- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an important new class of therapeutics for treating multiple myeloma. Ricolinostat (ACY-1215) is the first oral selective HDAC6 inhibitor with reduced class I HDAC activity to be studied clinically. Motivated by findings from preclinical studies showing potent synergistic activity with ricolinostat and lenalidomide, our goal was to assess the safety and preliminary activity of the combination of ricolinostat with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent of the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide; the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib; the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat; and the monoclonal antibodies elotuzumab and daratumumab has led to dramatic improvements in outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma. Along with progress in nontransplant therapy have come questions regarding the continued role of high-dose melphalan (HDM) supported by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Emerging evidence from phase 3 studies demonstrates that consolidation therapy with HDM/ASCT further improves depth of response and progression-free survival in the context of modern therapy for multiple myeloma. Moreover, unprecedented survival data from ongoing phase 3 studies of patients treated with modern myeloma therapy followed by HDM/ASCT in first-line or second-line therapy reaffirm single and tandem HDM/ASCT as important standards of care for eligible patients. Herein, we review the evolving role of HDM/ASCT for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed multiple myeloma. © 2016, Millennium Medical Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy and favorable safety profile of daratumumab monotherapy in multiple myeloma (MM) was previously reported. An updated pooled analysis of 148 patients treated with daratumumab 16 mg/kg is presented. Data were combined from part 2 of a "first-in-human," phase 1/2 study of patients who relapsed after or were refractory to ≥2 prior therapies and a phase 2 study of patients previously treated with ≥3 prior lines of therapy (including a proteasome inhibitor [PI] and immunomodulatory drug [IMiD]) or were double refractory. Among the pooled population, patients received a median (range) of 5 (2-14) prior lines of therapy, and 86.5% were double refractory to a PI and IMID. Overall response rate was 31.1%, including 13 very good partial responses, 4 complete responses, and 3 stringent complete responses. The median duration of response was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-not evaluable [NE]). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.8-5.6) and 20.1 months (95% CI, 16.6-NE), respectively. When stratified by responders versus stable disease/minimal response versus progressive disease/NE, median PFS was 15.0 months (95% CI, 7.4-NE) versus 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.8-3.7) versus 0.9 months (95% CI, 0.9-1.0), respectively, and median OS was NE (95% CI, NE-NE) versus 18.5 months (95% CI, 15.1-22.4) versus 3.7 months (95% CI, 1.7-7.6), respectively. No new safety signals were identified. In this pooled dataset, daratumumab 16 mg/kg monotherapy demonstrated rapid, deep, and durable responses, with a clinical benefit that extended to patients with stable disease or better.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Detection of a prothrombotic state using biomarkers would be of great benefit to identify patients at risk of thrombosis that would benefit from thromboprophylaxis. The addition of biomarkers to these scores could improve risk assessment accuracy. Tissue factor (TF) is a highly procoagulant protein that under normal conditions is not present in the blood. However, increased levels of TF in the blood in the form of microparticles (MPs) (also called extracellular vesicles) are observed under various pathological conditions. In this review, we will discuss studies that have measured MP-TF activity using two similar FXa generation assays in a variety of diseases. One of the most robust signals for MP-TF activity (16–26 fold higher than healthy controls) is observed in pancreatic cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. In this case, the TF + MPs appear to be derived from the cancer cells. Surprisingly, cirrhosis and acute liver injury are associated with 17-fold and 38-fold increases in MP-TF activity, respectively. Based on mouse models, we speculate that the TF + MPs are derived from hepatocytes. More modest increases are observed in patients with urinary tract infections (6-fold) and in a human endotoxemia model (9-fold) where monocytes are the likely source of the TF + MPs. Finally, there is no increase in MP-TF activity in the majority of cardiovascular disease patients. These studies indicate that MP-TF activity may be a useful biomarker to identify patients with particular diseases that have an increased risk of thrombosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis for patients multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over the past decade with the development of new, more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens that possess a high level of anti-tumor activity. In spite of this important progress, however, nearly all MM patients ultimately relapse, even those who experience a complete response to initial therapy. Management of relapsed MM thus represents a vital aspect of the overall care for patients with MM and a critical area of ongoing scientific and clinical research. This comprehensive manuscript from the International Myeloma Working Group provides detailed recommendations on management of relapsed disease, with sections dedicated to diagnostic evaluation, determinants of therapy, and general approach to patients with specific disease characteristics. In addition, the manuscript provides a summary of evidence from clinical trials that have significantly impacted the field, including those evaluating conventional dose therapies, as well as both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Specific recommendations are offered for management of first and second relapse, relapsed and refractory disease, and both autologous and allogeneic transplant. Finally, perspective is provided regarding new agents and promising directions in management of relapsed MM.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 29 December 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.356.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: AZD6244 is a MEK1/2 inhibitor with significant preclinical activity in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This phase 2 study used a two-stage Simon design to determine the AZD6244 response rate in patients with relapsed or refractory MM. Experimental design: AZD6244 (75 mg) was administered orally, twice a day, continuously for 28-day cycles. Response was evaluated after 3 cycles. Results: Thirty-six patients received therapy. The median age was 65 years (range: 43-81) and the median number of prior therapies was 5 (range: 2-11). The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities included anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, and fatigue. Three deaths occurred possibly related to AZD6244 (2 due to sepsis, 1 due to acute kidney injury). After AZD6244 discontinuation, 3 additional deaths occurred due to disease progression. The response rate (CR + PR) was 5.6% with a mean duration of response of 4.95 months and median progression-free survival time of 3.52 months. One patient had a very good partial response (VGPR), 1 patient had a partial response, 17 patients had stable disease, 13 patients had progressive disease, and 4 patients could not be assessed for response. Pharmacodynamic studies revealed variable effects on bone marrow CD138+ cell MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The best clinical response, a prolonged VGPR, occurred in a patient with an MMSET translocation. Conclusions: Single-agent AZD6244 was tolerable and had minimal activity in this heavily pre-treated population.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare, systemic lymphoproliferative disorder driven by interleukin (IL)-6 overproduction. Siltuximab, an anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated durable tumor and symptomatic responses in a multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled study of MCD. This preplanned safety analysis was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety of siltuximab treatment among 19 patients with MCD who had stable disease or better and were enrolled in a phase-1 study and subsequent ongoing, open-label, phase-2 extension study. Dosing was 11 mg/kg administered intravenously every 3 weeks, per protocol, or every 6 weeks at the investigator's discretion. Safety monitoring focused on potential risks associated with the anti-IL-6 mechanism of action. Investigator-assessed disease control status was also documented. Median treatment duration for the 19 patients was 5.1 (range 3.4, 7.2) years, with 14 (74%) patients treated for >4 years. Grade-≥3 adverse events (AEs) reported in >1 patient included hypertension (n = 3) and nausea, cellulitis, and fatigue (n = 2 each). Grade-≥3 AEs at least possibly attributed to siltuximab were leukopenia, lymphopenia, and a serious AE of polycythemia (n = 1 each). Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol) were reported in 8 and 9 patients, respectively. No disease relapses were observed, and 8 of 19 patients were able to switch to an every-6-week dosing schedule. All MCD patients in this extension study have received siltuximab for a prolonged duration (up to 7 years) without evidence of cumulative toxicity or treatment discontinuations and with few serious infections. All patients are alive, demonstrate sustained disease control, and continue to receive siltuximab.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term outcomes and updated clinical efficacy and safety data were evaluated for newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated on a phase II study of bortezomib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PegLD). Out of 61 patients, the overall response rate was 57% and the near-complete/complete response rate was 7%. Patients aged ≥65 years old had a higher incidence of treatment-related ≥Grade 3 non-haematological toxicity (80% vs. 51%, P = 0·020). Median overall survival was 5·6 years and negatively impacted by the presence of International Staging System stage III disease, underscoring the need for novel treatment strategies for this group of patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a novel strategy to enzymatically release affinity-selected cells, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), from surfaces with high efficiency (∼90%) while maintaining cell viability (>85%). The strategy utilizes single-stranded DNAs that link a capture antibody to the surfaces of a CTC selection device. The DNA linkers contain a uracil residue that can be cleaved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of significant advances in the management of multiple myeloma (MM), the disease remains incurable and nearly all patients ultimately relapse and require salvage chemotherapy. As such, relapsed and relapsed-refractory MM remains a critical area of research pertaining to biological mechanisms of progression and chemotherapy resistance, as well as to the development of new pharmacologic agents and immunologic approaches for the disease. The immunomodulatory agents and proteasome inhibitors represent the cornerstone of treatment in this setting, with combination regimens incorporating these drugs demonstrating encouraging rates and duration of response, including the newer agents, pomalidomide and carfilzomib. In addition, novel drug classes have shown promising activity in RR MM, including the orally-administered proteasome inhibitors ixazomib and oprozomib; monoclonal antibodies such as the anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody elotuzumab and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab; and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as panobinostat and rocilinostat.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Heat shock protein (HSP)90 regulates the function of proteins responsible for cell growth and survival, is overexpressed in many cancers and is an attractive therapeutic target. We undertook a phase 1 trial of PF-04929113 (SNX-5422), a novel oral HSP90 inhibitor, to estimate the maximum tolerated dose and describe the pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles. Patients and methods: Patients with relapsed, refractory, hematologic malignancies and adequate organ function were eligible. PF-04929113 was administered orally every other day for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. Twenty-five patients were treated, with dose escalation ranging from 5.32 mg/m(2) to 74 mg/m(2) using a 3 plus 3 trial design. Results: All 25 patients enrolled were evaluable for toxicity. Most common toxicities included prolonged QTc interval, diarrhea, pruritus, thrombocytopenia, fatigue, and nausea. Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events were experienced by 7/25 patients (28%); thrombocytopenia was the most common (n = 3 grade 3; n = 2 grade 4). Partial response was experienced by a patient with transformed lymphoma, and prolonged stabilization of disease was observed in a patient with multiple myeloma. Conclusion: Alternate-day oral dosing of PF-04929113 at 74 mg/m(2) for 21/28 days was generally well tolerated with reversible toxicity. The responses observed in myeloma and lymphoma patients are encouraging.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of siltuximab, an anti-interleukin-6 chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma, or Castleman disease. Experimental design: In an open-label, dose-finding, 7 cohort, phase I study, patients with NHL, multiple myeloma, or symptomatic Castleman disease received siltuximab 3, 6, 9, or 12 mg/kg weekly, every 2 weeks, or every 3 weeks. Response was assessed in all disease types. Clinical benefit response (CBR; composite of hemoglobin, fatigue, anorexia, fever/night sweats, weight, largest lymph node size) was also evaluated in Castleman disease. Results: Sixty-seven patients received a median of 16 siltuximab doses for a median of 8.5 (maximum 60.5) months; 29 were treated 1 year or longer. There was no dose-limiting toxicity, antibodies to siltuximab, or apparent dose-toxicity relationship. The most frequently reported possible drug-related adverse events were thrombocytopenia (25%), hypertriglyceridemia (19%), neutropenia (19%), leukopenia (18%), hypercholesterolemia (15%), and anemia (10%). None of these events led to dose delay/discontinuation except for neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (n = 1 each). No treatment-related deaths occurred. C-reactive protein (CRP) suppression was most pronounced at 12 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Mean terminal-phase half-life of siltuximab ranged 17.73 to 20.64 days. Thirty-two of 37 (86%) patients with Castleman disease improved in 1 or more CBR component; 12 of 36 evaluable Castleman disease patients had radiologic response [complete response (CR), n = 1; partial response (PR), n = 11], including 8 of 19 treated with 12 mg/kg; 2 of 14 (14%) evaluable NHL patients had PR; 2 of 13 (15%) patients with multiple myeloma had CR. Conclusion: No dose-related or cumulative toxicity was apparent across all disease indications. A dose of 12 mg/kg every 3 weeks was recommended on the basis of the high response rates in Castleman disease and the sustained CRP suppression. Randomized studies are ongoing in Castleman disease and multiple myeloma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL6) plays a central role in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and confers resistance to corticosteroid-induced apoptosis. We therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of siltuximab, an anti-IL6 monoclonal antibody, alone and in combination with dexamethasone, for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had ≥2 prior lines of therapy, one of which had to be bortezomib-based. Fourteen initial patients received siltuximab alone, 10 of whom had dexamethasone added for suboptimal response; 39 subsequent patients were treated with concurrent siltuximab and dexamethasone. Patients received a median of four prior lines of therapy, 83% were relapsed and refractory, and 70% refractory to their last dexamethasone-containing regimen. Suppression of serum C-reactive protein levels, a surrogate marker of IL6 inhibition, was demonstrated. There were no responses to siltuximab but combination therapy yielded a partial (17%) + minimal (6%) response rate of 23%, with responses seen in dexamethasone-refractory disease. The median time to progression, progression-free survival and overall survival for combination therapy was 4·4, 3·7 and 20·4 months respectively. Haematological toxicity was common but manageable. Infections occurred in 57% of combination-treated patients, including ≥grade 3 infections in 18%. Further study of siltuximab in modern corticosteroid-containing myeloma regimens is warranted, with special attention to infection-related toxicity.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
North Carolina, United States
- • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
- • Department of Medicine