Marc A Pfeffer

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (648)8023.11 Total impact

  • Scott D. Solomon · Kai-Uwe Eckardt · Marc A. Pfeffer

    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiorenal interactions have been shown to affect outcome in heart failure patients but were not related to response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that assessment of markers of prerenal failure may help identify mildly symptomatic HF patients with diminished effective circulating blood volume who will benefit from CRT. The benefit of CRT with a defibrillator (CRT-D) as compared with defibrillator-only therapy in reducing the risk of HF or death was assessed by renal function parameters (including serum creatinine [SCr], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and the ratio of BUN to SCr [BUN:SCr], dichotomized at median values and into approximate quartiles) among 1,803 patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that the benefit of CRT-D was inversely related to SCr levels and directly related to BUN levels. Combined assessment of the two renal function parameters showed a significant difference in the benefit of CRT-D between patients with low (≤ 18 mg/dL, HR = 0.85, P = .28) and elevated (> 18 mg/dL, HR = 0.46, P < .001) BUN:SCr (P-value for interaction = .005). Consistently, the benefit of CRT-D was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of BUN:SCr (Q(1): HR = 1.06 [P = .79], Q(2): HR = 0.64 [P = .04], Q(3): HR = 0.47 [P < .001], Q(4): HR = 0.44 [P < .001]; P-value for trend = .005). In MADIT-CRT, patients with an elevated ratio of BUN to SCr experienced a significantly greater reduction in the risk of HF or death with CRT-D therapy as compared with patients with a low ratio. These findings suggest an association between prerenal function and response to CRT.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown. The Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial (VALIANT) enrolled 14 703 patients with acute MI complicated by HF, systolic dysfunction, or both. We compared the risk of death, HF hospitalization, and/or recurrent MI among patients with and without diabetes using Cox proportional hazards models. To assess the relationship between diabetes, LVEF and outcomes, we assessed the relative influence of baseline LVEF on outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Totally, 11 325 subjects (3095 diabetics) with site-reported LVEF and known diabetes status were included. At any given LVEF, diabetes was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.37, 95% CI 1.25-1.51], death or HF hospitalization (adjusted HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.31-1.51), and death or recurrent MI (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.24-1.48). Diabetes modified the relationship between LVEF and death or HF hospitalization (P for interaction = 0.0109), such that the association between diabetes and increased risk was greater in magnitude at higher LVEF. No interaction was noted between diabetes and LVEF on risk of all-cause mortality or death or recurrent MI. Diabetes is associated with a higher risk of death or HF hospitalization across the spectrum of LVEF in high-risk post-MI patients. The magnitude of reduction in risk of death or HF hospitalization associated with increasing LVEF is significantly attenuated among patients with diabetes when compared to patients without diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the clinical prognostic value of longitudinal and circumferential strain (S) and strain rate (SR) in patients after high-risk myocardial infarction (MI). Left ventricular (LV) contractile performance after MI is an important predictor of long-term outcome. Tissue deformation imaging might more closely reflect myocardial contractility than traditional measures of systolic functions. The VALIANT (Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial) Echo study enrolled 603 patients with LV dysfunction, heart failure, or both 5 days after MI. We measured global peak longitudinal S and systolic SR (SRs) from apical 4- and 2-chamber views and global circumferential S and SRs from parasternal short-axis view with speckle tracking software (Velocity Vector Imaging, Siemens, Inc., Mountain View, California). We related global S and SRs to LV remodeling at 20-month follow-up and to clinical outcomes. Both longitudinal (mean: -5.1 ± 1.6 100/ms) and circumferential SRs (mean: -8.0 ± 2.8 100/ms) were predictive of death or hospital stay for heart failure (hazard ratio: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0 to 3.1, p < 0.001; hazard ratio: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.4, p < 0.001, respectively) after adjustment for clinical covariates by Cox proportional hazards, and longitudinal SRs further improved in predicting 18-month survivor on a model based on clinical and standard echocardiographic measures (increase in area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve: 0.13, p = 0.009). With multivariable logistic regression, circumferential SRs, but not longitudinal SRs, was strongly predictive of remodeling (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.4, p < 0.001). Both longitudinal and circumferential SRs were independent predictors of outcomes after MI, whereas only circumferential SRs was predictive of remodeling, suggesting that preserved circumferential function might serve to restrain ventricular enlargement after MI.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of learning curves in medical skill acquisition has enhanced patient safety through improved training techniques. Clinical trials research has not been similarly scrutinised. The VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion, a large multinational, pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial, was retrospectively evaluated for evidence of research conduct consistent with a performance "learning curve". Records provided protocol departure (deviations/violations) and documentation query data. For each site, analysis included patient order (eg, first, second), recruitment rate and first enrollment relative to study start date. Computerised data from a trial coordinated by an academic research organisation collaborating with 10 academic and 2 commercial research organisations and an industry sponsor. Interventions 931 sites enrolled 14,703 patients. Departures were restricted to the first year. Exclusions included patient's death or loss to follow-up within 12 months and subjects enrolled 80th or higher at a site. Departures were assessed for variance with higher patient rank, more frequent recruitment and later start date. 12,367 patients at 931 sites were analysed. Departures were more common for patients enrolled earlier at a site (p<0.0001). For example, compared with the 30th patient, the first had 47% more departures. Departures were also more common with slower enrollment and site start closer to the trial start date (p<0.0001). Similar patterns existed for queries. Research performance improved during the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion consistent with a "learning curve". Although effects were not related to a change in outcome (mortality), learning curves in clinical research may have important safety, ethical, research quality and economic implications for trial conduct.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Quality and Safety in Health Care
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    ABSTRACT: IMS: Recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) is common after a first MI and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Predictors and prognosis of a recurrent MI with contemporary management are not well known. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the predictors and prognostic impact of a first recurrent MI in 10,599 patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both following a first MI from the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) cohort. During a median follow-up of 27.4 months, 861 patients (9.6%) had a recurrent MI. The median time to recurrence was 136 days (quartiles 35-361 days), with a declining rate of recurrent MI within the first 3 months. The strongest predictors of recurrent MI were reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, unstable angina, diabetes, and age. Mortality was markedly elevated (20.5%) within the first 7 days of a recurrent MI. Patients who survived 7 days after a recurrent MI continued to be at increased risk of death compared with patients without a recurrent MI and the risk of death remained elevated more than two-fold a year after the recurrent MI (adjusted hazards ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.7-3.2). One-year mortality for the entire VALIANT cohort was 10.3%, whereas 38.3% of the patients were dead 1 year after recurrent MI. Early reinfarctions (within 1 month) was associated with significantly higher 30-day mortality than later reinfarctions. CONCLUSION: Even in the context of contemporary treatment, a recurrent MI confers a significantly increased risk of death in patients following a high-risk first MI. Strategies aimed at reducing recurrent MI will thus likely prolong survival in post-MI survivors.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) are at particularly high risk for recurrent adverse outcomes. The magnitude of the decrease in risk associated with smoking cessation after MI has not been well described in patients with LV dysfunction after MI. We aimed to quantify the risk decrease associated with smoking cessation in subjects with LV dysfunction after MI. The Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) trial randomized 2,231 subjects with LV dysfunction 3 to 16 days after MI. Smoking status was assessed at randomization and at regular intervals during a median follow-up of 42 months. Propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to quantify the decrease in risk of all-cause mortality, death or recurrent MI, and death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization associated with smoking cessation. In baseline smokers who survived to 6 months without interval events, smoking cessation at 6-month follow-up was associated with a significantly lower adjusted risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31 to 0.91), death or recurrent MI (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99), and death or HF hospitalization (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.92). In conclusion, in patients with LV dysfunction after MI, smoking cessation is associated with a 40% lower hazard of all-cause mortality and a 30% lower hazard of death or recurrent MI or death or HF hospitalization. These findings indicate that smoking cessation is beneficial after high-risk MI and highlight the importance of smoking cessation as a therapeutic target in patients with LV dysfunction after MI.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The American journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: In trials of chronic disease therapy, each patient may experience several nonfatal illnesses and death. "Composite" outcome measures combine information from these different components of disease burden. Most common is the binary distinction between patients undergoing one or more events and those undergoing no events. We compare this approach with a composite score that preserves information on the number and severity of events. The binary composite measure and composite score were derived for each patient in a trial of cardiovascular therapy. All nonfatal events contributed to the composite score according to their severity: recurrent myocardial infarction (weight 0.5), congestive heart failure that required the use of open-label angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (weight 0.2), and hospitalization to treat congestive heart failure (weight 0.5). In the example data set, the composite score required a 10% larger sample size to achieve the same power as the binary measure. However, the composite score suggested that the treatment impacted on the first nonfatal event and mortality only. The composite score provides a more informative measure of disease burden and may avoid overestimating the evidence supporting a treatment effect when that evidence is largely from less severe early events.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of clinical epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Non–placebo-controlled trials of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) comparing lower and higher hemoglobin targets in patients with chronic kidney disease indicate that targeting of a lower hemoglobin range may avoid ESA-associated risks. However, target-based strategies are confounded by each patient's individual hematopoietic response. We assessed the relationship among the initial hemoglobin response to darbepoetin alfa after two weight-based doses, the hemoglobin level achieved after 4 weeks, the subsequent darbepoetin alfa dose, and outcomes in 1872 patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus who were not receiving dialysis. We defined a poor initial response to darbepoetin alfa (which occurred in 471 patients) as the lowest quartile of percent change in hemoglobin level (<2%) after the first two standardized doses of the drug. Patients who had a poor initial response to darbepoetin alfa had a lower average hemoglobin level at 12 weeks and during follow-up than did patients with a better hemoglobin response (a change in hemoglobin level ranging from 2 to 15% or more) (P<0.001 for both comparisons), despite receiving higher doses of darbepoetin alfa (median dose, 232 μg vs. 167 μg; P<0.001). Patients with a poor response, as compared with those with a better response, had higher rates of the composite cardiovascular end point (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.59) or death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.78). A poor initial hematopoietic response to darbepoetin alfa was associated with an increased subsequent risk of death or cardiovascular events as doses were escalated to meet target hemoglobin levels. Although the mechanism of this differential effect is not known, these findings raise concern about current target-based strategies for treating anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. (Funded by Amgen; number, NCT00093015.)
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) plus implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) reduced the risk of death or heart failure event in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and wide QRS complex compared with an ICD only. We assessed echocardiographic changes in patients enrolled in the MADIT-CRT trial (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial: Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) to evaluate whether the improvement in outcomes with CRT plus an ICD was associated with favorable alterations in cardiac size and function. A total of 1,820 patients were randomly assigned to CRT plus an ICD or to an ICD only in a 3:2 ratio. Echocardiographic studies were obtained at baseline and 12 months later in 1,372 patients. We compared changes in cardiac size and performance between treatment groups and assessed the relationship between these changes over the first year, as well as subsequent outcomes. Compared with the ICD-only group, the CRT-plus-ICD group had greater improvement in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (-26.2 versus -7.4 mL/m(2)), left ventricular end-systolic volume index (-28.7 versus -9.1 mL/m(2)), left ventricular ejection fraction (11% versus 3%), left atrial volume index (-11.9 versus -4.7 mL/m(2)), and right ventricular fractional area change (8% versus 5%; P<0.001 for all). Improvement in end-diastolic volume at 1 year was predictive of subsequent death or heart failure, with adjustment for baseline covariates and treatment group; each 10% decrease in end-diastolic volume was associated with a 40% reduction in risk (P<0.001). CRT resulted in significant improvement in cardiac size and performance compared with an ICD-only strategy in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure. Improvement in these measures accounted for the outcomes benefit. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: Unique identifier: NCT00180271.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized clinical trials have suggested that treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with cancer or chronic kidney disease may increase cardiovascular risk. We therefore examined the effect of treating anaemia with an ESA in patients with heart failure in a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, including the recently reported TREAT study. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all prospective, randomized, controlled studies of ESAs enrolling patients with heart failure and reporting data on mortality or non-fatal heart failure events. Of 10 trials initially identified by our search strategy, we pooled data from 9 placebo-controlled studies enrolling a total of 2039 patients, of whom 1023 (50.2%) were allocated to ESA treatment. The pooled risk ratio for ESA treatment relative to placebo was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.21, P = 0.68] for overall mortality and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.82-1.10, P = 0.46) for worsening heart failure. The use of ESAs to manage anaemia in patients with heart failure was associated with a neutral effect on both mortality and non-fatal heart failure events. Definitive assessment of the balance of risk and benefit in this population awaits the completion of a randomized clinical trial adequately powered to assess clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    Marc A Pfeffer

    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of sudden unexpected death is highest in the early post-myocardial infarction (MI) period; nevertheless, 2 recent trials showed no improvement in mortality with early placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator after MI. To better understand the pathophysiological events that lead to sudden death after MI, we assessed autopsy records in a series of cases classified as sudden death events in patients from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial infarctioN Trial (VALIANT). Autopsy records were available in 398 cases (14% of deaths). We determined that 105 patients had clinical circumstances consistent with sudden death. On the basis of the autopsy findings, we assessed the probable cause of sudden death and evaluated how these causes varied with time after MI. Of 105 deaths considered sudden on clinical grounds, autopsy suggested the following causes: 3 index MIs in the first 7 days (2.9%); 28 recurrent MIs (26.6%); 13 cardiac ruptures (12.4%); 4 pump failures (3.8%); 2 other cardiovascular causes (stroke or pulmonary embolism; 1.9%); and 1 noncardiovascular cause (1%). Fifty-four cases (51.4%) had no acute specific autopsy evidence other than the index MI and were thus presumed arrhythmic. The percentage of sudden death due to recurrent MI or rupture was highest in the first month after the index MI. By contrast, after 3 months, the percentage of presumed arrhythmic death was higher than recurrent MI or rupture (chi(2)=23.3, P<0.0001). Recurrent MI or cardiac rupture accounts for a high proportion of sudden death in the early period after acute MI, whereas arrhythmic death may be more likely subsequently. These findings may help explain the lack of benefit of early implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial rupture is a relatively rare and usually fatal complication of myocardial infarction (MI). Early recognition of patients at greatest risk of myocardial rupture provides an opportunity for early intervention. VALIANT was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing valsartan, captopril, and their combination in high-risk patients post-MI. Myocardial rupture was identified by autopsy (available in 138/589 patients dying within 30 days of index MI), echocardiography, direct surgical visualization, or presence of hemopericardium. An independent clinical end points committee reviewed medical records for all deaths or suspected nonfatal cardiovascular events. Rupture was identified in 45 (0.31%) patients enrolled in VALIANT, occurring 9.8 +/- 6.0 days after the qualifying MI. Rupture accounted for 7.6% (45/589) of all deaths occurring in the first 30 days of follow-up and 24% (33/138) of deaths in which autopsies were obtained. Compared with survivors, rupture was associated with increased age, hypertension, increased Killip class, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and Q wave MI, and inversely related to beta-blocker and diuretic use. Compared with patients who died of other causes within 30 days, patients with myocardial rupture were more likely to have had an inferior MI, Q wave MI, or hypertension; to have used oral anticoagulants; or to have received thrombolytic therapy. Although rare, myocardial rupture accounted for nearly one fourth of all deaths within the first 30 days after high-risk MI, suggesting an estimated incidence of approximately 1% within the first 30 days. A number of clinical characteristics may identify post-MI patients at higher risk of myocardial rupture.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · American heart journal

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · European Journal of Heart Failure
  • Finn Gustafsson · Dan Atar · Bertram Pitt · Faiez Zannad · Marc A Pfeffer
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    ABSTRACT: Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were discussed by a group of trialists. This review focuses on the arguments for conducting posttrial database studies and presents examples of studies in which posttrial knowledge generation has been substantial. Possible strategies to ensure successful trial database or biobank generation are discussed, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists is outlined.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · American heart journal
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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether there is an interaction between aspirin and angiotensin receptor blockers on outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). The efficacy and safety of candesartan vs. placebo was assessed in 7599 patients with symptomatic HF and reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction enrolled in the CHARM programme according to baseline aspirin use. Patients were randomized to candesartan or matching placebo and were followed for a median of 38 months. Aspirin was used in 4246 (55.9%) of patients at baseline. When compared with placebo, candesartan use was associated with lower event rates for cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization (primary outcome) in both the aspirin group (28 vs. 31.9%, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.90) and non-aspirin group (33 vs. 38%, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.91). Baseline aspirin use did not modify the effectiveness of candesartan in reducing the risk of CV death or HF hospitalization in CHARM overall (P = 0.64) or in the CHARM individual trials. In addition, there was no significant interaction between aspirin therapy and candesartan in terms of discontinuation of study drug due to adverse reactions (P = 0.72). There appears to be no significant modification of the benefit of candesartan on CV mortality and morbidity outcomes or safety by concomitant use of aspirin in patients with chronic HF.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are common partners. Bronchodilators are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with pulmonary disease. The outcome of patients with HF prescribed bronchodilators is poorly defined. The Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) programme randomized 7599 patients with symptomatic HF to receive candesartan or placebo. The relative risk conveyed by bronchodilator therapy was examined using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The prevalence of bronchodilator therapy was similar in patients with reduced and preserved systolic function (respectively, 8.7 vs. 9.2%, P = 0.46). Beta-blocker utilization was markedly lower in patients receiving bronchodilators compared with those without (overall 31.9 vs. 57.6%, P < 0.0001). Bronchodilator use was associated with increased all-cause mortality [HR 1.26 (1.09-1.45), P = 0.0015], cardiovascular death [HR 1.21 (1.03-1.42), P = 0.0216], HF hospitalization [HR 1.49 (1.29-1.72), P < 0.0001], and major adverse cardiovascular events [HR 1.32 (1.17-1.76), P < 0.0001]. The adverse outcomes were consistent in patients with reduced and preserved systolic function. No significant interaction was observed between bronchodilators and beta-blockade with respect to outcomes. Bronchodilator use is a powerful independent predictor of worsening HF and increased mortality in a broad spectrum of patients with HF. Whether this relates to a toxic effect of bronchodilators, underlying pulmonary disease, or both is unclear and warrants further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · European Journal of Heart Failure
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with atrial fibrillation usually are elderly and may have cognitive dysfunction. These patients may receive less effective oral anticoagulation, resulting in more vascular events and bleeding. In an analysis of cognitive function associated with the time in therapeutic range (TTR) in the Atrial Fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial With Irbesartan for Prevention of Vascular Events, 2510 patients (mean age, 71+/-9.5 years) from 27 countries completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Of these patients, 171 (6.8%) had an MMSE score <24, suggesting dementia, and 194 (7.7%) had intermediate scores of 24 to 25. Low MMSE scores were correlated with a low TTR. Even mild cognitive impairment was associated with a TTR below the median (<65%). Patients with an MMSE score <26 had more vascular events (6.7% versus 3.6% per 100 patient-years; P=0.002) and more bleeding (9.6% versus 7% per 100 patient-years; P=0.04). After controlling for TTR, the MMSE no longer conferred increased risk, suggesting that if improved anticoagulation was provided, vascular events and bleeding would be reduced. Other independent factors associated with a TTR <65% were region of the world, recent initiation of vitamin K antagonist, type of anticoagulant, and concurrent use of amiodarone or insulin. After adjustment for these factors, lower MMSE scores still predicted a reduced TTR. Cognitive dysfunction is common in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and is related to less effective anticoagulation and more vascular events. The MMSE identifies patients with atrial fibrillation in whom extra efforts are needed to maintain effective anticoagulation and improve outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: Unique identifier: NCT00243178.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

Publication Stats

73k Citations
8,023.11 Total Impact Points


  • 1982-2016
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1984-2015
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1978-2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University Center Rochester
      • Department of Medicine
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Ottawa
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2005
    • London Health Sciences Centre
      • Department of Medicine
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999-2005
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Missouri
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Lodz
      Łódź, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2003
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Gothenburg
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1999-2003
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2002
    • Yale University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • George Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2000
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1991-1999
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • School of Public Health
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1994-1998
    • Montreal Heart Institute
      • Department of Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Vanderbilt University
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1995
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1973-1976
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1972
    • Oklahoma City University
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States