Publications (5)17.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA), an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) synthesized by Bacillus species, was explored to study its interaction with the basic brown 1 dye by conducting a systematic batch adsorption study as affected by two critical parameters, temperature and pH. Adsorption isotherms were closely predicted by Temkin equation among the eight isotherm models tested. The rate of adsorption was very rapid attaining equilibrium within 60 min and the kinetics were well described by both modified second-order and pseudo second-order models. Boyd's ion exchange model, which assumes exchanges of ions to be a chemical phenomenon, also fitted the kinetic data precisely. The adsorption rate increased with increasing solution temperature, however, a reversed trend was observed for the adsorption capacity. Changes in enthalpy, entropy and free energy values revealed dye adsorption by gamma-PGA to be an exothermic and spontaneous process involving no structural modification in gamma-PGA, whereas the activation energy of 37.21 kJ/mol indicated dye adsorption to be reaction-controlled. Following a rise in solution pH, the dye adsorption increased and reached a plateau at pH 5, while the maximum release of dye from spent gamma-PGA occurred at pH 1.5, suggesting a possible ion exchange mechanism. Ion exchange adsorption of basic dyes by gamma-PGA was further proved by the presence of two new IR bands at approximately 1600 and 1405.72 cm(-1), representing asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration of carboxylate anion, for dye-treated gamma-PGA.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Bioresource Technology
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    YT Chiu · C P Chiu · J T Chien · G H Ho · J Yang · B H Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato pulp waste, a byproduct obtained during the processing of tomato juice, has been shown to be a rich source of lycopene. The objectives of this study were to use gelatin and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) as coating materials for the encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste. Initially, lycopene was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, followed by microencapsulation using an emulsion system consisting of 4.5% gelatin, 10% gamma-PGA, and 4.8% lycopene extract. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the thermal stability of the coating material could be up to 120 degrees C, with a mean particle size of 38.7 microm based on Coulter counter analysis. The total weight of microencapsulated powder was 617 microg with the yield of lycopene being 76.5%, indicating a 23.5% loss during freeze drying. During storage of microencapsulated powder, the concentrations of cis-, trans-, and total lycopene decreased along with increasing time and temperature. A fast release of lycopene in the powder occurred at pH 5.5 and 7.0, while no lycopene was released at pH 2.0 and 3.5.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: A bacteria-derived biodegradable and non-toxic biopolymer poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. Sorption experiments were carried out with three basic dyes Auramine O (Au–O), Rhodamine B (Rh–B) and Safranin O (Sa–O) by a batch mode at different initial dye concentrations, agitation times, γ-PGA doses, temperatures, pH and added salts. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Redlich–Peterson equation, closely followed by Sips, when compared to Freundich and Langmuir models. The maximum sorption capacity derived from Langmuir model at 301 K was 277.29, 390.25 and 502.83 mg/g for Au–O, Rh–B and Sa–O dyes, respectively. The kinetics of dyes sorption on γ-PGA followed a pseudo second order equation and the rate was controlled by chemical sorption. An ion-exchange model assuming adsorption to be a chemical phenomenon also predicted the kinetic data precisely. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) obtained revealed dye sorption to be an exothermic and spontaneous process with decreasing randomness of dyes at the solid/solution interface. Dye sorption increased with increase in solution pH and reached a plateau at pH 5, while desorption of about 98% of dyes from spent γ-PGA occurred at pH 1. The incorporation of salts decreased the dye sorption, suggesting the binding of dyes on γ-PGA may involve ion-exchange mechanism.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Biochemical Engineering Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Natural polymeric materials are gaining interest for application as adsorbents in wastewater treatment due to their biodegradable and non-toxic nature. In this study, a biopolymer, poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) derived from bacterial sources (Bacillus species) was evaluated for its efficiency in removing basic dyes from aqueous solution. Sorption studies under batch mode were conducted using C.I. Basic blue 9 (BB9) and C.I. Basic green 4 (BG4) as test dyes. Equilibrium process conformed well with the Redlich-Peterson isotherm equation and the monolayer sorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir model was 352.76 and 293.32mg/g for BB9 and BG4 dyes, respectively. The kinetic studies of dye sorption on gamma-PGA gave high coefficients of determination (>0.98) for a pseudo second-order equation. An ion-exchange model, which assumes adsorption as a chemical phenomenon, was also found to fit the kinetic data precisely. The dye sorption largely depended on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH above 5. About 98% of the dye adsorbed on gamma-PGA could be recovered at pH 1, which facilitates the reuse of spent gamma-PGA.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Hazardous Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA), a nontoxic and biodegradable macropolymer, was evaluated for its efficiency in binding three mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HAs), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-p-2), as affected by pH in a batch mode. The maximum HA sorption was attained for pH 3-7 and decreased sharply for pH less than 3. Binding isotherms obtained at pH 2.5 and 5.5 showed different isotherm shapes that belong to S and L types, respectively. The isotherm data at pH 2.5 were well described by a linear form of the Langmuir equation, while at pH 5.5 it showed two distinct curves, which were precisely fitted as multiple Langmuir curves. The deviation of linearity in Scatchard plot proved the multisite HA sorption. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation also fitted better to isotherm data at pH 5.5, suggesting a multisite sorption caused by multimolecular HA layers on gamma-PGA. High HA sorption levels of 1250, 667, and 1429 mg/g at pH 2.5 and 1429, 909, and 1667 mg/g at pH 5.5 were observed for MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and Trp-p-2, respectively. Among the HAs studied, the sorption capacity correlated directly with hydrophobicity of HAs and inversely with the number of methyl groups in HA molecules. The plausible binding mechanism of HAs on gamma-PGA may include a combination of hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, ionic, and dipole-dipole interactions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry