[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Adult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they are first generated in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, but at later developmental stages, its role in HSCs is controversial. Here we show that HSCs in murine fetal liver and the bone marrow are of two types that can be prospectively isolated—BMP activated and non-BMP activated. Clonal transplantation demonstrates that they have distinct haematopoietic lineage outputs. Moreover, the two HSC types differ in intrinsic genetic programs, thus supporting a role for the BMP signalling axis in the regulation of HSC heterogeneity and lineage output. Our findings provide insight into the molecular control mechanisms that define HSC types and have important implications for reprogramming cells to HSC fate and treatments targeting distinct HSC types.
Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The embryonic dorsal aorta plays a pivotal role in the production of the first hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the founders of the adult hematopoietic system. HSC production is polarized by being restricted to the aortic floor where a specialized subset of endothelial cells (ECs) endowed with hemogenic properties undergo an endothelial-to-hematopoietic production resulting in the formation of the intra-aortic hematopoietic clusters. This production is tightly time- and space-controlled with the transcription factor Runx1 playing a key role in this process and the surrounding tissues controlling the aortic shape and fate. In this paper, we shall review (a) how hemogenic ECs differentiate from the mesoderm, (b) how the different aortic components assemble coordinately to establish the dorso-ventral polarity, and (c) how this results in the initiation of Runx1 expression in hemogenic ECs and the initiation of the hematopoietic program. These observations should elucidate the first steps in HSC commitment and help in developing techniques to manipulate adult HSCs.
Full-text Article · Aug 2013 · Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are produced by a small cohort of hemogenic endothelial cells (ECs) during development through the formation of intra-aortic hematopoietic cell (HC) clusters. The Runx1 transcription factor plays a key role in the EC-to-HC and -HSC transition. We show that Runx1 expression in hemogenic ECs and the subsequent initiation of HC formation are tightly controlled by the subaortic mesenchyme, although the mesenchyme is not a source of HCs. Runx1 and Notch signaling are involved in this process, with Notch signaling decreasing with time in HCs. Inhibiting Notch signaling readily increases HC production in mouse and chicken embryos. In the mouse, however, this increase is transient. Collectively, we show complementary roles of hemogenic ECs and mesenchymal compartments in triggering aortic hematopoiesis. The subaortic mesenchyme induces Runx1 expression in hemogenic-primed ECs and collaborates with Notch dynamics to control aortic hematopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are at the basis of the hematopoietic system construction. In adult higher Vertebrates, HSC,
defined by their multipotentiality and self-renewal capacity, setde in the bone marrow where they can differentiate into progenitors
with more restricted lineage potential and generate all blood lineages via a cascade of commitment events. However HSC are
generated during the earliest phases of embryonic development into specific sites. Genetic technologies in the mouse have
revealed a number of mutations that affect the production of blood cells, some of which early during development. The tiny
mouse embryo embedded in the uterus is not however the most appropriate model to study the earliest events of the development
for the analysis of cell commitment, cell migration and cell interaction. Work in the avian embryo has led to several breakthroughs
in analysing the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system. Here we will review the main steps that have paved a 30 year analysis
of the construction of the hematopoietic system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Since the era of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, the avian embryo has been a subject of intense interest to visualize the first steps of development. It has served as a pioneer model to scrutinize the question of hematopoietic development from the beginning of the 20th century. It's large size and easy accessibility have permitted the development of techniques dedicated to following the origins and fates of different cell populations. Here, we shall review how the avian model has brought major contributions to our understanding of the development of the hematopoietic system in the past four decades and how these discoveries have influenced our knowledge of mammalian hematopoietic development. The discovery of an intra-embryonic source of hematopoietic cells and the developmental link between endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells will be presented. We shall then point to the pivotal role of the somite in the construction of the aorta and hematopoietic production and demonstrate how two somitic compartments cooperate to construct the definitive aorta. We shall finish by showing how fate-mapping experiments have allowed the identification of the tissue which gives rise to the sub-aortic mesenchyme. Taken together, this review aims to give an overview of how and to what extent the avian embryo has contributed to our knowledge of developmental hematopoiesis.
Full-text Article · Jan 2010 · The International journal of developmental biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the life-long production of the blood system and are pivotal cells in hematologic transplantation therapies. During mouse and human development, the first HSCs are produced in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Subsequent to this emergence, HSCs are found in other anatomical sites of the mouse conceptus. While the mouse placenta contains abundant HSCs at midgestation, little is known concerning whether HSCs or hematopoietic progenitors are present and supported in the human placenta during development. In this study we show, over a range of developmental times including term, that the human placenta contains hematopoietic progenitors and HSCs. Moreover, stromal cell lines generated from human placenta at several developmental time points are pericyte-like cells and support human hematopoiesis. Immunostaining of placenta sections during development localizes hematopoietic cells in close contact with pericytes/perivascular cells. Thus, the human placenta is a potent hematopoietic niche throughout development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hematopoiesis is initiated in several distinct tissues in the mouse conceptus. The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is of particular interest, as it autonomously generates the first adult type hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The ventral position of hematopoietic clusters closely associated with the aorta of most vertebrate embryos suggests a polarity in the specification of AGM HSCs. Since positional information plays an important role in the embryonic development of several tissue systems, we tested whether AGM HSC induction is influenced by the surrounding dorsal and ventral tissues. Our explant culture results at early and late embryonic day 10 show that ventral tissues induce and increase AGM HSC activity, whereas dorsal tissues decrease it. Chimeric explant cultures with genetically distinguishable AGM and ventral tissues show that the increase in HSC activity is not from ventral tissue-derived HSCs, precursors or primordial germ cells (as was previously suggested). Rather, it is due to instructive signaling from ventral tissues. Furthermore, we identify Hedgehog protein(s) as an HSC inducing signal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The characterization of stem cell microenvironments throughout ontogeny is of fundamental interest both in biology and regenerative medicine. In the adult, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow and are at the basis of the blood system. HSCs have the ability to self-renew and to give rise to all blood cell types. HSCs are maintained in close association to stromal cells which provide a supportive microenvironment for HSCs called the HSC niche. In the mid-gestation mouse embryo, the first definitive HSCs emerge autonomously in the AGM (Aorta-Gonad-Mesonephros) region. So far, little is known about the hematopoietic microenvironment in the AGM. Here, we will discuss research advances on the cellular and molecular characterization of the AGM microenvironment, with a particular emphasis on the mesenchymal lineage potentials of AGM stromal cells and the identification of novel HSC regulators.
Article · Jun 2008 · Reproduction Humaine et Hormones
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation is regulated by cellular and molecular interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. During ontogeny, the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region autonomously generates the first HSCs and serves as the first HSC-supportive microenvironment. Because the molecular identity of the AGM microenvironment is as yet unclear, we examined two closely related AGM stromal clones that differentially support HSCs. Expression analyses identified three putative HSC regulatory factors, beta-NGF (a neurotrophic factor), MIP-1gamma (a C-C chemokine family member) and Bmp4 (a TGF-beta family member). We show here that these three factors, when added to AGM explant cultures, enhance the in vivo repopulating ability of AGM HSCs. The effects of Bmp4 on AGM HSCs were further studied because this factor acts at the mesodermal and primitive erythropoietic stages in the mouse embryo. In this report, we show that enriched E11 AGM HSCs express Bmp receptors and can be inhibited in their activity by gremlin, a Bmp antagonist. Moreover, our results reveal a focal point of Bmp4 expression in the mesenchyme underlying HSC containing aortic clusters at E11. We suggest that Bmp4 plays a relatively late role in the regulation of HSCs as they emerge in the midgestation AGM.
Article · Jan 2008 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Craniofacial bones derive from cephalic neural crest, by endochondral or intramembranous ossification. Here, we address the role of the homeobox transcription factor Dlx5 during the initial steps of calvaria membranous differentiation and we show that Dlx5 elicits Runx2 induction and full osteoblast differentiation in embryonic suture mesenchyme grown "in vitro". First, we compare Dlx5 expression to bone-related gene expression in the developing skull and mandibular bones. We classify genes into three groups related to consecutive steps of ossification. Secondly, we study Dlx5 activity in osteoblast precursors, by transfecting Dlx5 into skull mesenchyme dissected prior to the onset of either Dlx5 and Runx2 expression or osteogenesis. We find that Dlx5 does not modify the proliferation rate or the expression of suture markers in the immature calvaria cells. Rather, Dlx5 initiates a complete osteogenic differentiation in these early primary cells, by triggering Runx2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase, and other gene expression according to the sequential temporal sequence observed during skull osteogenesis "in vivo". Thirdly, we show that BMP signaling activates Dlx5, Runx2, and alkaline phosphatase in those primary cultures and that a dominant-negative Dlx factor interferes with the ability of the BMP pathway to activate Runx2 expression. Together, these data suggest a pivotal role of Dlx5 and related Dlx factors in the onset of differentiation of chick calvaria osteoblasts.
Full-text Article · May 2007 · Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aorta is recognized as an intraembryonic site that produces adult-type hemopoietic stem cells. A corpus of data indicates that hemopoietic cells arranged as clusters attached to the aortic floor derive from an endothelial intermediate. This review reports on experimental approaches carried out in the avian embryo to establish the developmental history of the aortic endothelium and trace the origin of associated hemopoietic cells.
Full-text Article · Jun 2006 · Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We have isolated the avian ortholog for CBFbeta, the common non-DNA binding subunit of the core binding factor (CBF) that has important regulatory roles in major developmental pathways. CBFbeta forms heterodimers with the DNA-binding Runx proteins and increases their affinity for DNA and their protein stability. Here, we describe the Cbfbeta expression pattern during the first 4 days of chick embryo development, with a special interest in the developing hematopoietic system. We have compared its expression pattern to that of Runx1, which is crucial for the generation of definitive hematopoietic cells, and to other hematopoietic- or endothelial-specific markers (c-Myb, Pu.1, CD45, c-Ets-1 and VE-Cadherin). Initially, Cbfbeta is widely expressed in the early mesoderm in both the yolk sac and the embryo proper, but later its expression becomes restricted to specific organs or cell types. We have found that Cbfbeta expression overlaps with Runx1 in the hematopoietic system and neural tube. The somitic and mesonephric structures, however, express Cbfbeta in the absence of detectable Runx1. Finally, Cbfbeta and Runx1 display multiple combinatorial patterns in the endoderm and in specific nerves or ganglia. Taken together, we show that Cbfbeta exhibits a dynamic expression pattern that varies according to the organ, cell type or developmental stage. By revealing multiple combinatorial patterns between Cbfbeta and Runx1, these data provide new insights into the role of CBF during early development.
Full-text Article · Jan 2006 · Gene Expression Patterns
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report here a method that allows fast, efficient, and low-cost screening for gene function in the vascular system of the vertebrate embryo. Through intracardiac delivery of nucleic acids optimally compacted by a specific cationic lipid, we are able to induce in vivo endothelial cell-specific gain-of-function during development of the vascular network in the chick embryo. When the nucleic acids are delivered during the period of intraembryonic hematopoiesis, aortic hemangioblasts, the forerunners of the hematopoietic stem cells known to derive from the aortic endothelium, are also labeled. Similarly, we show that siRNA could be used to induce loss-of-function in vascular endothelial cells. This gene transfer technique was also applied to the mouse embryo with a high efficiency. The present method allows large-scale analysis and may represent a new and versatile tool for functional genomics.
Full-text Article · Jan 2006 · Developmental Dynamics