[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matricellular proteins such as hevin, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and thrombospondin-2 play an important role during tissue repair through their influence on fundamental cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis/reorganization. We have investigated the role played by hevin during excisional and incisional cutaneous wound repair in hevin-null mice. Hevin-null animals both close and heal their skin wounds faster than wild-type animals, as evidenced by enhanced macrophage infiltration of wound beds at early time points, the earlier appearance of mature extracellular matrix, and the overall higher maturity score. In addition, fibrovascular invasion of polyvinyl alcohol sponges was more robust in hevin-null mice, a result indicating that differences in cell migration might underlie the observed alterations in wound repair. Experiments in vitro showed that hevin induced the deadhesion and inhibited the migration of primary dermal fibroblasts in a Rac-1-dependent manner. These findings indicate that the differences in wound repair between hevin-null and wild-type animals can be attributed in part to the deadhesive function of hevin and reduced cell migration within dermal wound beds in which this protein is expressed.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Wound Repair and Regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The commonly deleted region (CDR) for the 5q- syndrome has been identified as a 1.5-megabase interval on human chromosome 5q32. We studied, by real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR, the expression of 33 genes within the CDR that are known to be expressed in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Genes in the 5q- samples that showed the most pronounced decrease in expression compared to non-5q- samples were: solute carrier family 36, member 1 (SLC36A1; 89% downregulated), Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding (G3BP; 79%), antioxidant protein 1 (ATOX1; 76%), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor precursor (CSF1R; 76%), ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14; 74%), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRB; 73%), Nef-associated factor 1 (TNIP1; 72%), secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC; 71%), annexin VI (ANAX6; 69%), NSDT (66%) and TIGD (60%). We further studied the hematopoietic system in SPARC-null mice. These mice showed significantly lower platelet counts compared to wild-type animals (P=0.008). Although hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were lower in mice lacking SPARC, differences were not statistically significant. SPARC-null mice showed a significantly impaired ability to form erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E). However, no significant differences were found in the formation of erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E), granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming units (CFU-GM) or megakaryocyte colony-forming units (CFU-Mk) in these animals. We conclude that many of the genes within the CDR associated with the 5q- syndrome exhibit significantly decreased expression and that SPARC, as a potential tumor suppressor gene, may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eristostatin, an RGD-containing disintegrin isolated from the venom of Eristicophis macmahoni, inhibits lung or liver colonization of melanoma cells in a mouse model. In this study, transwell migration and in vitro wound closure assays were used to determine the effect of eristostatin on the migration of melanoma cells. Eristostatin significantly impaired the migration of five human melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, it specifically inhibited cell migration on fibronectin in a concentration-dependent manner, but not that on collagen IV or laminin. In contrast, eristostatin was found to have no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis. These results indicate that the interaction between eristostatin and melanoma cells may involve fibronectin-binding integrins that mediate cell migration. Mutations to alanine of seven residues within the RGD loop of eristostatin and four residues outside the RGD loop of eristostatin resulted in significantly less potency in both platelet aggregation and wound closure assays. For six of the mutations, however, decreased activity was found only in the latter assay. We conclude that a different mechanism and/or integrin is involved in these two cell activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matricellular proteins such as SPARC, thrombospondin 1 and 2, and tenascin C and X subserve important functions in extracellular matrix synthesis and cellular adhesion to extracellular matrix. By virtue of its reported interaction with collagen I and deadhesive activity on cells, we hypothesized that hevin, a member of the SPARC gene family, regulates dermal extracellular matrix and collagen fibril formation. We present evidence for an altered collagen matrix and levels of the proteoglycan decorin in the normal dermis and dermal wound bed of hevin-null mice. The dermal elastic modulus was also enhanced in hevin-null animals. The levels of decorin protein secreted by hevin-null dermal fibroblasts were increased by exogenous hevin in vitro, data indicating that hevin might regulate both decorin and collagen fibrillogenesis. We also report a decorin-independent function for hevin in collagen fibrillogenesis. In vitro fibrillogenesis assays indicated that hevin enhanced fibril formation kinetics. Furthermore, cell adhesion assays indicated that cells adhered differently to collagen fibrils formed in the presence of hevin. Our observations support the capacity of hevin to modulate the structure of dermal extracellular matrix, specifically by its regulation of decorin levels and collagen fibril assembly.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular protein that is present in the intervertebral disc; in man, levels of SPARC decrease with aging and degeneration. In this study, we asked whether targeted deletion of SPARC in the mouse influenced disc morphology. SPARC-null and wild-type (WT) mice were studied at 0.3-21 months of age. Radiologic examination of spines from 2-month-old SPARC-null mice revealed wedging, endplate calcification, and sclerosis, features absent in age-matched WT spines. Discs from 3-month-old SPARC-null mice had a greater number of annulus cells than those of WT animals (1884.6 +/- 397.9 [mean +/- SD] vs 1500.2 +/- 188.2, p=0.031). By 19 months discs from SPARC-null mice contained fewer cells than WT counterparts (1383.6 +/- 363.3 vs 1466.8 +/- 148.0, p=0.033). Histology of midsagittal spines showed herniations of lower lumbar discs of SPARC-null mice ages 14-19 months; in contrast, no herniations were seen in WT age-matched animals. Ultrastructural studies showed uniform collagen fibril diameters in the WT annulus, whereas in SPARC-null disc fibrils were of variable size with irregular margins. Consistent with the connective tissue deficits observed in other tissues of SPARC-null mice, our findings support a fundamental role for SPARC in the production, assembly, or maintenance of the disc extracellular matrix.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impairment of angiogenesis in aging has been attributed, in part, to alterations in proteins associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM). SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40) is a matricellular protein that regulates endothelial cell function as well as cell-ECM interactions. We have previously shown that angiogenesis, as reflected by fibrovascular invasion into subcutaneously implanted polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges, is increased in SPARC-null mice (6-9 months of age) relative to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. In this study, we define the influence of aging on (a) the expression of SPARC and (b) fibrovascular invasion into sponge implants in SPARC-null and WT mice. The expression of SPARC in fibroblasts and endothelial cells derived from young donors (humans mean age less than 30 years and mice 4-6 months of age) and old donors (humans mean age over 65 years and mice 22-27 months of age) decreased 1.6 to 2.3-fold with age. Analysis of fibrovascular invasion into sponges implanted into old (22-27 months) SPARC-null and WT mice showed no differences in percent area of invasion or collagenous ECM. Moreover, sponges from old SPARC-null and WT mice contained similar levels of VEGF that were significantly lower than those from young (4-6 months) mice. In contrast to fibroblasts from young SPARC-null mice, dermal fibroblasts from old SPARC-null mice did not migrate farther, proliferate faster, or produce greater amounts of VEGF relative to their old WT counterparts. However, when stimulated with TGF-beta1, primary cells isolated from the sponge implants, and dermal fibroblasts from both old SPARC-null and WT mice, showed marked increases in VEGF secretion. These data indicate that aging results in a loss of enhanced angiogenesis in SPARC-null mice, as a result of the detrimental impact of age on cellular functions, collagen deposition, and VEGF synthesis. However, the influence of aging on these processes may be reversed, in part, by growth factor stimulation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide variety of measures is currently in use in the morphometry of vascular systems. We introduce two additional classes of measures based on erosions and dilations of the image. Each measure has a clear biological interpretation in terms of the measured structures and their function. The measures are illustrated on images of the arterial tree of the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The new measures are correlated with widely-used measures, such as fractal dimension, but allow a clearer biological interpretation. To distinguish one CAM arterial tree from another, we propose reporting just three independent, uncorrelated numbers: (i) the fraction of tissue which is vascular (VF0, a pure ratio), (ii) a measure of the typical distance of the vascularized tissue to its vessels (CL, a length), and (iii) the flow capacity of the tissue (P, an area). An unusually large CL would indicate the presence of large avascular areas, a characteristic feature of tumor tissue. CL is inversely highly correlated with fractal dimension of the skeletonized image, but has a more direct biological interpretation.
Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Theoretical Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) are structurally unrelated matricellular proteins that have important roles in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and tissue repair. SPARC-null mice exhibit accelerated wound closure, and TSP-2-null mice show an overall enhancement in wound healing. To assess potential compensation of one protein for the other, we examined cutaneous wound healing and fibrovascular invasion of subcutaneous sponges in SPARC-TSP-2 (ST) double-null and wild-type (WT) mice. Epidermal closure of cutaneous wounds was found to occur significantly faster in ST-double-null mice, compared with WT animals: histological analysis of dermal wound repair revealed significantly more mature phases of healing at 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after wounding, and electron microscopy showed disrupted ECM at 14 days in these mice. ST-double-null dermal fibroblasts displayed accelerated migration, relative to WT fibroblasts, in a wounding assay in vitro, as well as enhanced contraction of native collagen gels. Zymography indicated that fibroblasts from ST-double-null mice also produced higher levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. These data are consistent with the increased fibrovascular invasion of subcutaneous sponge implants seen in the double-null mice. The generally accelerated wound healing of ST-double-null mice reflects that described for the single-null animals. Importantly, the absence of both proteins results in elevated MMP-2 levels. SPARC and TSP-2 therefore perform similar functions in the regulation of cutaneous wound healing, but fine-tuning with respect to ECM production and remodeling could account for the enhanced response seen in ST-double-null mice.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implanted foreign materials, used to restore or assist tissue function, elicit an initial acute inflammatory response followed by chronic fibrosis that leads to the entrapment of the biomaterial in a thick, poorly vascularized collagenous capsule. Matricellular proteins, secreted macromolecules that interact with extracellular matrix proteins but do not in themselves serve structural roles, have been identified as important mediators of the foreign body response that includes inflammation, angiogenesis, and collagen synthesis and assembly. In this report we delineate functions of hevin and SPARC, two homologs of the SPARC family of matricellular proteins, in the foreign body response. Despite their sequence similarity, hevin and SPARC mediate different aspects of this fibrotic response. Using mice with targeted gene deletions, we show that hevin is central to the progression of biomaterial-induced inflammation whereas SPARC regulates the formation of the collagenous capsule. Although vascular density within the capsule is unaltered in the absence of either protein, SPARC-hevin double-null capsules show substantially increased numbers of vessels, indicating compensatory functions for these two proteins in the inhibition of angiogenesis. These results provide important information for further development of implant technology.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPARC, a matricellular protein that affects cellular adhesion and proliferation, is produced in remodeling tissue and in pathologies
involving fibrosis and angiogenesis. In this study we have asked whether peptides generated from cleavage of SPARC in the
extracellular milieu can regulate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, but not MMP-1 or 9, showed significant activity
toward SPARC. Limited digestion of recombinant human (rhu)SPARC with purified catalytic domain of rhuMMP-3 produced three
major fragments, which were sequenced after purification by HPLC. Three synthetic peptides (Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3) representing
motifs from each fragment were tested in distinct assays of angiogenesis. Peptide Z-1 (3.9 kDa, containing a Cu2+-binding sequence KHGK) exhibited a biphasic effect on [3H]thymidine incorporation by cultured endothelial cells and stimulated vascular growth in the chick chorioallantoic membrane
(CAM). In contrast, peptides Z-2 (6.1 kDa, containing Ca2+-binding EF hand-1) and Z-3 (2.2 kDa, containing neither Cu2+-binding motifs nor EF hands), inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited no effects on
vessel growth in the CAM. Reciprocal results were obtained in a migration assay in native collagen gels: peptide Z-1 was ineffective
over a range of concentrations, whereas Z-2 or Z-3 stimulated cell migration. Therefore, proteolysis of SPARC by MMP-3 produced
peptides that regulate endothelial cell proliferation and/or migration in vitro in a mutually exclusive manner. One of these peptides containing KHGK also demonstrated a concentration-dependent effect
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactions among growth factors, cells, and extracellular matrix regulate proliferation during normal development and in pathologies such as atherosclerosis. SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine) is a matrix-associated glycoprotein that modulates the adhesion and proliferation of vascular cells. In this study, we demonstrate that SPARC inhibits human arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor or by adhesion to monomeric type I collagen. Binding studies with SPARC and SPARC peptides indicate specific and saturable interaction with smooth muscle cells that involves the C-terminal Ca2+-binding region of the protein. We also report that SPARC arrests monomeric collagen-supported smooth muscle cell proliferation in the late G1-phase of the cell cycle in the absence of an effect on cell shape or on levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 activity, p107 and cyclin A levels, and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation are markedly reduced in response to the addition of exogenous SPARC and/or peptides derived from specific domains of SPARC. Thus, SPARC, previously characterized as an inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor binding to its receptor, also antagonizes smooth muscle cell proliferation mediated by monomeric collagen at the level of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 activity.
No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of therapeutic angiogenesis have generally focused on single growth factor strategies. However, multiple factors participate in angiogenesis. We evaluated the angiogenic potential of a growth factor mixture (GFm) derived from bovine bone. The major components of GFm (SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and Western blot) include transforming growth factor-β1-3, bone morphogenic protein-2-7, and fibroblast growth factor-1. GFm was first shown to induce an angiogenic response in chorioallantoic membranes, Next, myocardial ischemia was induced in 21 dogs (ameroid) that were randomized 3 weeks later to received GFm 1 mg/ml (I), GFm 10 mg/ml (11), or placebo (P) (with investigators blinded to conditions) injected in and adjacent to ischemic myocardium. Dogs were assessed 6 weeks later using quantitative and semiquantitative measures. There were GFm concentration-dependent improvements in distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) opacification by angiography (P: 0.4 ± 0.2, I: 1.1 ± 0.14, II: 1.6 ± 0.3, angiographic score p = 0.014). Histologically, there was also concentration-dependent vascular growth response of relatively large vessels (P: 0.21 ± 0.15, I: 1.00 ± 0.22, II: 1.71 ± 0.18, vascular growth score p = 0.001). Resting myocardial blood flow (colored microspheres) was not significantly impaired in any group. However, maximum blood flow (adenosine) was reduced in ischemic territories and did not improve in GFm-treated hearts. GFm, a multiple growth factor mixture, is a potent angiogenic agent that stimulates large vessel growth. Although blood flow did not improve during maximal vasodilatory stress, large intramyocardial collateral vessels developed and angiographic visualization of the occluded distal LAD improved significantly. The use of multiple growth factors may be an effective strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis provided a more effective delivery strategy is devised that can achieve improved maximum blood flow potential.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine), also called osteonectin or BM-40, is a collagen-binding glycoprotein secreted by a variety of cells and is associated with functional responses involving tissue remodeling, cell movement and proliferation. Because SPARC and monocytes/macrophages are prevalent at sites of inflammation and remodeling in which there is connective tissue turnover, we examined the effect of SPARC on monocyte matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. Treatment of human peripheral blood monocytes with SPARC stimulated the production of gelatinase B (MMP-9) and interstitial collagenase (MMP-1). Experiments with synthetic peptides indicated that peptide 3.2, belonging to the alpha helical domain III of SPARC, is the major peptide mediating the MMP production by monocytes. SPARC and peptide 3.2 were also shown to induce prostaglandin synthase (PGHS)-2 as determined by Western and Northern blot analyses. The increase in PGHS-2 stimulated by SPARC or peptide 3.2 correlated with substantially elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other arachidonic acid metabolites as measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Moreover, the synthesis of MMP was dependent on the generation of PGE2 by PGHS-2, since indomethacin inhibited the production of these enzymes and their synthesis was restored by addition of exogenous PGE2 or dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP). These results demonstrate that SPARC might play a significant role in the modulation of connective tissue turnover due to its stimulation of PGHS-2 and the subsequent release of PGE2, a pathway that leads to the production of MMP by monocytes.
No preview · Article · Dec 1997 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPARC is a matricellular Ca(2+)-binding glycoprotein that exhibits both counteradhesive and antiproliferative effects on cultured cells. It is secreted by cells of various tissues as a consequence of morphogenesis, response to injury, and cyclic renewal and/or repair. In an earlier study with Xenopus embryos we had shown a highly specific and regulated pattern of SPARC expression. We now show that ectopic expression of SPARC before its normal embryonic activation produces severe anomalies, some of which are consistent with the functions of SPARC proposed from studies in vitro. Microinjection of SPARC RNA, protein, and peptides into Xenopus embryos before endogenous embryonic expression generated different but overlapping phenotypes. (a) Injection of SPARC RNA into one cell of a two-cell embryo resulted in a range of unilateral defects. (b) Precocious exposure of embryos to SPARC by microinjection of protein into the blastocoel cavity was associated with certain axial defects comparable to those obtained with SPARC RNA. (c) SPARC peptides containing follistatin-like and copper-binding sequences were without obvious effect, whereas SPARC peptide 4.2, corresponding to a disulfide-bonded, Ca(2+)-binding domain, was associated with a reduction in axial structures that led eventually to complete ventralization of the embryos. Histological analysis of ventralized embryos indicated that the morphogenetic events associated with gastrulation might have been inhibited. Microinjection of other Ca(2+)-binding glycoproteins, such as osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, resulted in phenotypes that were unique. We probed further the structural correlates of this region of SPARC in the context of tissue development. Co-injection of peptide 4.2 with Ca2+ or EGTA, and injection of peptide 4.2K (containing a mutated consensus Ca(2+)-binding sequence), demonstrated that the developmental defects associated with peptide 4.2 were independent of Ca2+. However, the disulfide bridge in this region of SPARC was found to be critical, as injection of peptide 4.2AA, a mutant lacking the cystine, generated no axial defects. We have therefore shown for the first time in vivo that the temporally inappropriate presence of SPARC is associated with perturbations in tissue morphogenesis. Moreover, we have identified at least one bioactive region of SPARC as the C-terminal disulfide-bonded, Ca(2+)-binding loop that was previously shown to be both counteradhesive and growth-inhibitory.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1997 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human SPARC has been cloned by the polymerase chain reaction from an endothelial cell cDNA library and expressed in Escherichia coli as a biologically active protein. Transcriptional expression of the insert cDNA was dependent on the activation of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter by isopropylgalactopyranoside. Two forms of recombinant SPARC (rSPARC) protein were recovered from BL21 (DE3) E. coli after transformation with the plasmid pSPARCwt: a soluble, monomeric form of rSPARC and an insoluble, aggregated form sequestered in inclusion bodies. The isolation of the soluble form of rSPARC was accomplished by anion-exchange, nickel-chelate affinity, and gel filtration chromatographies. The isolated protein was an intact, full-length polypeptide of 293 amino acids by the following criteria: N-terminal amino acid sequence, reaction with anti-SPARC immunoglobulins specific for N-terminal and C-terminal sequences, and interaction of the C-terminal histidine tag of rSPARC with a nickel-chelate affinity resin. Circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the conformation of rSPARC was dependent on interaction with Ca2- ions. The recombinant protein inhibited cell spreading and bound specifically to bovine aortic endothelial cells. Levels of bacterial endotoxin (< 18 pg/microgram rSPARC) present in rSPARC preparations were below the threshold that affects the behavior of these endothelial cells. These conformational and biological properties of rSPARC are consistent with previously described characteristics of the native protein. The purification of biologically active rSPARC, as well as mutated forms of the protein, will provide sufficient quantities of protein for the determination of structure/function relationships.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1996 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine)/osteonectin is a secreted glycoprotein that exhibits restricted expression in murine adult and embryonic tissues and is associated with cell migration, matrix mineralization, steroid hormone production, cell cycle regulation, and angiogenesis. We produced a monoclonal antibody, MAb SSP2, against a Ca(2+)-binding region of SPARC and evaluated the immunoreactivity of normal and malignant tissue from 118 human samples. In normal tissue we found restricted and moderate reactivity with SSP2 in steroidogenic cells, chondrocytes, placental trophoblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Strong reactivity was found in fibrocytes and endothelial cells involved in tissue repair and in invasive malignant tumors, including those of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, kidney, adrenal cortex, ovary, and brain. We conclude that SSP2 is a useful reagent for detection of SPARC in human tissue. Given the broad reactivity of malignant tissues, we propose that SPARC expression might contribute to some aspects of tumor progression.
Preview · Article · Sep 1995 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) can be selectively expressed by the endothelium in response to certain types of injury and induces rounding in adherent endothelial cells in vitro. To determine whether SPARC might influence endothelial permeability, we studied the effect of exogenous SPARC on the movement of 14C-labeled bovine serum albumin across postconfluent bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. SPARC increased (P < 0.02) transendothelial albumin flux in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations > or = 0.5 microgram/ml. At a fixed dose (15 micrograms/ml), exposure times > or = 1 h augmented (P < 0.005) albumin flux by 1.3- to 3.6-fold; this increase was blocked by anti-SPARC antibodies but not by inhibition of protein synthesis. Barrier dysfunction was not associated with loss of cell viability. Monolayers exposed to SPARC exhibited a rounded morphology and intercellular gaps. Prior stabilization of F-actin with phallicidin protected against the changes in barrier function (P = 0.0001) that were otherwise induced by SPARC. Bovine aortic and retinal microvascular endothelia also responded to SPARC. We propose that SPARC regulates endothelial barrier function through F-actin-dependent changes in cell shape, coincident with the appearance of intercellular gaps, that provide a paracellular pathway for extravasation of macromolecules.
Preview · Article · Apr 1994 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences