[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus epidermidis in immunocompromised patients can cause bacteremia related to the use of catheter due to biofilm production. There are different phenotypic methods to detect biofilm formation. One method is based on culture in brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) containing sucrose and red Congo dye (original Congo red agar). Our group created a new CRA formula and we have confirmed its capacity to detect biofilm production in 210 S. epidermidis strains, including 76 (36.2%) icaAB gene-positive strains. Other parameters were also evaluated. The new CRA formula that gave the best results was BHIA with sucrose (5%), Congo red (0.08%), NaCl (1.5%), glucose (2%), and vancomycin (0.5 mg/mL) (vancomycin-modified CRA-CRAmod). The CRAmod plus vancomycin may be a promising tool and can help to determine the real participation of S. epidermidis in the infectious process.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work characterizes MLS(b) resistance in 39 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 32 Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates. Of 21 erm(A) gene encoding MRSA isolates, 71.4% carried SCCmecIII, whereas of 12 isolates carrying the erm(C) gene, 83.3% carried SCCmecIV. Among the 25 MRSE isolates positive for the erm(C) gene, 80% had SCCmecIV or nontypeable cassettes. Isolates carrying these genes had MIC(90) ≥ 256 μg/mL to erythromycin and clindamycin. The msr(A) gene was associated with a low MIC(90) to these drugs. The erm(A) gene was associated with SCCmecIII in MRSA isolates, whereas the erm(C) gene was associated with SCCmecIV in both MRSA and MRSE isolates.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an unusually virulent coagulase-negative species, which causes serious infection similar to S. aureus. We evaluated the expression of virulence factors such as S. lugdunensis synergistic haemolysin (SLUSH), fibrinogen-binding protein (Fbl), biofilm production and biofilm-production-related genes in 23 S. lugdunensis clinical isolates and one type strain that had been previously characterized for their genotypes. In addition, the biofilm composition and the ability of isolates to adhere to and invade human epithelial lung cells were also investigated. The PCR method used detected the presence of slush and intercellular adhesin (ica) virulence genes in all isolates. All isolates produced the Fbl protein and, with the exception of the type strain, all isolates produced the SLUSH haemolysin. Fourteen (60.9 %) isolates produced biofilms. The detachment assay, using sodium metaperiodate or proteolytic enzymes to analyse the biofilm composition, showed protein-mediated biofilms in two representative isolates, one for each colony type (rough and smooth). All strongly biofilm-producing isolates, including three with rough colony morphology, had the same prevalent PFGE pattern. However, among the representative strains tested, only the S. lugdunensis isolate that formed rough colonies was able to adhere to and invade A549 cell monolayers in the same quantities as those observed with S. aureus isolates (P = 1.000). No significant adhesion or invasion was observed for the other isolates in comparison with the S. aureus isolate, independent of biofilm production or clonality. Our results could explain the incredible ability of this pathogen to cause infections that are as aggressive as S. aureus. In addition, the ability of S. lugdunensis to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells was also noticed for isolates with rough colony morphology, reinforcing the increased virulence in this species.
Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea) fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae) multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591) was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [ 35 S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 μg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a rare cause of severe infections and clinical manifestations are similar to those related to S. aureus infection. We describe a hospital-acquired bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis, misidentified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The oxacillin MIC was 16 µg/mL and the mecA gene and SCCmec type V were determined by PCR. Although treatment had been appropriated, the patient died after rapid progressive respiratory failure and another nosocomial sepsis. It is important not only to identify S. lugdunensis in view of its clinical course, but also to determine its susceptibility to oxacillin by detecting the mecA gene or its product.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbapenemase production is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance among nonfermentative Gram-negative isolates. This study aimed to report the detection of bla(OXA-58) gene in multiresistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from inpatients in a public hospital. Polymerase chain reaction tests were performed to detect the bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and bla(OXA-51-like) genes. The bla(OXA-58) and bla(OXA-23) genes were detected in one and three isolates, respectively. Sequencing of the bla(OXA-58-like) amplicon revealed 100% identity with the A. baumannii bla(OXA-58) gene listed in the GenBank database. This is the first report of an OXA-58-producing A. baumannii isolate in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Preview · Article · May 2011 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most prevalent coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) and is a major cause of hospital bacteremia. Based on 18 reference strains and 149 Staphylococcus clinical strains, used in a novel multiplex PCR method, the aim of this study was to identify S. epidermidis with respect to the sequence of three genes: recN, which encodes a recombination/repair protein, mecA (methicillin resistance), and icaAB, which is involved in biofilm formation. Amplicons of 219 bp (S. epidermidis-recN gene), 154 bp (mecA gene), and 546 bp (icaAB genes) were obtained. Reliable results were achieved for 100% of the evaluated strains, suggesting that this new multiplex-PCR approach could be useful for the accurate identification of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with the potential to produce biofilm.
Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · International Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial occurrence in treated root canals, even in patients without post-treatment apical periodontitis, raises the possibility that factors other than mere bacterial presence can be determinants for a favourable outcome of endodontic treatment. Because these factors may be related to the bacterial communities colonizing the root canal, including virulence, density and interactions, the objective of this study was to compare the community structures found in root-canal-treated teeth with (12 samples) and without (11 samples) apical periodontitis lesions by means of a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting approach. Results confirmed a polymicrobial composition even in treated patients without post-treatment disease. A large microbial community diversity was observed for treated teeth both with or without disease, but no specific pattern was detected for diseased teeth. Nevertheless, the number of bands from samples with apical periodontitis lesions was statistically significantly higher (P=0.04) than that from samples collected from root-canal-treated teeth without post-treatment apical periodontitis. Furthermore, predominant bands in samples from patients with apical disease were also observed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in root canal treated teeth with post-treatment disease, as evidenced by both molecular and traditional culturing methods, suggests that this species may be a key player in endodontic treatment failure. This study aimed to detect virulence factors by phenotypic and western blotting tests, and virulence genes by PCR from 20 clinical strains of E. faecalis isolated from treated root canals of teeth with (10) or without (10) apical periodontitis. Moreover, genomic diversity of these strains was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and rep-PCR. All 20 strains presented the gelE gene (gelatinase), but 10 of them did not hydrolyze gelatin. Seven of the 10 gelatinase-producing isolates were recovered from root canals with lesions, which suggests a role for this virulence factor in the pathogenesis of post-treatment disease. The esp gene was expressed only in cases where gelatinase production was negative. The other virulence genes were found in 90% (efaA and ace genes), 45% (agg gene) and 95% (cpd gene) of the E. faecalis isolates. As for PFGE and rep-PCR, no specific clonal type of E. faecalis was found in association with teeth with or without disease, revealing the interindividual clonal diversity of endodontic infections.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Research in Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Staphylococcus is of great importance because of its high prevalence in hospital infections and because it presents high rates of resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials. Thus, evaluation of the accuracy of the phenotypic methods that are used to determine the profile of antimicrobial resistance is essential to ensure that the most appropriate therapy is chosen.
One hundred and fourteen strains of Staphylococcus sp (53 S. aureus and 61 CNS) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the methods of disk diffusion, agar microdilution, oxacillin screening agar and automated systems, in comparison with PCR for investigating resistance to oxacillin.
The mecA gene was detected in 48 strains (42.1%), and 27 strains (23.7%) showed discrepant results in at least one of the methods (74.1% of CNS, 25.9% of S. aureus). For S. aureus, with the exception of the Microscan Walkaway, all the methods showed 100% specificity and sensitivity. In relation to CNS, the automated system and cefoxitin disk had lower accuracy.
Use of two methods should be the best option for improved accuracy, especially when the diagnostic laboratory only uses an automated system or oxacillin disk diffusion test. Combination of these methods with others presented almost 100% sensitivity and specificity in our study.
Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus lugdunensis are unusually virulent coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with skin infections and endocarditis. We developed an accurate and simple PCR assay to identify S. lugdunensis isolates based on detection of the fbl gene, which encodes a fibrinogen-binding protein involved in pathogen adhesion. The PCR assay was established using 16 reference strains of different Staphylococcus species and further validated with a collection of 63 clinical staphylococcal isolates that were also phenotypically characterized. Reliable results for the detection of S. lugdunensis isolates were obtained for 100% of the strains evaluated, indicating that this PCR assay can be used in the routine of microbiology laboratories as one more tool for correct species differentiation.
Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we standardized and evaluated a multiplex-PCR methodology using specific primers to identify Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus and their methicillin-resistance directly from blood cultures. Staphylococci clinical isolates (149) and control strains (16) previously identified by conventional methods were used to establish the multiplex PCR protocol. Subsequently, this methodology was evaluated using a fast and cheap DNA extraction protocol from 25 staphylococci positive blood cultures. A wash step of the pellet with 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution was performed to reduce PCR inhibitors. Amplicons of 154bp (mecA gene), 271bp (S. haemolyticus mvaA gene) and 108 and 124bp (S. aureus and S. epidermidis species-specific fragments, respectively) were observed. Reliable results were obtained for 100% of the evaluated strains, suggesting that this new multiplex-PCR combined with an appropriate DNA-extraction method could be useful in the laboratory for fast and accurate identification of three staphylococci species and simultaneously their methicillin resistance directly in blood cultures.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Microbiological Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the relationship among hospital infection and colonization by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), clonal spread, and associated risk factors in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Uberlândia Federal University-affiliated hospital in Brazil.
Between February 2004 and June 2005, a longitudinal surveillance study was carried out in an NICU with neonates presenting infections, through both the NNIS system and S aureus punctual colonization prevalence inquests.
The overall rate of infection incidence was 23/1000 patient-days. Of all the neonates assessed, 15 were infected and 15 colonized. Sepsis was the most frequent infection, whereas anterior nare was the most isolated site. Antibiotics use, central vascular catheter (CVC), and CVC use more than 7 days and its insertion by phlebotomy were the risk factors for colonization/infection. Molecular analysis showed polyclonal origin (12 genotypes), with predominance of a genotype ("B"), and clonal identity between colonization and infection samples.
The analysis by means of classical epidemiology and molecular techniques pointed out that methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections were associated with previous colonization by the pathogen, with evidence of horizontal transmission within the unit.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · American journal of infection control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the most frequently coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with antimicrobial resistance isolated from nosocomial infections. We developed an accurate and simple multiplex PCR assay to identify methicillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (MRSH) isolates. We designed species-specific primers of the mvaA gene that encodes a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A involved in the mevalonate pathway of the microorganism. Simultaneously, mecA gene primers of methicillin resistance were also used. The PCR assay was established using 16 strains of different reference Staphylococcus species and validated with a collection of 147 clinical staphylococcal isolates that were also phenotypically characterized. Reliable results for the detection of MRSH isolates were obtained for 100% of the strains evaluated, showing that this PCR assay can be used for the routine microbiology laboratories. This is the first report using species-specific multiplex PCR to detect a single segment of S. haemolyticus associated with a segment of mecA gene.
Preview · Article · May 2008 · FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Currently, these isolates have also shown resistance to vancomycin, the last therapy used in these cases. It has been observed that quinones and other related compounds exhibit antibacterial activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity, toxicity and in vivo dermal irritability of lapachol extracted from Tabebuia avellanedae and derivatives against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates. In addition, its mechanism of action was also analyzed.
The compounds beta-lapachone, 3-hydroxy beta N lapachone and alpha-lapachone were tested to determine the MIC values against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus strains, being the two last ones hetero-resistant to vancomycin. Experiments of protein synthesis analysis to investigate the naphthoquinones action were assessed. In vitro toxicity to eukaryotic BSC-40 African Green Monkey Kidney cell cultures and in vivo primary dermal irritability in healthy rabbits were also performed.
The compounds tested showed antibacterial activity (MICs of 8, 4/8 and 64/128 microg/mL to beta-lapachone, 3-hydroxy beta N lapachone and alpha-lapachone, respectively), but no bactericidal activity was observed (MBC > 512 microg/mL for all compounds). Although it has been observed toxic effect in eukaryotic cells, the compounds were shown to be atoxic when applied as topic preparations in healthy rabbits. No inhibition of proteins synthesis was observed.
Our results suggest that quinones could be used in topic preparations against wound infections caused by staphylococci, after major investigation of the pharmacological properties of the compounds. Studies about the use of these compounds on tumoral cells could be carried on, due to their effect in eukaryotic cells metabolism.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials