E Koivunen

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (63)276.92 Total impact

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Processes that promote cancer progression such as angiogenesis require a functional interplay between malignant and nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment. The metalloprotease aminopeptidase N (APN; CD13) is often overexpressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. Our previous studies of APN-null mice revealed impaired neoangiogenesis in model systems without cancer cells and suggested the hypothesis that APN expressed by nonmalignant cells might promote tumor growth. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of APN deficiency in allografted malignant (tumor) and nonmalignant (host) cells on tumor growth and metastasis in APN-null mice. In two independent tumor graft models, APN activity in both the tumors and the host cells cooperate to promote tumor vascularization and growth. Loss of APN expression by the host and/or the malignant cells also impaired lung metastasis in experimental mouse models. Thus, cooperation in APN expression by both cancer cells and nonmalignant stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment promotes angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The actual use of hospital beds for patients with multiple myeloma was calculated from a randomised trial of primary treatment with either melphalan and prednisone (MP, 66 patients) or intensive combination chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide, lomustine, melphalan and methylprednisolone (MOCCA, 64 patients). The survival of the patients was similar in both arms, and the samples, 20 and 32 patients, respectively, were well representative for the whole arms. The average numbers of hospital days were similar fur both arms. For the first year MP 33.2 (SD 27.6) vs. MOCCA 32.1 (SD 19.0), and during the first to 4th years 78.5 (SD 45.9) vs. 67.8 (SD 34.1). For the year of death it was 50.4 (SD 33.1) vii. 36.3 (SD 27.0), respectivelly. Thus the choice of primary chemotherapy whether conventional or more aggressive had no influence on the actual number of in-patient hospital days concerned. When the combination chemotherapy schedule is well tolerated it can be administered just as well on an ambulatory basis or by using it with very short admissions. It seems that the need for inpatient care for patients with multiple myeloma is mostly related to the complications of the disease itself and to intercurrent disorders including infections.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
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    ABSTRACT:   In a randomised multicentre trial a combination of methylprednisolone, vincristine, lomustine, cyclophosphamide and melphalan (MOCCA) was compared with the same regimen omitting methylprednisolone after the first course (COLA) in previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma. The MOCCA arm showed a response rate of 72% among 79 patients and the COLA arm a response rate of 60% among 59 patients. This difference was not statistically significant. The median survival time was 56 months in the MOCCA arm and 61 months in the COLA arm. There was a slight increase of early deaths (within the first 6 months) in the MOCCA arm as compared with the COLA arm. We conclude that, in multidrug therapies, the continuation of corticosteroid at conventional dosage beyond the first course does not improve response rate or survival time in multiple myeloma.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: 94 patients with refractory multiple myeloma were treated in a multicentre trial with combinations of cytotoxic drugs including anthracyclines. All were refractory to a 5-drug combination containing 3 alkylating agents, vincristine and methylprednisolone (MOCCA). With a combination of epirubicin and iphosphamide a 50% response was achieved in 9% of 22 patients. The response rate after schedule VAP (vincristine, doxorubicin and prednisolone) was 8% of 13 patients and that after schedule VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) 20% of 59 patients. The previous chemotherapy had lasted for less than 12 months in 13 cases from among all these patients, and 5 of these (38%) responded. In contrast, there were only 10 responders (12%) among the 81 patients with longer previous chemotherapy.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Some reports suggest that blood stem cell mobilization is difficult in a proportion of patients with CLL. We evaluated this issue in a large cohort of CLL patients. One hundred and twenty-eight patients with CLL underwent blood stem cell mobilization during 1995-2005 in Finland. Ninety-five percent of the patients had received fludarabine. The most common mobilization regimen was intermediate-dose CY plus G-CSF (90 patients, 70%). At least 2 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells were collected after the first mobilization attempt in 83 patients (65%), whereas 45 patients (35%) failed to reach this collection target. No differences were observed between these patient groups with regard to age, time from the diagnosis to mobilization, number of previous treatment lines, number of fludarabine courses, time from the last fludarabine-containing chemotherapy to mobilization, disease status or degree of marrow infiltration. Patients who failed collection had platelets <100 x 10(9)/l more commonly at the time of mobilization (30 vs 4%, P<0.001). A significant proportion of patients with CLL were difficult to mobilize. Adequate marrow function including platelet counts >100 x 10(9)/l seem to be important factors in terms of successful blood stem cell collection.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the long-term outcome of idarubicin- and cytarabine-based intensive chemotherapy in adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A total of 327 consecutive patients with de novo AML (promyelocytic leukaemia excluded) aged 16-65 yr were recruited into the study between September 1992 and December 2001. The latest follow-up data were collected in October 2006. After remission achievement with the first (conventional cytarabine) or second (high-dose cytarabine) chemotherapy cycle, three intensive consolidation courses each containing high- or intermediate-dose cytarabine were given. A total of 268 patients (82%) achieved complete remission (CR). CR rate was 82% and 84% for patients <60 and > or =60 yr of age, respectively. CR rates in patients with favourable (93%) and intermediate/normal karyotypes (87%) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than CR rate in patients with adverse karyotype (61%). Median relapse-free survival (RFS) for the patients not transplanted in the first CR (n = 195) was 1.7 yr (95% CI: 0.81-2.60). At 4 yr, a plateau of 70% in RFS was reached for patients with favourable karyotypes. The 5-yr survival was 71%, 47% and 37% for the non-transplanted patients (n = 202) with favourable, intermediate/normal and intermediate/abnormal karyotypes, respectively, while only 8% of the patients having adverse karyotype were alive at 5 yr (P < 0.01). Of the patients with favourable, intermediate/normal or intermediate/abnormal karyotypes, respectively, 58%, 41% and 31% were expected to be alive at 10 yr. Idarubicin- and cytarabine-based intensive chemotherapy regimen is very effective in de novo AML for adult patients up to 65 yr of age. New treatment strategies are needed, however, to improve the outcome of the patients with intermediate and adverse karyotypes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Data on the incidence and causes of late (>100 d) non-relapse mortality (NRM) in autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) recipients is limited. Patients and methods: We have analysed NRM in a cohort of 1482 adult patients who received ASCT in 1990–2003 in six Finnish transplant centres. The most common diagnoses included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 542), multiple myeloma (MM) (n = 528), breast cancer (n = 132); Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (n = 86) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (n = 63). Results: Until September 2005, 646 patients (44%) have died. Late NRM was observed in 68 patients (4.6% of ASCT recipients; 11% of all deaths). There were 38 males and 30 females with a median age of 58 yr (20–69) at the time of ASCT. The median time to NRM was 27 months from ASCT (3–112). The risk of NRM was highest in patients with CLL (9.5%) and those with HL (8.1%) followed by MM and NHL (4.9% and 4.8%, respectively). The risk of late NRM was comparable in patients who received total body irradiation (TBI) and those who received chemotherapy-only regimens (6.7% vs. 4.3%). Another malignancy was the most common cause of late NRM (24 patients, 35% of late NRM). Twelve patients (0.8% of ASCT recipients) have died due to secondary haematological malignancy. Altogether 22 patients (32% of late NRM) died from infectious causes. Conclusions: Malignancies and late infections are important causes of NRM after ASCT. These facts point out the importance of prolonged follow-up in ASCT recipients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Although autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has gained some popularity as a treatment option in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), limited multicentre data are available on the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. Between January 1995 and June 2005, 72 patients with CLL received ASCT in five Finnish centres. There were 45 men and 27 women with a median age of 57 years (38-69). The median time from diagnosis to ASCT was 32 months (6-181) and the median number of prior regimens 1 (1-4). All patients received blood stem cell grafts and CD34+ selection had been performed in 44 patients (61%). The most common high-dose regimen was a total body irradiation plus cyclophosphamide (38 patients, 53%). No early treatment-related deaths were observed. With a median follow-up of 28 months from ASCT, a relapse or progression has been observed in 27 patients (37%). The projected progression-free survival is 48 months (confidence interval (CI) 30-66). The projected median overall survival is 95 months (CI 74-101) from ASCT and is not influenced by graft selection or conditioning regimen used. Autologous stem cell transplantation is a feasible treatment option for CLL. Randomized trials against alternative treatments are needed to assess the impact of ASCT on the clinical course of CLL.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate early (<100 d) treatment-related mortality (TRM) in autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) recipients. Altogether 1482 adult patients received ASCT in six Finnish centres 1990-2003. The most common diagnoses were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 542), multiple myeloma (MM) (n = 528), breast cancer (BC) (n = 132), Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 86) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) (n = 63). Forty-two patients (2.8%) died from treatment-related reasons <100 d from ASCT. The median time to death was 38 d from ASCT (0-99). The risk of TRM varied according to the diagnoses. The highest risk was observed in patients with AL amyloidosis (24%) followed by NHL (4.4%) and MM (1.9%). No early TRM was observed in patients transplanted for BC or CLL. Infections were the cause of death in 16 patients (fungal 7, bacterial 6, viral 3). Organ toxicity was responsible for early death in 26 patients (heart 9, lungs 7, other 10). This nation-wide survey indicated a low early TRM in ASCT recipients in general, but higher risks in patients with AL amyloidosis or NHL. In addition to patient selection, also optimization of transplant procedure may be needed in these patient groups to reduce early TRM.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: RGD is a major recognition sequence for ligands of platelet alpha(IIb)beta3. To identify potential binding sites for alpha(IIb)beta3 apart from RGD, we screened phage display libraries by blocking the enrichment of RGD-containing phages with a GRGDS peptide and identified a novel integrin recognition tripeptide sequence, VPW. Platelets adhered to an immobilized cyclic VPW containing peptide in a alpha(IIb)beta3-dependent manner; platelets and alpha(IIb)beta3-expressing CHO cells adhered faster to immobilized alpha(IIb)beta3-ligands in the presence of soluble VPW. In platelets adhering to fibrinogen, VPW accelerated the activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk which controls cytoskeletal rearrangements. In alpha(IIb)beta3-expressing CHO cells, VPW induced a faster formation of stress fibers. Sequence alignment positioned VPW to V980-P981-W982 in the von Willebrand factor (vWf) A-3 domain. In blood from a vWf-deficient individual, VPW increased platelet adhesion to fibrinogen but not to collagen under flow and rescued the impaired adhesion to vWf deficient in A-3. These data reveal a VPW sequence that contributes to alpha(IIb)beta3 activation in in vitro experiments. Whether the V980-P981-W982 sequence in vWf shows similar properties under in vivo conditions remains to be established.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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    ABSTRACT: Although autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered standard treatment in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), limited experience is available on this approach in patients with plasmacytoma (PC). Twelve patients with high-risk PC received ASCT in Finland 1994-2002. There were nine males and three females with a median age of 50 yr (32-64). Ten patients had a PC of bone, whereas two patients had extramedullary PCs. The median time from the diagnosis to ASCT was 9 months (5-100). At the time of ASCT six patients were in first complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR), in four patients the disease was refractory to the first line therapy and two patients had relapsed. High-dose therapy consisted of melphalan (MEL)200 (n = 7), MEL200 x 2 (n = 3) or total body irradiation (TBI)-MEL140 (n = 2). No transplant-related deaths occurred. After ASCT eight patients (67%) were in CR, one patient in very good PR and one patient in PR; two patients were non-responders. With a median follow-up of 48 months from ASCT, 11 patients (92%) are alive. Six patients (50%) have relapsed or progressed 3-81 months from ASCT. ASCT is feasible in this patient population resulting in promising overall survival. A randomised trial is needed to assess the real value of ASCT when compared with other treatment options in patients with high-risk PC.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Due to poor prognosis with conventional therapy, high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered for treatment in patients with primary amyloidosis (AL). Only single centre series are available on the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. Altogether 20 AL patients (11 males, 9 females, median age 54 years) were included in HDT protocols in 5 Finnish transplant centres between 1997 and 2003. Twelve patients were mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone and 8 patients with a combination of cyclophosphamide and G-CSF. Sixteen patients (80%) went on to high-dose melphalan. Early transplant-related mortality was 25%. Nine out of 11 evaluable patients showed improvement or stabilization of AL. The overall survival of the transplanted patients is 69% (median follow-up 13 months). After a median follow-up of 26 months for the living patients, only 2 patients (18%) have shown progression of AL. This retrospective nation-wide analysis shows that HDT with ASCT leads to improvement or stabilization of AL in the majority of the patients who survive the immediate posttransplant period. A randomized multicentre trial is needed to show whether ASCT is superior to conventional therapy in patients with AL.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
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    ABSTRACT: Based on small single-centre series, the risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI) has been considered small in autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) recipients. To analyse epidemiological and clinical features of (IFI) among ASCT recipients in Finland 1990-2001. During the study period, 1188 adult patients received high-dose therapy supported by ASCT in six centres. Altogether, 1112 patients (94%) received blood progenitor cells. The graft was CD34+ selected in 261 patients (22%). The major diagnostic groups were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 417), multiple myeloma (n = 395), breast cancer (n = 132) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 53). Eighteen patients (1.5%) with IFI were identified. The incidence of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis was 0.8%, followed by candidaemia with an incidence of 0.3%. The median time to the diagnosis of IFI was 35 d (6-162) from the progenitor cell infusion. In fourteen patients (78%) IFI was diagnosed during lifetime and they were treated with antifungal therapy for a median of 50 d. Nine patients (64%) were cured. IFI appears to be a rare event after ASCT and Aspergillus infections seem to be predominant. These epidemiological features have an impact in planning prophylactic and empirical antifungal strategies in ASCT recipients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: A randomised multicentre study was conducted among patients over 65 yr of age with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to compare oral treatment with etoposide 80 mg/m(2) and thioguanine 100 mg/m(2) twice daily on 5 d and idarubicin 15 mg/m(2) on 3 d (ETI) to a mainly i.v. combination of cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) twice daily on 5 d, idarubicin 12 mg/m(2) x 1, and thioguanine (TAI). Ninety-two patients were enrolled. Their median age was 72 yr, range 65-84 yr. Sixty-five patients had de novo AML, 21 AML subsequent to myelodysplastic syndrome, and six treatment-related AML. They received at first a 6-d i.v. treatment with cytarabine and idarubicin. After the first treatment, 68 patients were randomised to receive two cycles of ETI (n = 36) or TAI (n = 32) and thereafter maintenance with mercaptopurine and methotrexate. Of the 92 patients, 52 (57%) achieved remission at some stage. The median survival was 10 months. There were no significant differences between the patients randomised to ETI or TAI in the remission rate (67% vs. 72%), survival (12 months from randomisation in both arms), event-free survival or relapse rate. The patients randomised to receive ETI spent significantly fewer days at hospital during the two randomised cycles (20 vs. 41 d, P = 0.010), and they had fewer days with infusions, shorter neutropenias and thrombocytopenias and fewer and less severe infections. In conclusion, treatment with oral ETI resulted in a similar antileukaemic effect as obtained with mainly i.v. TAI, with less toxicity and reduced need for hospitalisation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · European Journal Of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Many integrins mediate cell attachment to the extracellular matrix by recognizing short tripeptide sequences such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid and leucine-aspartate-valine. Using phage display, we have now found that the leukocyte-specific beta(2) integrins bind sequences containing a leucine-leucine-glycine (LLG) tripeptide motif. An LLG motif is present on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, the major beta(2) integrin ligand, but also on several matrix proteins, including von Willebrand factor. We developed a novel beta(2) integrin antagonist peptide CPCFLLGCC (called LLG-C4), the structure of which was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. The LLG-C4 peptide inhibited leukocyte adhesion to ICAM-1, and, interestingly, also to von Willebrand factor. When immobilized on plastic, the LLG-C4 sequence supported the beta(2) integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion, but not beta(1) or beta(3) integrin-mediated cell adhesion. These results suggest that LLG sequences exposed on ICAM-1 and on von Willebrand factor at sites of vascular injury play a role in the binding of leukocytes, and LLG-C4 and peptidomimetics derived from it could provide a therapeutic approach to inflammatory reactions.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2001 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently described a novel cyclic peptide inhibitor CTTHWGFTLC (CTT) for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, also called type IV collagenases or gelatinases (E. Koivunen et al., NAT: BIOTECHNOL:, 17: 768-774, 1999). As indicated by its amino acid composition, CTT is hydrophobic, and its partitioning into phospholipid films could be verified by the monolayer technique. Augmented fluorescence emission anisotropy (from 0.064 to 0.349) and reduced collisional quenching by I(-) of the Trp residue in CTT was evident in the presence of unilamellar phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes, revealing the association of CTT with the lipid bilayers. Gelatinases are potential targets of therapeutic intervention in cancer, and inhibitors of these enzymes can prevent tumor progression in animal models. CTT enhanced 3- to 4-fold the cellular uptake of liposome-encapsulated water-soluble fluorescent marker, rhodamine B by gelatinase-expressing cells. Gelatinase targeting seems to be essential, as modified peptides that were less potent gelatinase inhibitors were also less efficient in promoting the cellular uptake of liposomes. Augmented killing ( approximately 4-fold) of U937 leukemia and HT1080 sarcoma cells was obtained by the CTT-enhanced delivery of Adriamycin-containing liposomes, compared with control liposomes administered without the peptide. These results suggest a novel type of utility for small gelatinase inhibitors in targeted cancer therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2001 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Proteolysis mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. Activation of latent proMMPs, and especially the proforms of the type IV collagen degrading gelatinases A and B (proMMP-2 and proMMP-9), is thought to be a critical step in this process. We have recently found that human tumour-associated trypsin-2 is a potent activator of proMMP-9 and it also activates proMMP-2 in vitro. Trypsinogen, MMP-2, and MMP-9 are expressed in ovarian cancer. To elucidate the function of trypsin in vivo, we studied whether high concentrations of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, their alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (API) complexes, and tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) are associated with proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activation in ovarian tumour cyst fluids. Zymography and immunofluorometric analysis of 61 cyst fluids showed a significant association between high trypsin concentrations and the activation of MMP-9 (P = 0.003-0.05). In contrast, the trypsin concentrations were inversely associated with the activation of MMP-2 (P = 0.01-0.02). Immunohistochemical analysis of ovarian tumour tissue demonstrated expression of trypsinogen-2 and TATI in the secretory epithelium. MMP-2 was detected both in stromal and epithelial cells whereas MMP-9 was detected in neutrophils and macrophage-like cells in stromal and epithelial areas. These results suggest that trypsin may play a role in the regulation of the MMP-dependent proteolysis associated with invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2001 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has been historically associated with the process of vascular remodeling through the cleavage of extracellular matrix proteins. However, we recently found that MMP-2 also cleaves the endothelium-derived peptide big endothelin-1, ET-1[1-38] and yields the novel vasoconstrictor ET-1[1-32]. We therefore investigated the effects of MMP-2 inhibitors as potential vasodilators. MMP inhibition with ortho-phenanthroline (0.3 to 30 micromol/L) induced vasorelaxation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries (maximum of relaxation=74.5+/-27.6% at 30 micromol/L). However, phosphoramidon (0.3 to 30 micromol/L), which inhibits some metalloenzymes, but not MMP-2, did not dilate the arteries. Selective inhibition of endogenous MMP-2 with the novel tissue-permeable cyclic peptide CTTHWGFTLC (CTT, 10 micromol/L) also caused vasorelaxation (by 85+/-6%), whereas STTHWGFTLS (10 micromol/L), an inactive CTT analogue, did not dilate the arteries. Interestingly, the vasorelaxation that results from MMP-2 inhibition was endothelium-independent. Thus, we examined whether MMP-2 acted on peptides derived from the smooth muscle or the perivascular nerves. Recombinant human MMP-2 cleaved calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) specifically at the Gly(14)-Leu(15) peptide bond and reduced the vasodilatory potency of CGRP by 20-fold. Inhibition of MMP-2 increased the amount of intact CGRP in arteries and enhanced vasorelaxation induced by anandamide, which stimulates CGRP release. Vasorelaxation in response to MMP-2 inhibition was abolished by CGRP[8-37], a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, and by capsaicin, which depletes arterial perivascular nerves of CGRP. We conclude that vascular MMP-2 cleaves endogenous CGRP and promotes vasoconstriction. These data suggest a novel mechanism of regulating the vasoactive and, possibly, the neurohormonal actions of CGRP and establish MMP-2 as a modulator of vascular function.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · Circulation Research
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of acute leukaemia and other secondary neoplasms in 432 patients treated with conventional chemotherapy for multiple myeloma was analysed after a follow-up period of 11-19 yr (mean 16 yr). The number and organ-specific distribution of observed solid neoplasms was close to that expected in the general population. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed in three patients (expected 0.7, p = 0.19). Acute leukaemia was diagnosed in 14 patients with an actuarial risk of 9.8% at 9 yr. No further cases were diagnosed thereafter. The average numbers of courses (26.2 vs. 25.5) and cumulative doses of melphalan (1440 and 1400 mg) were similar in patients with or without acute leukaemia. It seems possible that the advanced stage of multiple myeloma is more vulnerable to the leukaemogenic effect of melphalan compared with the earlier stages.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · European Journal Of Haematology

Publication Stats

3k Citations
276.92 Total Impact Points


  • 2012
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1989-2009
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • • Department of Clinical Chemistry
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1985-2009
    • Kuopio University Hospital
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1994-2008
    • University of Tampere
      Tammerfors, Pirkanmaa, Finland
  • 1997-2007
    • Tampere University Hospital (TAUH)
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1987-2005
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Faculty of Biosciences
      • • Department of Biosciences
      • • Department of Bacteriology and Immunology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Department of Medical Chemistry
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1999
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      • Stem Cells and Regenerative Biology Research Program
      لا هویا, California, United States
  • 1993-1995
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1991
    • Seinäjoki Central Hospital
      Seinäjoki, Province of Western Finland, Finland