Jeffrey A Johnson

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (258)918.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Lifestyle behaviours among adults reporting awareness of Canada's Food Guide (CFG) are described. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional survey of adults from Alberta were used to estimate the prevalence of reported health behaviours among respondents aware of the CFG. Results: Respondents (n = 1044) reported general awareness of CFG (mean age 50.3 years; 54.2% female) of whom 82.2% reported awareness of specific CFG recommendations. Respondents reported frequently reading food labels (>58.0%), reading the number of calories (45.5%), the amount of sodium (49.5%), the amount of fat (46.7%), and the type of fat (45.5%) on the food label. Most respondents (90.0%) reported frequently selecting foods to promote health. Approximately one-third of the respondents (35.8%) reported frequently consuming ≥5 portions of vegetables and fruit per day and regularly participating in physical activity (55.3%). Body weight was perceived as healthy by 63.4% of the respondents. Most engaged in 2 health behaviours frequently. Adjusting for important socio-demographic characteristics, those who reported frequently consuming ≥5 portions of vegetables and fruit per day were more likely to engage in a second health behaviour outlined in CGF (OR: 23.6, 95% CI (16.2-34.4)). Conclusion: Awareness of CFG did not translate to positive health behaviours. More proactive population level strategies to support specific health behaviours as outlined in CFG might be warranted.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
  • Jongnam Hwang · Christopher Rudnisky · Sarah Bowen · Jeffrey A Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to measure income-related inequalities in visual impairment and use of eye screening services amongst Canadian living with type 2 diabetes, and to examine contribution of various socio-demographic factors to identified income-related inequalities. Methods: We used data from the Survey on Living with Chronic Disease in Canada-Diabetes Component 2011 (SLCDC-DM) to derive the relative concentration index (RCI) and decomposition of the RCI. Results: Individuals with lower income tended to have more visual impairment compared with those with higher income. The main contribution to the observed income inequality in visual impairment came from age and marital status. Regarding eye screening services, patients with higher income were more likely to use eye screening and preventive eye screening services. The main contributors to increased use were income, having private health insurance and patient's experience in discussing diabetic complications with health professionals. Conclusion: Identified contributors of income-related inequality should be considered when health and healthcare policies are developed in order to minimize and mitigate the observed inequalities.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies suggest that population subgroups have different perceptions of health, as well as different preferences for hypothetical health states. Objective: To identify determinants of health states preferences elicited using time trade-off (TTO) for the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in Canada. Methods: Data were from the Canadian EQ-5D-5L Valuation Study, which took place in Edmonton, Hamilton, Montreal, and Vancouver. Each respondent valued 10 of 86 hypothetical health states during an in-person interview using a computer-based TTO exercise. The TTO scores were the dependent variable and explanatory variables including age, sex, marital status, education, employment, annual household income, ethnicity, country of birth, dwelling, study site, health literacy, number of chronic conditions, previous experience with illness, and self-rated health. Results: Average [standard deviation (SD)] age of respondents (N = 1209) was 48 (17) years, and 45 % were male. In multivariable linear regression models with random effects, adjusted for severity of health states and inconsistencies in valuations, older age [unstandardized regression coefficient (β) = -0.077], male sex (β = 0.042), being married (β = 0.069), and urban dwelling (β = -0.055) were significantly associated with health states scores. Additionally, participants from Edmonton (β = -0.124) and Vancouver (β = -0.156), but not those from Hamilton, had significantly lower TTO scores than those from Montreal. Conclusions: Socio-demographic characteristics were the main determinants of preferences for EQ-5D-5L health states in this study. Interestingly, preferences were significantly lower in western Canadian cities compared to eastern ones, bringing into question whether a single preference algorithm is suitable for use in all parts of Canada.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Quality of Life Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Although death or readmission shortly after hospital discharge is frequent, identifying inpatients at higher risk is difficult. We evaluated whether in-hospital depressive symptoms (hereafter "depression") are associated with short-term readmission or mortality after discharge from medical wards. Methods: Depression was assessed at discharge in a prospective inpatient cohort from 2 Canadian hospitals (7 medical wards) and defined as scores ≥11 on the 27-point Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Primary outcome was all-cause readmission or mortality 90days postdischarge. Results: Of 495 medical patients [median age 64years, 51% women, top 3 admitting diagnoses heart failure (10%), pneumonia (10%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (8%)], 127 (26%) screened positive for depression at discharge. Compared with nondepressed patients, those with depression were more frequently readmitted or died: 27/127 (21%) vs. 58/368 (16%) within 30days and 46 (36%) vs. 91 (25%) within 90days [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.25-3.17, P=.004, adjusted for age, sex and readmission/death prediction scores]. History of depression did not predict 90-day events (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 0.64-1.72, P=.84). Depression persisted in 40% of patients at 30days and 17% at 90days. Conclusions: Depression was common, underrecognized and often persisted postdischarge. Current symptoms of depression, but not history, identified greater risk of short-term events independent of current risk prediction rules.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · General hospital psychiatry
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    Fatima Al Sayah · Weiyu Qiu · Jeffrey A Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the association of health literacy (HL) with changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Data from a cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients were used. HL was assessed using 3 previously validated screening questions and HRQL using the EQ-5D-5L and SF-12 [physical and mental composite summary scores (PCS, MCS)]. The associations of baseline HL with changes in EQ-5D, PCS, and MCS scores over 1 year and with directions of changes (no change; declined; improved) were examined. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation and sensitivity analyses. Results: Average age of participants (N = 1948) was 64.6 ± 10.9 years, 45 % were female, and 12.6 % had inadequate HL. Participants had mean decrements of 0.01 in EQ-5D, 1.0 in PCS, and 1.2 in MCS over 1 year. In adjusted analysis, HL was not associated with changes in EQ-5D over 1 year (β = 0.01, P = 0.146); however, patients with adequate HL had 2.1 points greater increase in PCS (P < 0.001) and 3.1 points in MCS (P < 0.001) compared to those with inadequate HL. Patients with adequate HL were less likely to have a decline in EQ-5D (RR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98), PCS (RR 0.51; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.76), and MCS (RR 0.49; 95 % CI 0.33, 0.72) compared to those with inadequate HL. Patients with adequate HL were more likely to have an improvement in MCS compared to those with inadequate HL (RR 1.78; 95 % CI 1.04, 3.04); such associations were not observed for PCS or EQ-5D. All results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Inadequate HL was independently associated with worsening HRQL in adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly in the mental health domain.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Quality of Life Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The 5-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) was recently developed. A number of preference-based scoring systems are being developed for several countries around the world. Objective: To develop a value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on societal preferences in Canada. Methods: We used age, sex, and education quota sampling from the general population from 4 cities across Canada. Composite time trade-off (cTTO) and traditional time trade-off (tTTO) were used as the main elicitation technique. A total of 86 EQ-5D-5L health states grouped into 10 blocks were valued using cTTO, whereas a subset of 18 severe states was also valued using tTTO. Participants meeting predefined inconsistency criteria were excluded from the analyses. For the value set development, we used tTTO and positive cTTO values, while censoring negative and zero cTTO values at zero. Models with the main effects presented using linear terms combined with various additional terms were estimated. The preferred model was selected based primarily on logically ordered coefficients, and secondly model fit. Results: Of the 1209 participants who completed the interview, 136 met criteria that excluded them from the primary analyses. The demographics and socioeconomic status of the remaining 1073 participants were similar to the Canadian general population. The preferred model has 5 linear terms for the main effects, a term for level 4 or 5 for each dimension, and a term for the squared total number of level 4 or 5 beyond the first. For this preferred model, the health utilities ranged from -0.148 for the worst (55555) to 0.949 for the best (11111) EQ-5D-5L states. Conclusions: This is the first TTO-based value set of the EQ-5D-5L for Canada. It can be used to support the health utility estimation in economic evaluations for reimbursement decision making in Canada.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Medical care
  • Lois E Donovan · Anamaria Savu · Alun L Edwards · Jeffrey A Johnson · Padma Kaul
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The extent to which pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at the population level is not known. We examined the rate, type, and timing of GDM screening and diagnostic testing in the province of Alberta, Canada. Geographic and temporal differences in screening rates, and maternal risk factors associated with lower likelihood of screening, were also determined. Research design and methods: Our retrospective linked-database cohort study included 86,842 primiparous women with deliveries between 1 October 2008 and 31 December 2012. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine maternal factors associated with lower likelihood of GDM screening. Results: Overall, 94% (n = 81,304) of women underwent some form of glycemic assessment in the 270 days prior to delivery. The majority (91%) received a 50-g glucose screen (GDS). Women not screened were younger and more likely to smoke and had lower maternal weight and median household income. When a diagnostic 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was indicated, it occurred a median of 10 (interquartile range 7, 15) days after the screen. Conclusions: GDS occurred widely in a system where it was universally recommended and paid for publicly. When indicated, a 75-g OGTT was completed within 15 days in 75% of cases. Our finding that this two-step approach was widely implemented in a timely fashion supports continued endorsement of a two-step approach to screening and diagnosis of GDM. Further research is merited to assess if the one-step GDM diagnostic approach results in different rates and timing of the 75-g OGTT and impacts pregnancy outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized controlled trials are considered the "gold standard" for scientific rigor in the assessment of benefits and harms of interventions in healthcare. They may not always be feasible, however, when evaluating quality improvement interventions in real-world healthcare settings. Non-randomized controlled trials (NCTs) are designed to answer questions of effectiveness of interventions in routine clinical practice to inform a decision or process. The on-off NCT design is a relatively new design where participant allocation is by alternation. In alternation, eligible patients are allocated to the intervention "on" or control "off " groups in time series dependent sequential clusters. We used two quality improvement studies undertaken in a Canadian primary care setting to illustrate the features of the on-off design. We also explored the perceptions and experiences of healthcare providers tasked with implementing the on-off study design. The on-off design successfully allocated patients to intervention and control groups. Imbalances between baseline variables were attributed to chance, with no detectable biases. However, healthcare providers' perspectives and experiences with the design in practice reveal some conflict. Specifically, providers described the process of allocating patients to the off group as unethical and immoral, feeling it was in direct conflict with their professional principle of providing care for all. The degree of dissatisfaction seemed exacerbated by: 1) the patient population involved (e.g., patient population viewed as high-risk (e.g., depressed or suicidal)), 2) conducting assessments without taking action (e.g., administering the PHQ-9 and not acting on the results), and 3) the (non-blinded) allocation process. Alternation, as in the on-off design, is a credible form of allocation. The conflict reported by healthcare providers in implementing the design, while not unique to the on-off design, may be alleviated by greater emphasis on the purpose of the research and having research assistants allocate patients and collect data instead of the healthcare providers implementing the trial. In addition, consultation with front-line staff implementing the trials with an on-off design on appropriateness to the setting (e.g., alignment with professional values and the patient population served) may be beneficial. Health Eating and Active Living with Diabetes: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00991380 Date registered: 7 October 2009. Controlled trial of a collaborative primary care team model for patients with diabetes and depression: Clintrials.gov Identifier: NCT01328639 Date registered: 30 March 2011.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonality in health outcomes has long been recognized in conditions such as colds and flu's. This study sought to determine if hospitalizations of acute complications of type 1 diabetes vary by month and season. We performed an observational study of national administrative health data. Hospitalizations for acute complications in adults (age ≥ 18 years old) with type 1 diabetes were identified using ICD-10 CA codes between 2004 and 2010. Monthly and seasonal counts per year were determined for the study period. For each acute complication, a ratio of the number of observed hospitalizations divided by the expected number of hospitalizations was calculated for each month and season per year, adjusting for varied lengths of month, season, and year. There were a total of 21,568 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis and 5,349 hospitalizations for hypoglycemia in the study period. December demonstrated higher than expected hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis and March demonstrated higher than expected hospitalizations for hypoglycemia. There did not appear to be variation for either diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia hospitalizations by season. This study suggests temporal variation in hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia, and therefore signals important times of patient vulnerability. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern warrant further examination. Prevention strategies and resources for patients with type 1 diabetes may need to be increased at specific times during the year. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: The Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes in Primary Care Networks (HEALD) intervention proved effective in increasing daily physical activity among people with type 2 diabetes in 4 community-based primary care networks (PCNs) in Alberta. Here, we contextualize its effectiveness by describing implementation fidelity and PCN staff's perceptions of its success in improving diabetes management. We used the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to evaluate the HEALD intervention. Qualitative methods used to collect data related to the RE-AIM dimensions of implementation and effectiveness included interviews with PCN staff (n=24), research team reflections (n=4) and systematic documentation. We used content analysis, and data were imported into and managed using Nvivo 10. HEALD was implemented as intended with adequate fidelity across all 4 PCNs. Identified implementation facilitators included appropriate human resources, the training provided, ongoing support, the provision of space and the simplicity of the intervention. However, PCN staff reported varying opinions regarding its potential for improving diabetes management among patients. Rationales for their views included intervention "dose" inadequacy; that the quality of usual care for people with diabetes was already good; patients were already managing their diabetes well; and the potential for cointervention. Recommended improvements to HEALD included increasing the dose of the intervention, expanding it to other modes of exercise and incorporating a medical clearance process. Based on the high degree of fidelity, the demonstrated effectiveness of HEALD in improving physical activity among patients was a result of sound implementation of an efficacious intervention. Increasing the dose of HEALD could result in additional improvements for patients. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence and predictors of foot disease, self-care and clinical monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada. Baseline data from a prospective cohort of adults with type 2 diabetes were used. Assessment of foot disease included self-reported peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vasculopathy, foot or leg ulcer/infection or gangrene/amputation. Foot self-care was assessed using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and clinical monitoring using patients' reports of having feet checked for lesions or sensory loss. The mean age of respondents (N=2040) was 64 (SD 10.7) years; 45% were female, and 91% were Caucasian. Peripheral neuropathy was reported by 18% of the respondents, peripheral vasculopathy by 28%, ulcer/infection by 6% and gangrene/amputation by 1.4%. Only 14% of respondents performed foot self-care behaviours ≥6 days per week, and only 41% and 34% had their feet clinically checked for lesions or sensory loss, respectively. Predictors of foot disease included longer duration of diabetes, smoking, depressive symptoms, low self-efficacy and a history of cardiovascular diseases. Predictors of good self-care included older age, female sex, longer duration of diabetes and no report of hyperlipidemia. Predictors of clinical monitoring included female sex, current smoking, residing in urban areas, longer duration of diabetes, and histories of heart disease or hyperlipidemia. Peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy were the most common reported foot problems in this population. Foot self-care is generally infrequent, and clinical monitoring is performed for less than half of these patients, with significant variations by patient demographics and clinical presentation. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the factors that affect care and outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed the prospective Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) cohort to collect, monitor and analyze data concerning several sociodemographic, behavioural, psychosocial, clinical and physiological factors that might influence diabetes care and outcomes. We recruited 2040 individuals with type 2 diabetes through primary care networks, diabetes clinics and public advertisements. Data are being collected through self-administered surveys, including standardized measures of health status and self-care behaviours, and will eventually be linked to laboratory and administrative healthcare data and other novel databases. The average age of respondents was 64.4 years (SD=10.7); 45% were female, and 91% were white, with average duration of diabetes of 12 years (SD=10.0). The majority (76%) were physically inactive, and 10% were smokers. Most (88%) reported 2 or more chronic conditions in addition to diabetes, and 18% screened positively for depressive symptoms. The majority (92%) consented to future linkage with administrative data. Based on the literature and comparison with other surveys, the cohort appeared to fairly represent the general Alberta population with diabetes. The ABCD cohort will serve as the basis for explorations of the multidimensional and dynamic nature of diabetes care and complications. These data will contribute to broader scientific literature and will also help to identify local benchmarks and targets for intervention strategies, helping to guide policies and resource allocation related to the care and management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of foot disease, self-care and clinical monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada. METHOD: Baseline data from a prospective cohort of adults with type 2 diabetes were used. Assessment of foot disease included self-reported peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vasculopathy, foot or leg ulcer/infection or gangrene/amputation. Foot self-care was assessed using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and clinical monitoring using patients' reports of having feet checked for lesions or sensory loss. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents (N=2040) was 64 (SD 10.7) years; 45% were female, and 91% were Caucasian. Peripheral neuropathy was reported by 18% of the respondents, peripheral vasculopathy by 28%, ulcer/infection by 6% and gangrene/amputation by 1.4%. Only 14% of respondents performed foot self-care behaviours ≥6 days per week, and only 41% and 34% had their feet clinically checked for lesions or sensory loss, respectively. Predictors of foot disease included longer duration of diabetes, smoking, depressive symptoms, low self-efficacy and a history of cardiovascular diseases. Predictors of good self-care included older age, female sex, longer duration of diabetes and no report of hyperlipidemia. Predictors of clinical monitoring included female sex, current smoking, residing in urban areas, longer duration of diabetes, and histories of heart disease or hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy were the most common reported foot problems in this population. Foot self-care is generally infrequent, and clinical monitoring is performed for less than half of these patients, with significant variations by patient demographics and clinical presentation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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    Fatima Al Sayah · Ana Mladenovic · Kathryn Gaebel · Feng Xie · Jeffrey A Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: The EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) uses traditional time trade-off (tTTO) for health states better than dead and lead-time TTO (LT-TTO) for states worse than dead to elicit a value (-1.0 to +1.0) for each health state. In the Canadian EQ-5D-5L Valuation study which used the EQVT platform, we observed an unexpected peak in frequency of "0" values and few negative values, particularly in the range of 0 to -0.5. To better understand this finding, we sought to explore respondents' thought processes while valuing a health state, and their understanding of the tTTO and LT-TTO exercises. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with EQVT task respondents. Questions focused on valuations of health states as: (a) Same as dead in tTTO, (b) Worse than dead in tTTO but changed to same as dead in LT-TTO, (c) Worse than dead in LT-TTO, and (d) Worse than dead in LT-TTO with trading off all 10 years. Data were analyzed using content and thematic analysis. Mean age of participants (N = 70) was 40 ± 18.1 years, 60 % female, and 76 % Caucasian. Participants provided similar reasons for valuing a health state same as or worse than dead. Many participants expressed confusion about worse than dead valuations, distinction between same as and worse than dead, and the transition from tTTO to LT-TTO. A few indicated that the addition of 10 years of full health in the LT-TTO influenced their valuations. The transition from tTTO to LT-TTO in the EQVT was confusing to participants, whereby some health state valuations around this transition appeared to be arbitrary.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Quality of Life Research
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the implementation of an efficacious collaborative care model for patients with diabetes and depression in a controlled trial in 4 community-based primary care networks (PCNs) in Alberta, Canada. Similar to previous randomized trials, the nurse care manager-led TeamCare intervention demonstrated statistically significant improvements in depressive symptoms compared with usual care. We contextualized TeamCare’s effectiveness by describing implementation fidelity at the organizational and patient levels.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Although there have been tremendous advances in diabetes care, including the development of efficacious interventions, there remain considerable challenges in translating these advances into practice. Four primary care networks (PCNs) in Alberta implemented 2 quality-improvement interventions focused on lifestyle and depression as part of the Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) project. We used the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to evaluate adoption of the quality-improvement interventions in the PCN setting. We undertook semistructured interviews with PCN staff (n=24); systematic documentation (e.g. field notes) and formal reflections by the research team (n=4). Content analysis was used to interrogate the data. The Ready? Set? Go! construct summarizes our findings well. We observed that the participating PCNs were in a favourable position to adopt the 2 interventions successfully. We implemented strategies to promote adoption (Ready), and respondents reported prioritization and willingness to initiate the interventions based on positive indicators (Set). Regardless, the interplay of organizational stability, leadership support, existing physician culture and organizational context influenced the overall degree of adoption of the interventions across the PCNs (Go). Our findings suggest that implementation of quality-improvement interventions into settings similar to the PCNs we studied will have the greatest likelihood of success when there is priority alignment, genuine and sustained leadership support and an innovative organizational culture. However, the stability of organizations may affect the degree to which staff can adopt quality-improvement interventions successfully, so organizational stability should be assessed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Patient registries are considered an important foundation of chronic disease management, and diabetes patient registries are associated with better processes and outcomes of care. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and use of registries in the Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) project to identify and reach target populations for quality-improvement interventions in the primary care setting. We applied the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and expanded the definition of reach beyond the individual (i.e. patient) level to include the ability to identify target populations at an organizational level. To characterize reach and the implementation of registries, semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants, and a usual-care checklist was compiled for each participating Primary Care Network (PCN). Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Using registries to identify and recruit participants for the ABCD interventions proved challenging. The quality of the registries depended on whether physicians granted PCN access to patient lists, the strategies used in development, the reliability of diagnostic information and the data elements collected. In addition, once a diabetes registry was developed, there was limited ability to update it. Proactive management of chronic diseases like diabetes requires the ability to reach targeted patients at the population level. We observed several challenges to the development and application of patient registries. Given the importance of valid registries, strong collaborations and novel strategies that involve policy-makers, PCNs and providers are needed to help find solutions to improve registry quality and resolve maintenance issues. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological research has posited a 'healthy user' bias in patients receiving influenza vaccination; thus we sought to evaluate potential healthy-user attributes and their associations with influenza vaccination. Between 2011 and 2013, adults with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Information collected included sociodemographics, diabetes-related data (e.g., duration, complications), health behaviors (e.g., smoking status), functional health status, and satisfaction with healthcare. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify potential healthy-user attributes independently associated with influenza vaccination. From a cohort of 2040 patients, 1287 (63%) reported receiving the influenza vaccine in the previous year. Average age of the cohort was 64 years (standard deviation 11) and 55% were male. In multivariable analysis, attributes independently associated with influenza vaccination included receiving preventive medications: aspirin (64% vs 44%; adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.34-2.04); blood pressure medications (76% vs 56%; aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71); and cholesterol-lowering medications (74% vs 53%; aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.89), as well as having a healthcare professional check feet for lesions (47% vs 31%; aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.74). Additional covariates independently associated with influenza vaccination included: age over 65 years, respiratory disease, the number of additional comorbidities, and higher ratings of healthcare experience. Vaccinated diabetic patients exhibit many postulated attributes of 'healthy users', which has implications for the interpretation of epidemiological studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness, as well as targeting future vaccination campaigns. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Vaccine

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To identify which activities produced a significant improvement in blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes when pharmacists were added to primary care teams. This prespecified, secondary analysis evaluated medication management data from a randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was a change in treatment, defined as addition, dosage increase, or switching of an antihypertensive medication during the 1-year study period. The secondary outcome was a change in antihypertensive medication adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR). The 200 evaluable trial patients had a mean age of 59 (SD, 11) years, 44% were men, and mean blood pressure was 130 (SD, 16)/74 (SD, 10) mm Hg at baseline. Treatment changes occurred in 45 (42%) of 107 patients in the intervention group and 24 (26%) of 93 patients in the control group (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.08-2.46). Addition of a new medication was the most common type of change, occurring in 34 (32%) patients in the intervention group and 17 (18%) patients in the control group (P = 0.029). Adherence to antihypertensive medication was high at baseline (MPR, 93%). Although medication adherence improved in the intervention group (MPR, 97%) and declined in the control group (MPR, 91%), the difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.21). The observed improvement in blood pressure control when pharmacists were added to primary care teams was likely achieved through antihypertensive treatment changes and not through improvements in antihypertensive medication adherence.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of the American Pharmacists Association

Publication Stats

8k Citations
918.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997-2015
    • University of Alberta
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Public Health Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2013
    • Edmonton Clinic
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2010
    • Statistics Canada
      • Division of Health Analysis
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000-2010
    • Institute of Health Economics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2005
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2002
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Medicine
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1996
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States