[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the challenges to develop time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay for serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase is to select an optimal peptide substrate and a specific phosphor Ser/Thr antibody. This report describes a multiplexed random screen-based development of TR-FRET assay for ultra-high-throughput screening (uHTS) of small molecule inhibitors for a potent cancer drug target polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). A screen of a diverse peptide library in a 384-well plate format identified several highly potent substrates that share the consensus motif for phosphorylation by Plk1. Their potencies were comparable to FKD peptide, a designed peptide substrate derived from well-described Plk1 substrate Cdc25C. A specific anti-phosphor Ser/Thr antibody p(S/T)F antibody that detects the phosphorylation of FKD peptide was screened out of 87 antibodies with time-resolved fluorometry technology in a 96-well plate format. Using FKD peptide and p(S/T)F antibody, we successfully developed a robust TR-FRET assay in 384-well plate format, and further miniaturized this assay to 1,536-well plate format to perform uHTS. We screened about 1.2 million compounds for Plk1 inhibitors using a Plk1 deletion mutant that only has the kinase domain and subsequently screened the same compound library using a full-length active-mutant Plk1. These uHTSs identified a number of hit compounds, and some of them had selectivity to either the deletion mutant or the full-length protein. Our results prove that a combination of random screen for substrate peptide and phospho-specific antibodies is very powerful strategy to develop TR-FRET assays for protein kinases.
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Assay and Drug Development Technologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of imidazopyridine derivatives was designed as PLK1 inhibitors. Extensive SAR studies supported by molecular modeling afforded a highly potent and selective compound 36. Compound 36 demonstrated good antitumor efficacy in xenograft nude rat model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To unravel the growth inhibition mechanism of Polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3), the effect of overexpression of Plk3 was examined
in 293T cells. Cell rounding, changes in actin organization and cellular detachment were induced by Plk3 transfection in a
kinase activity-dependent manner. Although apoptosis was not observed, Plk3 overexpression suppressed cellular growth in a
long-term colony-forming assay. Because both Plk3 and Ras affect F-actin organization, the effect of co-transfection of Plk3
and Ras was evaluated. Adhesion was synergistically lost by co-transfection of these two genes, compared with transfection
of Plk3 alone. Furthermore, overexpression of Plk3 caused long-term growth suppression in Ras-transformed NIH3T3. Collectively,
Plk3 activation might cause cytoskeleton re-organization and result in growth suppression more pronouncedly in Ras pathway-activated
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in M phase progression by regulating various downstream substrates via phosphorylation. Here, we identified beta-catenin as a novel substrate of Plk1 and determined that Ser-718 is a phosphorylation site for Plk1 by using a phospho-specific antibody that cross-reacts with Plk1-dependent phosphorylation sites. Ser-718 of beta-catenin was directly phosphorylated by recombinant Plk1 in vitro, with the phosphorylation signal in cells increasing with overexpression of Plk1 and decreasing when endogenous Plk1 was depleted by small interfering RNA. The phosphorylation at Ser-718 was correlated with the cell cycle-dependent expression of Plk1 which reached a maximum in M phase. We also confirmed that there is a physical interaction between beta-catenin and Plk1 using coimmunoprecipitation and a GST pull-down assay. These results demonstrate that beta-catenin is a physiological substrate of Plk1 in cells, which may provide a novel insight into the role of beta-catenin in M phase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Plk (polo-like kinase) family is involved in cell-cycle machinery. Despite the possible overlapping involvement of Plk1 and Plk3 in cell-cycle distribution, the precise role of each Plk might be different. To investigate mechanisms that may differentiate their physiological roles, we compared the substrate specificities of Plk1 and Plk3 using synthetic peptides. Among these substrate peptides, topoisomerase IIalpha EKT(1342)DDE-containing synthetic peptide was strongly phosphorylated by Plk3 but not by Plk1. By modulating the topoisomerase IIalpha peptide, we identified residues at positions +1, +2 and +4 as determinants of differential substrate recognition between Plk1 and Plk3. Acidic residues at positions +2 and +4 appear to be a positive determinant for Plk3 but not Plk1. Variation at position +1 appears to be tolerated by Plk3, while a hydrophobic residue at +1 is critical for Plk1 activity. The direct phosphorylation of Thr(1342) of topoisomerase IIalpha by Plk3 was demonstrated with an in vitro kinase assay, and overexpression of Plk3 induced the phosphorylation of Thr(1342) in cellular topoisomerase IIalpha. Furthermore, the physical interaction between Plk3 and topoisomerase IIalpha was also demonstrated in cells in addition to phosphorylation. These data suggest that topoisomerase IIalpha is a novel physiological substrate for Plk3 and that Plk1 and Plk3 play different roles in cell-cycle regulation.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Biochemical Journal