Magnus Gisslén

University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden

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Publications (118)414.4 Total impact

  • Tomas Mellberg · Jon Krabbe · Magnus Gisslén · Bo Svennerholm
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    ABSTRACT: In HIV-1 patients with low viral burden, sequencing is often problematic, yet important. This study presents a sensitive, sub-type independent system for sequencing of low level viremia. Sequencing data from 32 HIV-1 infected patients with low level viremia were collected longitudinally. A combination of ViroSeq® HIV-1 Genotyping System and an in-house nesting protocol was used. Eight sub-types were represented. The success-rate of amplification of both PR and RT in the same sample was 100% in samples with viral loads above 100 copies/ml. Below 100 copies/ml, this study managed to amplify both regions in 7/13 (54%) samples. The assays were able to amplify either PR or RT in all sub-types included but one sub-type A specimen. In conclusion, this study presents a promising, simple assay to increase the ability to perform HIV-1 resistance testing at low level viremia. This is a prototype assay and the method needs further testing to evaluate clinical performance.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) is a sensitive marker of neuronal injury in a variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including the CNS dysfunction injury that is common in untreated HIV infection. However, an important limitation is the requirement for lumbar puncture. For this reason, a sensitive and reliable blood biomarker of CNS injury would represent a welcome advance in both clinical and research settings.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · EBioMedicine

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: In 2014 the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) conducted a review and analysis of the state of knowledge on the duration of follow-up after exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Up until then a follow-up of 12 weeks after exposure had been recommended, but improved tests and new information on early diagnosis motivated a re-evaluation of the national recommendations by experts representing infectious diseases and microbiology, county medical officers, the RAV, the Public Health Agency, and other national authorities. Based on the current state of knowledge the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the RAV recommend, starting in April 2015, a follow-up period of 6 weeks after possible HIV-1 exposure, if HIV testing is performed using laboratory-based combination tests detecting both HIV antibody and antigen. If point-of-care rapid HIV tests are used, a follow-up period of 8 weeks is recommended, because currently available rapid tests have insufficient sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 antigen. A follow-up period of 12 weeks is recommended after a possible exposure for HIV-2, since presently used assays do not include HIV-2 antigens and only limited information is available on the development of HIV antibodies during early HIV-2 infection. If pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is administered, the follow-up period is recommended to begin after completion of prophylaxis. Even if infection cannot be reliably excluded before the end of the recommended follow-up period, HIV testing should be performed at first contact for persons who seek such testing.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
  • Erika Ahlgren · Lars Hagberg · Henrik Zetterberg · Magnus Gisslén

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Experimental Gerontology
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    ABSTRACT: It is a challenge to differentiate between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and other types of neurocognitive disease in the ageing HIV-infected population. Here we describe a 63 year old HIV-infected woman who had a history, neuropsychological test result, and PET examination consistent with characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile was analogous to the profile typically found in AD in HIV-negative patients with increased t-tau and p-tau, a decreased level of Aβ42 and normal levels of CSF neurofilament light protein and sAPPα and sAPPβ, distinctly different from findings in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Assessment of CSF biomarkers may be a valuable tool for clinicians to distinguish between HAD and AD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · AIDS Research and Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is unknown whether neuronal injury begins during acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and whether immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prevents neuronal injury. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL), a measure of axonal injury, was assessed before and after cART initiation in individuals starting treatment during acute or chronic HIV infection. Nonparametric statistics examined relationships between NFL and disease progression, neuroinflammation, and cognitive performance. Results: Before treatment, subjects with acute infection had lower CSF NFL levels, with elevations for their age in 1 of 32 subjects with acute infection (3.1%) and 10 of 32 with chronic infection (31%) (P = .006). This persisted after cART initiation, with 1 of 25 acute (4%) and 4 of 9 chronic subjects (44%) showing elevated NFL levels (P = .01). In acute infection, pre-cART NFL levels were inversely correlated with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic findings of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in frontal gray matter (r = -0.40; P = .03), frontal white matter (r = -0.46; P = .01), and parietal gray matter (r = -0.47; P = .01); correlations persisted after treatment in the frontal white matter (r = -0.51; P = .02) and parietal gray matter (r = -0.46; P = .04). Conclusions: CSF NFL levels are not elevated in untreated acute HIV infection or after 6 months of immediately initiated cART but are abnormal in chronic HIV infection before and after treatment. In acute HIV infection, CSF NFL levels are inversely associated with neuroimaging markers of neuronal health.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, secondary CSF escape, which may be even more uncommon, is defined by an increase of CSF HIV replication in association with a concomitant non-HIV infection, as a consequence of the local inflammatory response. Understanding these CSF escape settings not only is important for clinical diagnosis and management but also may provide insight into the CNS HIV reservoir.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess whether a lower dose than the currently used one of darunavir/ritonavir might achieve good CSF concentrations and contribute to inhibition of CNS viral replication. Patients and methods: This was a substudy of a randomized, open, multicentre study (eudraCT 2011-006272-39), comparing the efficacy and safety of 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir (darunavir 800) versus 600/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir (darunavir 600) once daily plus tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine in 100 virologically suppressed patients. Paired blood and CSF samples were obtained. Total plasma darunavir concentrations were determined by HPLC, and CSF concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Viral load (VL) was determined in plasma and CSF (limit of detection = 40 copies/mL) by PCR. Results: Sixteen patients were enrolled. The median (range) of darunavir CSF concentrations in darunavir 600 (n = 8) and darunavir 800 (n = 8) patients was 17.08 (5.79-30.19) and 13.23 (3.47-32.98) ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.916). The median (range) darunavir CSF:plasma ratio was 0.010 (0.005-0.022) in darunavir 600 patients and 0.008 (0.004-0.017) in the darunavir 800 arm (P = 0.370). All 16 patients had a VL < 40 copies/mL in plasma and 14 had a VL < 40 copies/mL in CSF. Of the two patients with detectable CSF VL (280 copies/mL and 159 copies/mL), one was receiving darunavir 600 and the other darunavir 800 plus tenofovir/emtricitabine. Of note, these patients had the lowest CSF darunavir concentrations in their respective groups: 5.79 ng/mL (802 ng/mL in plasma) and 3.47 ng/mL (958 ng/mL in plasma). Conclusions: Darunavir CSF and plasma concentrations were comparable between the two arms. However, one patient from each group (with the lowest CSF darunavir concentrations in their respective groups) had detectable CSF VL despite undetectable plasma VL.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: The character of central nervous system (CNS) HIV infection and its effects on neuronal integrity vary with evolving systemic infection. Using a cross-sectional design and archived samples, we compared concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuronal biomarkers in 143 samples from 8 HIV-infected subject groups representing a spectrum of untreated systemic HIV progression and viral suppression: primary infection; four groups of chronic HIV infection neuroasymptomatic (NA) subjects defined by blood CD4+ T cells of >350, 200-349, 50-199, and <50 cells/µL; HAD; treatment-induced viral suppression; and 'elite' controllers. Samples from 20 HIV-uninfected controls were also examined. The neuronal biomarkers included neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), total and phosphorylated tau (t-tau, p-tau), soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα, sAPPβ) and amyloid beta (Aβ) fragments 1-42, 1-40 and 1-38. Comparison of the biomarker changes showed a hierarchy of sensitivity in detection and suggested evolving mechanisms with progressive injury. NFL was the most sensitive neuronal biomarker. Its CSF concentration exceeded age-adjusted norms in all HAD patients, 75% of NA CD4<50, 40% of NA CD4 50-199, and 42% of primary infection, indicating common neuronal injury with untreated systemic HIV disease progression as well as transiently during early infection. By contrast, only 75% of HAD subjects had abnormal CSF t-tau levels, and there were no significant differences in t-tau levels among the remaining groups. sAPPα and β were also abnormal (decreased) in HAD, showed less marked change than NFL with CD4 decline in the absence of HAD, and were not decreased in PHI. The CSF Aβ peptides and p-tau concentrations did not differ among the groups, distinguishing the HIV CNS injury profile from Alzheimer's disease. These CSF biomarkers can serve as useful tools in selected research and clinical settings for patient classification, pathogenetic analysis, diagnosis and management.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is a mediator of brain injury in HIV infection. To study the natural course of CNS inflammation in the early phase of infection, we analyzed longitudinal levels of soluble and cellular markers of inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, beginning with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI).Methods Antiretroviral-naïve subjects identified as having PHI (less than one year since HIV transmission) participated in phlebotomy and lumbar puncture at baseline and at variable intervals thereafter. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze longitudinal levels of CSF neopterin and percentages of activated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8+ T-cells (co-expressing CD38 and human leukocyte antigen-D-related (HLA-DR)) in blood and CSF.ResultsA total of 81 subjects were enrolled at an average of 100 days after HIV transmission and had an average follow-up period of 321 days, with the number of visits ranging from one to 13. At baseline, the majority of subjects had CSF neopterin concentrations above the upper limit of normal. The baseline concentration was associated with the longitudinal trajectory of CSF neopterin. In subjects with baseline levels of less than 21 nmol/L, a cutoff value obtained from a mixed-effects model, CSF neopterin increased by 2.9% per 10 weeks (n¿=¿33; P <0.001), whereas it decreased by 6.7% in subjects with baseline levels of more than 21 nmol/L (n¿=¿11; P¿=¿0.001). In a subset with available flow cytometry data (n¿=¿42), the percentages of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in CSF increased by 0.8 (P <0.001) and 0.73 (P¿=¿0.02) per 10 weeks, respectively.Conclusions Neopterin levels and the percentages of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in CSF progressively increase in most subjects without treatment during early HIV-1 infection, suggesting an accrual of intrathecal inflammation, a major contributor to neuropathology in HIV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
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    ABSTRACT: The modern medical treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality in patients infected with this virus. ART has also been shown to reduce the transmission risk from individual patients as well as the spread of the infection at the population level. This position statement from the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy is based on a workshop organized in the fall of 2012. It summarizes the latest research and knowledge on the risk of HIV transmission from patients on ART, with a focus on the risk of sexual transmission. The risk of transmission via shared injection equipment among intravenous drug users is also examined, as is the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Based on current knowledge, the risk of transmission through vaginal or anal intercourse involving the use of a condom has been judged to be minimal, provided that the person infected with HIV fulfils the criteria for effective ART. This probably also applies to unprotected intercourse, provided that no other sexually transmitted infections are present, although it is not currently possible to fully support this conclusion with direct scientific evidence. ART is judged to markedly reduce the risk of blood-borne transmission between people who share injection equipment. Finally, the risk of transmission from mother to child is very low, provided that ART is started well in advance of delivery.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Objective and design: Though combination antiretroviral therapy reduces the concentration of HIV-1 RNA in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) below the detection limit of clinical assays, low levels of HIV-1 RNA are frequently detectable in plasma using more sensitive assays. We examined the frequency and magnitude of persistent low-level HIV-1 RNA in CSF and its relation to the central nervous system (CNS) immune activation. Methods: CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA were measured using the single-copy assay with a detection limit of 0.3 copies/ml in 70 CSF and 68 plasma samples from 45 treated HIV-1-infected patients with less than 40 copies/ml of HIV-1 RNA in both fluids by standard clinical assays. We also measured CSF neopterin to assess intrathecal immune activation. Theoretical drug exposure was estimated using the CNS penetration-efficacy score of treatment regimens. Results: CSF HIV-1 RNA was detected in 12 of the 70 CSF samples (17%) taken after up to 10 years of suppressive therapy, compared to 39 of the 68 plasma samples (57%) with a median concentration of less than 0.3 copies/ml in CSF compared to 0.3 copies/ml in plasma (P < 0.0001). CSF samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA had higher CSF neopterin levels (mean 8.2 compared to 5.7 nmol/l; P = 0.0085). Patients with detectable HIV-1 RNA in CSF did not differ in pretreatment plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, nadir CD4 cell count or CNS penetration-efficacy score. Conclusion: Low-level CSF HIV-1 RNA and its association with elevated CSF neopterin highlight the potential for the CNS to serve as a viral reservoir and for persistent infection to cause subclinical CNS injury.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Background HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) still dominates in resource-rich countries but increased migration contributes to changes in the global subtype distribution. Also, spread of non-B subtypes within such countries occurs. The trend of the subtype distribution from the beginning of the epidemic in the country has earlier not been reported in detail. Thus the primary objective of this study is to describe the temporal trend of the subtype distribution from the beginning of the HIV-1 epidemic in Sweden over three decades. Methods HIV-1 pol sequences from patients (n = 3967) diagnosed in Sweden 1983– 2012, corresponding to >40% of patients ever diagnosed, were re-subtyped using several automated bioinformatics tools. The temporal trends of subtypes and recombinants during three decades were described by a multinomial logistic regression model. Results All eleven group M HIV-1 subtypes and sub-subtypes (78%), 17 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) (19%) and 32 unique recombinants forms (URF) (3%) were identified. When all patients were analysed, there was an increase of newly diagnosed HIV-1C (RR, 95%CI: 1.10, 1.06–1.14), recombinants (1.20, 1.17–1.24) and other pure subtypes (1.11, 1.07–1.16) over time compared to HIV-1B. The same pattern was found when all patients infected in Sweden (n = 1165) were analysed. Also, for MSM patients infected in Sweden (n = 921), recombinant forms and other pure subtypes increased. Significance Sweden exhibits one of the most diverse subtype epidemics outside Africa. The increase of non-B subtypes is due to migration and to a spread among heterosexually infected patients and MSM within the country. This viral heterogeneity may become a hotspot for development of more diverse and complex recombinant forms if the epidemics converge.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected patients is reported to be high. Whether this is a result of active HIV-related neurodegeneration is unclear. We examined axonal injury in HIV-1 patients by measuring the light subunit of neurofilament protein (NFL) in CSF with a novel, sensitive method. With a cross-sectional design, CSF concentrations of neurofilament protein light (NFL) (marker of neuronal injury), neopterin (intrathecal immunoactivation) and CSF/Plasma albumin ratio (blood-brain barrier integrity) were analyzed on CSF from 252 HIV-infected patients, subdivided into untreated neuroasymptomatics (n = 200), HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 14) and on combinations antiretroviral treatment (cART) (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 204). 46 HIV-infected patients were included in both treated and untreated groups, but sampled at different timepoints. Furthermore, 78 neuroasymptomatic patients were analyzed before and after treatment initiation. While HAD patients had the highest NFL concentrations, elevated CSF NFL was also found in 33% of untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, mainly in those with blood CD4+ cell counts below 250 cells/μL. CSF NFL concentrations in the untreated neuroasymptomatics and treated groups were equivalent to controls 18.5 and 3.9 years older, respectively. Neopterin correlated with NFL levels in untreated groups while the albumin ratio correlated with NFL in both untreated and treated groups. Increased CSF NFL indicates ongoing axonal injury in many neuroasymptomatic patients. Treatment decreases NFL, but treated patients retain higher levels than controls, indicating either continued virus-related injury or an aging-like effect of HIV infection. NFL correlates with neopterin and albumin ratio, suggesting an association between axonal injury, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier permeability. NFL appears to be a sensitive biomarker of subclinical and clinical brain injury in HIV and warrants further assessment for broader clinical use.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Seminars in Neurology
  • Aylin Yilmaz · Magnus Gisslén
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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infection is an important part of systemic human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) infection. It is most often asymptomatic, but can sometimes lead to severe neurologic disease, particularly in advanced stages of immunosuppression. CNS HIV infection usually responds well to antiretroviral treatment, but there are concerns that treatment may not always be fully effective in treating or preventing milder CNS disease and that it, under certain circumstances, might be important to consider antiretroviral drug distribution and effects within the CNS.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Seminars in Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: We sequenced the genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recovered from 70 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and 29 plasma samples and corresponding samples obtained before treatment initiation from 17 subjects receiving suppressive therapy. More CSF sequences than plasma sequences were hypermutants. We determined CSF sequences and plasma sequences in specimens obtained from 2 subjects after treatment initiation. In one subject, we found genetically distinct CSF and plasma sequences, indicating that they came from HIV-1 from 2 different compartments, one potentially the central nervous system, during suppressive therapy. In addition, there was little evidence of viral evolution in the CSF during therapy, suggesting that continuous virus replication is not the major cause of viral persistence in the central nervous system.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal facet of systemic HIV infection that varies in character and neurological consequences. While clinical staging and neuropsychological test performance have been helpful in evaluating patients, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers present a valuable and objective approach to more accurate diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects and understanding of evolving pathobiology. We review some lessons from our recent experience with CSF biomarker studies. We have used two approaches to biomarker analysis: targeted, hypothesis-driven and non-targeted exploratory discovery methods. We illustrate the first with data from a cross-sectional study of defined subject groups across the spectrum of systemic and CNS disease progression and the second with a longitudinal study of the CSF proteome in subjects initiating antiretroviral treatment. Both approaches can be useful and, indeed, complementary. The first is helpful in assessing known or hypothesized biomarkers while the second can identify novel biomarkers and point to broad interactions in pathogenesis. Common to both is the need for well-defined samples and subjects that span a spectrum of biological activity and biomarker concentrations. Previously-defined guide biomarkers of CNS infection, inflammation and neural injury are useful in categorizing samples for analysis and providing critical biological context for biomarker discovery studies. CSF biomarkers represent an underutilized but valuable approach to understanding the interactions of HIV and the CNS and to more objective diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. Both hypothesis-based and discovery methods can be useful in advancing the definition and use of these biomarkers.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neopterin, a biomarker of macrophage activation, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of most HIV-infected individuals and decreases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We studied decay characteristics of neopterin in CSF and blood after commencement of ART in HIV-infected subjects and estimated the set-point levels of CSF neopterin after ART-mediated viral suppression. Methods CSF and blood neopterin were longitudinally measured in 102 neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects who were treatment-naïve or had been off ART for ≥ 6 months. We used a non-linear model to estimate neopterin decay in response to ART and a stable neopterin set-point attained after prolonged ART. Seven subjects with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) who initiated ART were studied for comparison. Results Non-HAD patients were followed for a median 84.7 months. Though CSF neopterin concentrations decreased rapidly after ART initiation, it was estimated that set-point levels would be below normal CSF neopterin levels (<5.8 nmol/L) in only 60/102 (59%) of these patients. Pre-ART CSF neopterin was the primary predictor of set-point (P <0.001). HAD subjects had higher baseline median CSF neopterin levels than non-HAD subjects (P <0.0001). Based on the non-HAD model, only 14% of HAD patients were predicted to reach normal levels. Conclusions After virologically suppressive ART, abnormal CSF neopterin levels persisted in 41% of non-HAD and the majority of HAD patients. ART is not fully effective in ameliorating macrophage activation in CNS as well as blood, especially in subjects with higher pre-ART levels of immune activation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Neuroinflammation

Publication Stats

3k Citations
414.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • University of Gothenburg
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 1998-2009
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2005
    • Mid Sweden University
      Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden
  • 1994
    • Stockholm University
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden