[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylocoagulases (SCs) have been classified by the differences in antigenicity using a serological method. We have developed a system to classify them based on the nucleotide differences in SC genes (coa). The system was composed of three multiplex PCRs (M-PCRs): M-PCR:A, identifying types III, IV, VII, and VIII; M-PCR:B, identifying types I, II, V, and VI; M-PCR:C, identifying three subtypes of type VI. In this study, we found that coa genes of the serotype VI were not identical, but classified into three subtypes based on the nucleotide differences, especially in D2 and the central region: VIa, the coa gene carried by stp12 from human; and VIb and VIc, the coa genes carried by strains IFH556 and IFH514 isolated from bovine raw milk. The primer pair used in M-PCR:B was designed to identify all three subtypes of type VI coa. The results showed that coa types of 154 out of 155 Staphylococcus aureus strains from various origins assigned by M-PCR:A and B were identical to those obtained by serological methods, leaving a serotype IV strain unclassifiable. All 73 type VI strains were classified into one of three subtypes by M-PCR:C. Furthermore, we found that type VIa and VIb strains carried characteristic pyrogenic toxin superantigen genes, while no toxin genes were identified in type VIc strains, suggesting the correlation between the subtype of type VI coa gene and the carriage of genomic islands. Our results showed that these M-PCRs are convenient methods for SC typing that might be useful for epidemiological studies.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Microbiological Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) is predicted to be involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. To characterize SEH-producing Staphylococcus aureus isolates from staphylococcal food poisoning cases in Japan, we investigated the relationship between SEH production and coagulase serotype, which is an epidemiological marker, and compared the properties of SEH production with those of staphylococcal enterotoxins A (SEA) and B (SEB). SEH production was determined by a newly developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eighty-six (59.7%) of 144 isolates from staphylococcal food poisoning cases produced SEH. Seventy-one of the SEH-producing isolates simultaneously produced SEA, SEB, or both. All SEH-producing isolates belonged to coagulase type VII, which was the predominant type, representing 99 (68.8%) of 144 isolates. The amount of SEH produced in brain heart infusion was almost the same as the amount of SEA and approximately 10-fold lower than that of SEB. SEH and SEA were produced mainly during the late exponential phase of growth, whereas SEB was produced mostly during the stationary phase. The production levels of SEH and SEA were gradually affected by decreases in water activity, but the production of SEB was greatly reduced under conditions of low water activity. These findings indicate that SEH-producing S. aureus isolates are of high prevalence in staphylococcal food poisoning cases. Given the unique epidemiological characteristic of these isolates, SEH and SEA probably are responsible for food poisoning.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of food protection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inoculation tests of Staphylococcus aureus were performed to evaluate the risk of toxic hazard in cheese manufacturing processes. S. aureus was inoculated into pasteurized milk or cheese curd, and the survival and growth were examined. S. aureus grew only slightly or decreased in cell number under the manufacturing condition of semi-hard type cheese or soft-type cheese. Under the conditions of the fresh cheese making process, S. aureus slightly increased in cell number, though no enterotoxin was detected. In processed cheese, S. aureus did not grow at all. Growth inhibition of S. aureus by lactic acid produced from starter culture was suggested to be the cause of growth inhibition in the natural cheese.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The learning behavior of adult rats was studied using a water-filled multiple T-maze apparatus and a Morris swimming-maze after feeding lactose, galactosyllactose (GL), N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), sialyllactose (SL) or galactosylated N-acetylneuraminic acid (GN) and a control diet. The learning behavior tended to improve in the groups fed SL or GN when compared with the other groups. The concentrations of gangliosides and GM3 in brain were significantly higher in the groups fed SL or GN. The data show that the feeding of SL or GN to adult rats raised the brain ganglioside and GM3 contents, which may be related to improvement in the swimming learning behavior.