnosed HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM and to identify factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection in the study population. Methods: A multi-centre biological and behavioural cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. Time-location sampling was used to recruit men attending different venues. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV prevalence. Results: HIV prevalence was 17% in Barcelona, 12% in Verona, 6% in Bratislava, 5% in Ljubljana, 5% in Bucharest and 3% in Prague while undiagnosed HIV infection was 47, 62, 67, 83, 85 and 57%, respectively. Diagnosed HIV-positive men reported more casual partners than HIV-negative MSM (mean: 19 and 9, respectively) (P < 0.001), and they were more likely to self-reported condyloma in the last year than undiagnosed HIV-positive and HIV-negative men (15, 1 and 3%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included attending sex-focused venues (OR = 2.49), reporting syphilis in the previous 12 months (OR = 2.56), using poppers at last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.36) and having had an HIV test in the previous year (OR = 2.00). Conclusions: Many HIV infections remain undiagnosed, and there is evidence of the persistence of frequent risk behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STI) despite knowledge of HIV-positive status, emphasising the need for a multidimensional approach to HIV/STI prevention. Access to HIV testing should be considered a priority in prevention programs targeted at MSM, especially in Eastern Europe.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The European Journal of Public Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introducción El algoritmo RITA (recent infection testing algorithm) es utilizado en los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica de Salud Pública para estimar la incidencia de infección por VIH-1 en nuestro medio. Objetivos Los objetivos de nuestro estudio fueron: (i) Evaluar la precisión del ensayo de avidez automatizado VITROS® Anti-HIV1+2 assay para la detección cualitativa de anticuerpos frente al VIH-1 y el VIH-2; (ii) Validar la precisión de un ensayo de avidez automatizado para discriminar entre infección reciente y crónica por el VIH-1 utilizando la plataforma VITROS 3600; (iii) Comparar este método con el ensayo BED-CEIA; y (iv) Evaluar la tasa de infecciones crónicas por VIH-1 clasificadas incorrectamente como recientes en los pacientes en tratamiento antirretrovírico combinado y en pacientes con un recuento de CD4 < 200 céls/μL. Resultados El ensayo de avidez de VITROS es altamente reproducible. El análisis de curvas ROC reveló que un valor de punto de corte ≤0,51 con una sensibilidad y especificidad del 86,7% (IC 95%: 72,5-94,5) y del 86,2% (IC 95%: 78-91,8) respectivamente, es óptimo para identificar infecciones recientes por VIH-1. La correlación entre el ensayo de VITROS® avidez y BED-CEIA fue buena (κ = 0,77; IC 95%: 0,67-0,86). La tasa de infecciones crónicas por VIH-1 clasificadas incorrectamente como recientes por el ensayo de avidez fueron del 8,2% en los pacientes con CD4 < 200 céls/μL y del 8,7% en los pacientes en tratamiento antirretrovírico combinado. Conclusiones El ensayo de avidez evaluado es un método fiable para detectar infecciones recientes por VIH-1 y podría ser utilizado dentro de un algoritmo RITA para estimar la incidencia de infección por VIH-1 en la población.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To describe trends in HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviors and other sexual health indicators in female sex workers (SW) from 2005 to 2011. Methods Cross-sectional studies were conducted biennially among SW recruited in Catalonia (Spain) in the street, flats and clubs (n = 400). In addition to an anonymous questionnaire, oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the Mantel test. Results The percentage of SW who used condoms inconsistently with clients (past 6 months) increased from 5.1% in 2005 to 9.9% in 2011 (p = 0.005); this percentage also increased with steady partners (86.2% in 2005 to 94.4% in 2011, p = 0.002). The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) increased from 14% in 2005 to 20.6% in 2011 (p = 0.001). The prevalence of HIV held constant over the years (about 2%), being higher in Spanish women (14.7% in 2011). Discussion The prevalence of HIV in SW remained stable over the years, being higher in Spanish SW. The increase in unprotected sex and in the prevalence of self-reported STI among SW from 2005 to 2011 highlights a possible relaxation in preventive behaviors in this group. Interventions to reduce the transmission of these infections, as well as unwanted pregnancies, should continue in Catalonia in SW.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Gaceta Sanitaria
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health issue. Hepatitis C can be cured by therapy, but many infected individuals are unaware of their status. Effective HCV screening, fast diagnosis and characterization, and hepatic fibrosis staging are highly relevant for controlling transmission, treating infected patients and, consequently, avoiding end-stage liver disease. Exposure to HCV can be determined with high sensitivity and specificity with currently available third generation serology assays. Additionally, the use of point-of-care tests can increase HCV screening opportunities. However, active HCV infection must be confirmed by direct diagnosis methods. Additionally, HCV genotyping is required prior to starting any treatment. Increasingly, high-volume clinical laboratories use different types of automated platforms, which have simplified sample processing, reduced hands-on-time, minimized contamination risks and human error and ensured full traceability of results. Significant advances have also been made in the field of fibrosis stage assessment with the development of non-invasive methods, such as imaging techniques and serum-based tests. However, no single test is currently available that is able to completely replace liver biopsy. This review focuses on approved commercial tools used to diagnose HCV infection and the recommended hepatic fibrosis staging tests.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background This study was carried out to observe the effect of screening in asymptomatic couple members on the Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence.Methods First void urine samples were collected from 105 women and their male sex partners. Women were recruited for screening at sexual health clinical setting (age 16-25 years), and home sampling screening options were used for men.ResultsPCR detected seven positive C. trachomatis samples in women (6.6%) and five in men (4.6%). The concordant infection rate was 33% (3/9) (95% CI 13-182%).Conclusions Routine urine screening of only female partner results in substantial underestimation of the C. trachomatis prevalence, where probably 56% of the couples with at least one partner tested positive would not be unnoticed. Screening both partners compared with women- or men-only screening increases the detection rate of positive couples. Furthermore, the use of alternative screening approaches against clinical setting increases the accessibility to test at risk populations.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of STD & AIDS
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe trends in HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviors and other sexual health indicators in female sex workers (SW) from 2005 to 2011. Cross-sectional studies were conducted biennially among SW recruited in Catalonia (Spain) in the street, flats and clubs (n = 400). In addition to an anonymous questionnaire, oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the Mantel test. The percentage of SW who used condoms inconsistently with clients (past 6 months) increased from 5.1% in 2005 to 9.9% in 2011 (p = 0.005); this percentage also increased with steady partners (86.2% in 2005 to 94.4% in 2011, p = 0.002). The prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) increased from 14% in 2005 to 20.6% in 2011 (p = 0.001). The prevalence of HIV held constant over the years (about 2%), being higher in Spanish women (14.7% in 2011). The prevalence of HIV in SW remained stable over the years, being higher in Spanish SW. The increase in unprotected sex and in the prevalence of self-reported STI among SW from 2005 to 2011 highlights a possible relaxation in preventive behaviors in this group. Interventions to reduce the transmission of these infections, as well as unwanted pregnancies, should continue in Catalonia in SW.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Gaceta Sanitaria

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Between January 2012 and June 2013, 27 sexually transmitted infections were reported in adolescents aged 13-15 years in Catalonia, Spain. In the first half of 2013, there were nine cases of gonorrhoea, while in the same period of 2012, there was one. In June 2013, two gonorrhoea cases aged 13-14 years, linked to a common source through a social network, were reported. The public health response should be adapted to this vulnerable population.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is mandatory for tailoring dose and duration of pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin treatment and for deciding on triple therapy eligibility. Additionally, subtyping may play a role in helping to select future treatment regimens that include directly-acting antivirals. However, commercial assays for HCV genotyping fail to identify the genotype/subtype in some cases. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were (i) to determine the success rate of the commercial genotyping assay Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II at identifying the genotype and the HCV-1 subtype; and (ii) to phylogenetically characterise the obtained indeterminate results. STUDY DESIGN: HCV genotyping results obtained between 2009 and 2012 in a Spanish reference hospital were reviewed. A total of 896 people were genotyped with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay. Specimens with an indeterminate result were retrospectively genotyped using the reference method based on the phylogenetic analysis of HCV NS5B sequences. RESULTS: Using the commercially available assay, an indeterminate HCV genotype result was obtained in 20 of 896 patients (2.2%); these corresponded to genotypes 3a, 3k and 4d. Importantly, 8.6% of all cases where genotype 3 was detected were indeterminate. In addition, the HCV-1 subtype was not assigned in 29 of 533 cases (5.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the reference method for HCV genotyping allows indeterminate genotype/subtype results to be interpreted and may lead to the identification of previously uncharacterised subtypes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe gender differences in injection and sexual risks behaviours, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) in Catalonia, Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional studies in 2008-2009 (n=748) and 2010-2011 (n=597) in the network of harm reduction centres. Face to face interviews were conducted and oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV/HCV prevalence. Results: Female were more likely than male IDU to have had a steady sexual partner (68.2% versus 44.9%), to have had an IDU steady sexual partner (46.6% versus 15.1%) and to have exchanged sex for money or drugs in the last 6 months (25.5% versus 2.3%). There were no gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. HIV prevalence was 38.7% (91/235) in women and 31.5% (347/1103) in men (p=0.031). HIV prevalence among female IDU who reported having exchange sex for money or drugs was 53.3% (32/60). The prevalence of HCV was 67.4% (159/236) and 73.6% (810/1101) in female and male IDU, respectively (p=0.053). After adjustment by immigrant status, age and years of injection, differences among HIV/HCV prevalence by gender were not significant. Conclusions: This study demonstrated differences in sexual risk behaviours between male and female IDU, but failed to find gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. Apart from that, the higher prevalence of HIV among women than among men, together with a lower prevalence of HCV, provides evidence that sexual transmission of HIV is important among female IDU. Additional studies are needed to analyze in-depth these specific risk factors for women in order to develop appropriate prevention and health education programs.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Gaceta Sanitaria
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and high risk factors for acquisition in preventive prisoners in Catalonia. Cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 478 prisoners aged between 18 and 35 years was analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect behavioural data. Significant differences were analysed in the descriptive study using Pearson's χ(2). The association between CT and its determinants was analysed using the Mantel-Haenszel test and a multivariate logistic regression model. The overall prevalence of CT was 5.4%. The independent risk factors for infection by CT were as follows: foreign origin, having had concurrent sexual partners, and alcohol consumption. This is the first study performed in prisons of Catalonia that shows the prevalence of CT in young prisoners. The high mobility of young detainees could explain the similarity in prevalence obtained about young people in Catalonia. Systematic monitoring of CT infection in young preventive prisoners is important in order to prevent further problems in themselves and in the general population, since they become a 'bridge population' in sexually transmissible infection spreading.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Sexual Health

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Hepatology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and risks factors for acquiring it among young prisoners in Catalonia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 478 inmates aged between 18-35 years analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We used a standardized questionnaire to collect behavioural data. Significant differences of the descriptive analysis were analyzed using Pearson χ(2) test. We designed a multivariate logistic regression model to explore the risk factors associated with CT. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CT was 5.4%. Independent risk factors for acquisition were foreign origin (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-9.2) and having concurrent sexual partners (OR 5,2, 95% CI 1.2-22.6). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in the prisons of Catalonia determining the prevalence of CT. The high mobility of young detainees may explain the similarity in the prevalence observed in the general young population of Catalonia. Regular monitoring of CT infection in young prisoners preventive is important to prevent future problems in themselves and in the general population and reduce the incidence of infection in the population of their area of influence.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Medicina Clínica

Publication Stats

348 Citations
128.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pulmonology
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2005-2014
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Department of Genetics and Microbiology
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Generalitat de Catalunya
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2011
    • Center for HIV/AIDS Educational Studies and Training
      New York, New York, United States