Christos Katsaros

Universität Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (180)221.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate whether multistranded fixed retainers prevented overeruption of unopposed mandibular second molars in maxillary first molar extraction cases. The panoramic radiographs of 65 Class II Division 1 Caucasian Whites (28 females, 37 males) consecutively treated with bilateral maxillary first molar extraction and the Begg technique, and with records taken after treatment (T1) and in retention (T2), were withdrawn from private practice records. After appliance removal, mandibular second molars were retained with sectional wires till at least T2 in case of lack of occlusal contact with the antagonist. The subjects were assigned to study-retention and control-nonretention groups based on the retention status of mandibular second molars. Radiographic analysis was carried out to determine inclination of mandibular molars and the resulting movement of second molar centroids. Parametric and nonparametric tests were performed to assess the changes between T1 and T2. No statistically significant differences in molar inclination were observed between groups and timepoints (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in molar movement percentages (P > 0.05) irrespective of whether fixed retention had been used or not. No significant eruption occurred in unopposed mandibular second molars bonded with fixed sectional retainers compared to molars partially occluded with the antagonists without fixed retention. Given the study limitations, fixed retention should be considered with caution in restricting tooth overeruption in unopposed molars.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Bone dehiscences and gingival recession have been associated with orthodontic arch expansion. The aim of this study was to assess and compare periodontal modeling during application of two force levels. Methods: The second and third upper molars were orthodontically moved buccally with conventional or low forces for 60 or 90 days in 32 rats. 10 non-treated animals were used as controls. The influence of force level and time on dental, skeletal, and periodontal parameters (i.e. height and thickness of gingiva and bone) was assessed on histomicrographs using a mixed linear model. Results: Facial tooth position (725μm, CI 379μm to 1072μm, distal root of the third molar) and maxillary skeletal width (295μm, CI 168μm to 421μm) differed significantly between force groups. Despite bone apposition at the facial aspects of the moved roots, bone dehiscences were developing and bone thickness was decreasing during facial tooth movement. Development of gingival recession was scarce and in cases with extreme facial tooth movement. No remarkable differences between force levels were found for any of the periodontal parameters. Conclusions: Facial tooth movement with conventional or low forces resulted in similar modeling of facial alveolar bone and gingiva. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
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    ABSTRACT: In Pierre Robin sequence, a retracted tongue due to micrognathia is thought to physically obstruct palatal shelf elevation and thereby cause cleft palate. However, micrognathia is not always associated with palatal clefting. Here, by using the Bmp7-null mouse model presenting with cleft palate and severe micrognathia, we provide the first causative mechanism linking the two. In wild-type embryos, the genioglossus muscle, which mediates tongue protrusion, originates from the rostral process of Meckel's cartilage and later from the mandibular symphysis, with 2 tendons positive for Scleraxis messenger RNA. In E13.5 Bmp7-null embryos, a rostral process failed to form, and a mandibular symphysis was absent at E17.5. Consequently, the genioglossus muscle fibers were diverted toward the lingual surface of Meckel's cartilage and mandibles, where they attached in an aponeurosis that ectopically expressed Scleraxis. The deflection of genioglossus fibers from the anterior-posterior toward the medial-lateral axis alters their direction of contraction and necessarily compromises tongue protrusion. Since this muscle abnormality precedes palatal shelf elevation, it is likely to contribute to clefting. In contrast, embryos with a cranial mesenchyme-specific deletion of Bmp7 (Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre) exhibited some degree of micrognathia but no cleft palate. In these embryos, a rostral process was present, indicating that mesenchyme-derived Bmp7 is dispensable for its formation. Moreover, the genioglossus appeared normal in Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre embryos, further supporting a role of aberrant tongue muscle attachment in palatal clefting. We thus propose that in Pierre Robin sequence, palatal shelf elevation is not impaired simply by physical obstruction by the tongue but by a specific developmental defect that leads to functional changes in tongue movements.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of dental research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Facial attractiveness is an important factor in our social interactions. It is still not entirely clear which factors influence the attractiveness of a face and facial asymmetry appears to play a certain role. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between facial attractiveness and regional facial asymmetries evaluated on three-dimensional (3D) images. Methods: 3D facial images of 59 (23 male, 36 female) young adult patients (age 16-25 years) before orthodontic treatment were evaluated for asymmetry. The same 3D images were presented to 12 lay judges who rated the attractiveness of each subject on a 100mm visual analogue scale. Reliability of the method was assessed with Bland-Altman plots and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: All subjects showed a certain amount of asymmetry in all regions of the face; most asymmetry was found in the chin and cheek areas and less in the lip, nose and forehead areas. No statistically significant differences in regional facial asymmetries were found between male and female subjects (P > 0.05). Regression analyses demonstrated that the judgement of facial attractiveness was not influenced by absolute regional facial asymmetries when gender, facial width-to-height ratio and type of malocclusion were controlled (P > 0.05). Limitations: A potential limitation of the study could be that other biologic and cultural factors influencing the perception of facial attractiveness were not controlled for. Conclusions: A small amount of asymmetry was present in all subjects assessed in this study, and asymmetry of this magnitude may not influence the assessment of facial attractiveness.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The European Journal of Orthodontics
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    Piotr Fudalej · Nikolaos Pandis · Christos Katsaros

    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The European Journal of Orthodontics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate if facial type is a predictor of the development of gingival recession. A cohort of 179 orthodontic patients (76 males, 101 females; age before treatment T S = 12.4 years, SD = 0.8) were followed until 5 years post-treatment (T 5 = 20.7 years, SD = 1.2). The presence of recessions was scored ('Yes' or 'No') by two raters on initial (T S), end of treatment (T 0), and post-treatment (T 5) plaster models. A recession was noted (scored 'Yes') if the labial cemento-enamel junction was exposed. The clinical crown heights were measured at T S, T 0, and T 5 as the distances between the incisal edges and the deepest points of the curvature of the vestibulo-gingival margins. Determination of the facial type was based on the inclination of mandibular plane relative to cranial base (Sella-Nasion/Mandibular Plane) and the proportion of posterior to anterior face heights (PFHs; SGo/NMe × 100 per cent) on pre-treatment cephalograms. From T 0 to T 5, the number of subjects with recessions increased from 2 (1.1 per cent) to 24 (13.6 per cent), and the number of recession sites increased from 2 to 39. However, most patients had either one or two recession sites. The mean clinical crown height of mandibular incisors increased by 0.86mm (SD = 0.82, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that mandibular plane inclination had no effect on the development of gingival recession or on the increase of clinical crown heights of mandibular incisors. Facial type is not a predictor of the occurrence of gingival recession. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The European Journal of Orthodontics
  • V Chappuis · O Engel · K Shahim · M Reyes · C Katsaros · D Buser
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    ABSTRACT: Dimensional alterations of the facial soft and bone tissues following tooth extraction in the esthetic zone play an essential role to achieve successful outcomes in implant therapy. This prospective study is the first to investigate the interplay between the soft tissue dimensions and the underlying bone anatomy during an 8-wk healing period. The analysis is based on sequential 3-dimensional digital surface model superimpositions of the soft and bone tissues using digital impressions and cone beam computed tomography during an 8-wk healing period. Soft tissue thickness in thin and thick bone phenotypes at extraction was similar, averaging 0.7 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively. Interestingly, thin bone phenotypes revealed a 7-fold increase in soft tissue thickness after an 8-wk healing period, whereas in thick bone phenotypes, the soft tissue dimensions remained unchanged. The observed spontaneous soft tissue thickening in thin bone phenotypes resulted in a vertical soft tissue loss of only 1.6 mm, which concealed the underlying vertical bone resorption of 7.5 mm. Because of spontaneous soft tissue thickening, no significant differences were detected in the total tissue loss between thin and thick bone phenotypes at 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. More than 51% of these dimensional alterations occurred within 2 wk of healing. Even though the observed spontaneous soft tissue thickening in thin bone phenotypes following tooth extraction conceals the pronounced underlying bone resorption pattern by masking the true bone deficiency, spontaneous soft tissue thickening offers advantages for subsequent bone regeneration and implant therapies in sites with high esthetic demand (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02403700). © International & American Associations for Dental Research.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of dental research
  • Matthias Chiquet · Christos Katsaros · Dimitris Kletsas
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Periodontology 2000
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the in vivo amount of BPA released from a visible light-cured orthodontic adhesive, immediately after bracket bonding. 20 orthodontic patients were recruited after obtaining informed consent. All patients received 24 orthodontic brackets in both dental arches. In Group A (11 patients), 25ml of tap water were used for mouth rinsing, whereas in Group B (9 patients) a simulated mouth rinse formulation was used: a mixture of 20ml de-ionized water plus 5ml absolute ethanol. Rinsing solutions were collected before, immediately after placing the orthodontic appliances and after washing out the oral cavity and were then stored in glass tubes. Rinsing was performed in a single phase for 60s with the entire volume of each liquid. The BPA analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An increase in BPA concentration immediately after the 1st post-bonding rinse was observed, for both rinsing media, which was reduced after the 2nd post-bonding rinse. Water exhibited higher levels of BPA concentration than water/ethanol after 1st and 2nd post-bonding rinses. Two-way mixed Repeated Measures ANOVA showed that the primary null hypothesis declaring mean BPA concentration to be equal across rinsing medium and rinsing status was rejected (p-value <0.001). The main effects of the rinsing medium and status, as well as their interaction were found to be statistically significant (p-values 0.048, <0.001 and 0.011 respectively). A significant pattern of increase of BPA concentration, followed by a decrease that reached the initial values was observed. The amount of BPA was relatively low and far below the reference limits of tolerable daily intake. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the risk of failure of fixed orthodontic retention protocols. Screening for inclusion eligibility, quality assessment of studies and data extraction was performed independently by two authors. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched with no restrictions on publication date or language using detailed strategies. The main outcome assessed was bond failure. Twenty-seven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Randomized controlled trials and prospective studies were evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Retrospective studies were graded employing the predetermined criteria of Bondemark. Nine randomized controlled trials, four of which were of low quality, were identified. Six studies had a prospective design and all were of low quality. Twelve studies were retrospective. The quality of trial reporting was poor in general. Four studies assessing glass-fibre retainers, three RCTs and one prospective, reported bond failures from 11%-71%, whereas twenty studies evaluating multistranded retainers - nine RCTs, two prospective and nine retrospective - reported failures ranging from 12%-50%. One comparison was performed, multistranded wires vs. polyehtylene woven ribbon (RR: 1.74; 95% CI: 0.45, 6.73; p=0.42). The quality of the available evidence is low. No conclusive evidence was found in order to guide orthodontists in the selection of the best protocol. Although fixed orthodontic retainers have been used for years in clinical practice, the selection of the best treatment protocol still remains a subjective issue. The available studies, and their synthesis, cannot provide reliable evidence in this field. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether judgment of nasolabial esthetics in cleft lip and palate (CLP) is influenced by overall facial attractiveness. Design: Experimental study. Setting: University of Bern, Switzerland. Subjects and methods: Seventy-two fused images (36 of boys, 36 of girls) were constructed. Each image comprised (1) the nasolabial region of a treated child with complete unilateral CLP (UCLP) and (2) the external facial features, i.e., the face with masked nasolabial region, of a noncleft child. Photographs of the nasolabial region of six boys and six girls with UCLP representing a wide range of esthetic outcomes, i.e., from very good to very poor appearance, were randomly chosen from a sample of 60 consecutively treated patients in whom nasolabial esthetics had been rated in a previous study. Photographs of external facial features of six boys and six girls without UCLP with various esthetics were randomly selected from patients' files. Eight lay raters evaluated the fused images using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Method reliability was assessed by reevaluation of fused images after >1 month. A regression model was used to analyze which elements of facial esthetics influenced the perception of nasolabial appearance. Results: Method reliability was good. A regression analysis demonstrated that only the appearance of the nasolabial area affected the esthetic scores of fused images (coefficient = -11.44; P < .001; R(2) = 0.464). The appearance of the external facial features did not influence perceptions of fused images. Conclusion: Cropping facial images for assessment of nasolabial appearance in CLP seems unnecessary. Instead, esthetic evaluation can be performed on images of full faces.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight boys, 13 girls; mean age, 12.8 years; standard deviation, 1.7 years) before treatment, after treatment with extraction of one maxillary first molar and Begg appliances and after at least 1.8 years in retention were retrospectively collected from a private practice. M2 and M3 inclination angles (M2/ITP, M2/IOP, M3/ITP, M3/IOP), constructed by intertuberosity (ITP) and interorbital planes (IOP), were calculated for the extracted and nonextracted segments. Random effects regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect on the molar angulation of extraction, time, and gender after adjusting for baseline measurements. Time and extraction status were significant predictors for M2 angulation. M2/ITP and M2/IOP decreased by 4.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.93, 1.16; P = .001) and 3.67 (95% CI: -6.76, -0.58; P = .020) in the extraction group compared to the nonextraction group after adjusting for time and gender. The adjusted analysis showed that extraction was the only predictor for M3 angulation that reached statistical significance. M3 mesial inclination increased by 7.38° (95% CI: -11.2, -3.54; P < .001) and 7.33° (95% CI: -11.48, -3.19; P = .001). M2 and M3 uprighting significantly improved in the extraction side after orthodontic treatment with unilateral maxillary M1 extraction. There was a significant increase in mesial tipping of maxillary second molar crowns over time.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Angle Orthodontist
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    ABSTRACT: To test the applicability, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of various 3D superimposition techniques for radiographic data, transformed to triangulated surface data. Five superimposition techniques (3P: three-point registration; AC: anterior cranial base; AC + F: anterior cranial base + foramen magnum; BZ: both zygomatic arches; 1Z: one zygomatic arch) were tested using eight pairs of pre-existing CT data (pre- and post-treatment). These were obtained from non-growing orthodontic patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. All datasets were superimposed by three operators independently, who repeated the whole procedure one month later. Accuracy was assessed by the distance (D) between superimposed datasets on three form-stable anatomical areas, located on the anterior cranial base and the foramen magnum. Precision and reproducibility were assessed using the distances between models at four specific landmarks. Non parametric multivariate models and Bland-Altman difference plots were used for analyses. There was no difference among operators or between time points on the accuracy of each superimposition technique (p>0.05). The AC + F technique was the most accurate (D<0.17 mm), as expected, followed by AC and BZ superimpositions that presented similar level of accuracy (D<0.5 mm). 3P and 1Z were the least accurate superimpositions (0.79<D<1.76 mm, p<0.005). Although there was no difference among operators or between time points on the precision of each superimposition technique (p>0.05), the detected structural changes differed significantly between different techniques (p<0.05). Bland-Altman difference plots showed that BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, though it presented slightly higher random error. Superimposition of 3D datasets using surface models created from voxel data can provide accurate, precise, and reproducible results, offering also high efficiency and increased post-processing capabilities. In the present study population, the BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, with the added advantage of being applicable to scans with a smaller field of view.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Summary INTRODUCTION : The cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method is used to determine the timing of treatment of Class II malocclusion. Because its performance has not been tested in patients with Class II, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the CVM method in predicting growth peak in Class II malocclusion. Twenty-nine untreated girls with Class II malocclusion were identified among participants of the Nijmegen Growth Study. Each girl had a series of cephalograms taken semi-annually from 9 to 14 years of age. The CVM status was established by five observers on a cephalogram taken at 9 years; mandibular and maxillary length and anterior face height were assessed on all available cephalograms. Method error was evaluated with kappa statistics and Bland-Altman (BA) plots. Regression analysis was used to determine if CVM grade can predict the phase of maximum facial growth. The mean kappa for intra-rater agreement during grading with CVM was 0.36 (fair agreement). BA plots demonstrated acceptable agreement for cephalometric measurements. The regression analysis demonstrated that the only chronologic age was associated with the facial growth. The largest effect of age was for condylion-gnathion (Cd-Gn) and articulare-gnathion (Ar-Gn)-for every additional 6 months the Cd-Gn increases by 1.8mm [95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 1.9, P < 0.001] and Ar-Gn increases by 1.59mm (95 per cent CI: 1.52, 1.67, P < 0.001). The CVM grade could not predict the change of cephalometric variables. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that the CVM method can predict the peak of craniofacial growth. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The European Journal of Orthodontics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. Materials and methods: The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, and Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics were screened for advertisements implying superior performance compared with competitor products. Advertisements were classified according to type of product, availability, and currency of supporting references. Results: A total of 99 unique advertisements claiming clinical benefit or superiority were identified. The overwhelming majority of the identified advertisements promoted appliance products (62.6%), orthodontic materials (14.1%), and dental operatory equipment, including imaging systems (12.1%). Advertisements were found to provide references or not regardless of the product type. Half of the advertisements referred to at least one peer-reviewed publication, whereas unpublished studies were cited by 25% of the advertisements. Most of the referenced articles were published within the past 5 years. Conclusions: The scientific background of advertisements in the orthodontic literature appears limited. While surveillance of journal advertising needs to be regulated, clinicians are urged to critically appraise the claims being made in orthodontic print advertisements by consulting the associated existing evidence.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Angle Orthodontist
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    ABSTRACT: Summary INTRODUCTION : A prerequisite for development of gingival recession is the presence of alveolar bone dehiscence. Proclination of mandibular incisors can result in thinning of the alveolus and dehiscence formation. To assess an association between proclination of mandibular incisor and development of gingival recession. One hundred and seventeen subjects who met the following inclusion criteria were selected: 1. age 11-14 years at start of orthodontic treatment (TS), 2. bonded retainer placed immediately after treatment (T0), 3. dental casts and lateral cephalograms available pre-treatment (TS), post-treatment (T0), and 5 years post-treatment (T5), and 4. post-treatment (T0) lower incisor inclination (Inc_Incl) <95° or >100.5°. Two groups were formed: non-proclined (N = 57; mean Inc_Incl = 90.8°) and proclined (N = 60; mean Inc_Incl = 105.2°). Clinical crown heights of mandibular incisors and the presence of gingival recession sites in this region were assessed on plaster models. Fisher's exact tests, t-tests, and regression models were computed for analysis of inter-group differences. The mean increase of clinical crown heights (from T0 to T5) of mandibular incisors ranged from 0.75 to 0.83mm in the non-proclined and proclined groups, respectively (P = 0.273). At T5, gingival recession sites were present in 12.3% and 11.7% patients from the non-proclined and proclined groups, respectively. The difference was also not significant (P = 0.851). The proclination of mandibular incisors did not increase a risk of development of gingival recession during five-year observation in comparison non-proclined teeth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The European Journal of Orthodontics
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    ABSTRACT: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has been introduced in 1998. This radiological imaging procedure has been provided for dentistry and is comparable to computed tomography (CT) in medicine. It is expected that CBCT will have the same success in dental diagnostic imaging as computed tomography had in medicine. Just as CT is responsible for a significant rise in radiation dose to the population from medical X-ray diagnostics, CBCT studies will be accompanied by a significant increase of the dose to our patients by dentistry. Because of the growing concern for an uncritical and consequently rapidly increasing use of CBCT the Swiss Society of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology convened a first consensus conference in 2011 to formulate indications for CBCT, which can be used as guidelines. In this meeting, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and temporomandibular joint disorders and diseases were treated and the most important and most experienced users of DVT in these areas were asked to participate. In general, a highly restrictive use of CBCT is re- quired. Justifying main criterion for CBCT applica- tion is that additional, therapy-relevant informa- tion is expected that should lead to a significant benefit in patient care. All users of CBCT should have completed a structured, high-level training, just like that offered by the Swiss Society of Den- tomaxillofacial Radiology.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Swiss Dental Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique and M1 extraction, and 15 untreated asymmetrical Class II adolescents (4 boys, 11 girls; mean age, 12.2 years; SD, 1.3 years) were examined in this study. Cephalometric analysis and PAR assessment were carried out before treatment (T1), after treatment (T2), and on average 2.5 years posttreatment (T3) for the treatment group, and at similar time points and average follow-up of 1.8 years for the controls. Results: The adjusted analysis indicated that the maxillary incisors were 2.3 mm more retracted in relation to A-Pog between T1 and T3 (β = 2.31; 95% CI; 0.76, 3.87), whereas the mandibular incisors were 1.3 mm more protracted (β = 1.34; 95% CI; 0.09, 2.59), and 5.9° more proclined to the mandibular plane (β = 5.92; 95% CI; 1.43, 10.41) compared with controls. The lower lip appeared 1.4 mm more protrusive relative to the subnasale-soft tissue-Pog line throughout the observation period in the treated adolescents (β = 1.43; 95% CI; 0.18, 2.67). There was a significant PAR score reduction over the entire follow-up period in the molar extraction group (β = -6.73; 95% CI; -10.7, -2.7). At T2, 65% of the subjects had maxillary midlines perfectly aligned with the face. Conclusions: Unilateral M1 extraction in asymmetrical Class II cases may lead to favorable occlusal outcomes in the long term without harming the midline esthetics and soft tissue profile.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Angle Orthodontist
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    Joël Beyeler · Isabelle Schnyder · Christos Katsaros · Matthias Chiquet
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    ABSTRACT: In a fraction of patients surgically treated for cleft lip/palate, excessive scarring disturbs maxillary growth and dento-alveolar development. Since certain genes are involved in craniofacial morphogenesis as well as tissue repair, a primary defect causing cleft lip/palate could lead to altered wound healing. We performed in vitro wound healing assays with primary lip fibroblasts from 16 cleft lip/palate patients. Nine foreskin fibroblast strains were included for comparison. Cells were grown to confluency and scratch wounds were applied; wound closure was monitored morphometrically over time. Wound closure rate showed highly significant differences between fibroblast strains. Statistically, fibroblast strains from the 25 individuals could be divided into three migratory groups, namely "fast", "intermediate", and "slow". Most cleft lip/palate fibroblasts were distributed between the "fast" (5 strains) and the "intermediate" group (10 strains). These phenotypes were stable over different cell passages from the same individual. Expression of genes involved in cleft lip/palate and wound repair was determined by quantitative PCR. Transforming growth factor-α mRNA was significantly up-regulated in the "fast" group. 5 ng/ml transforming growth factor-α added to the culture medium increased the wound closure rate of cleft lip/palate strains from the "intermediate" migratory group to the level of the "fast", but had no effect on the latter group. Conversely, antibody to transforming growth factor-α or a specific inhibitor of its receptor most effectively reduced the wound closure rate of "fast" cleft lip/palate strains. Thus, fibroblasts from a distinct subgroup of cleft lip/palate patients exhibit an increased migration rate into wounds in vitro, which is linked to higher transforming growth factor-α expression and attenuated by interfering with its signaling.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

2k Citations
221.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • Universität Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Pediatric Dentistry
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Orthodontics
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Institute of Mother and Child
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2002-2010
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Medical Centre
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2003-2009
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 1994-2000
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany