Publications (5)9.22 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mortality study on the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out in a French aluminium reduction plant. This study updated a previous mortality study. The historical cohort included every male worker who had been employed in the plant for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994. Workers were followed-up for mortality from 1968 to 1994. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regional mortality rates as external reference to compare observed and expected numbers of deaths, adjusted for gender, age and calendar time. The cohort comprised 2,133 men, of whom 335 died during the follow-up period. The observed mortality was lower than expected for all causes of death (SMR = 0.81, CI 0.72-0.90) and for lung cancer (observed = 19, SMR = 0.63, CI 0.38 0.98). No lung cancer excess was observed in workshops where PAH exposure was likely to have occurred, and no trend was observed according to duration of exposure and time since first exposure. This low lung cancer mortality could be partly explained by a marked healthy worker effect and a possible negative confounding by smoking. An excess was observed for bladder cancer (observed = 7, SMR = 1.77, CI 0.713.64) in the whole cohort, that was higher among workers employed in workshops where PAH exposure was likely to have occurred (observed = 6, SMR = 2.15, CI 0.79-4.68). In addition, an SMR higher than unity was observed for "psychoses and neuro-degenerative diseases" (observed = 6, SMR = 2.39, CI 0.88-5.21), that could not be related to occupational aluminium exposure. No lung cancer risk was detected. Non-significant excesses were observed for bladder cancer and for psychoses and neuro-degenerative diseases.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mortality of workers involved in the production of stainless and alloyed steel from 1968 to 1992 was studied, in order to investigate the risk of lung cancer due to exposure to metals, i.e. iron oxides, chromium and/or nickel compounds. The study design was a historical cohort mortality study and a nested case-control study concerning lung cancer. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using regional mortality rates as an external reference for comparing observed and expected numbers of deaths, adjusting for age, sex and calendar time. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Occupational exposure was assessed through the complete job histories of cases and controls and a specific job-exposure matrix. The cohort comprised 4,288 male and 609 female workers. The observed overall mortality was significantly lower than expected [649 deaths; SMR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.98]. No significant SMR was observed for mortality from lung cancer (54 deaths; SMR = 1.19; CI 0.88-1.55). The case-control study was based on 54 cases and 162 individually matched controls. Smoking habits were available for 71%. No lung cancer excess was observed for exposure to (1) metals and/or their compounds, i.e. iron (OR = 0.94, CI 0.48-1.86), chromium and/or nickel (OR = 1.18, CI 0.62-2.25), and cobalt (OR =0.64, CI 0.33-1.25), (2) acid mists (OR = 0.43, CI 0.17-1.10), and (3) asbestos (OR = 1.00, CI 0.54-1.86). With respect to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica, which are often found together in workplaces, (1) high and statistically significant lung cancer excesses were observed, the ORs being 1.95 (CI 1.03-3.72) and 2.47 (CI 1.28-4.77) respectively, (2) quantitative exposure parameters revealed upward trends reaching statistical significance (P < 0.05), and (3) adjustments for tobacco consumption did not reveal any confounding factors from smoking. This study failed to detect any relationship between lung cancer and exposure to iron, chromium, nickel and/or their compounds. High and statistically significant relative risks, along with increasing trends, were observed for simultaneous exposure to PAHs and silica.
    No preview · Article · May 2000 · International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT:  The Department of Epidemiology, which forms part of the French National Institute for Research and Safety (INRS), is involved in research on occupational risks. It provides results of industry-based epidemiological studies focused on the relationship between occupational exposure and diseases of the respiratory system, central and peripheral nervous systems and cancer. This paper describes the Quality Assurance System developed by our department, which has been successfully maintained and extended since being granted ISO 9002 certification by the French Association for Quality Assurance. The quality system includes procedures specific to epidemiological study conduct and scientific peer reviews. It has been designed in order to meet the required ISO elements, including quality aims and policy, quality procedures for management of personnel, sub-contractors and facilities, nonconformities, corrective and preventive actions, archiving and traceability and planning of internal quality audits. Improvements in management, technical and service quality have resulted from this process. Although epidemiological studies differ markedly from industrial production for which the standards were originally drawn up, we have found that Quality Assurance is both applicable and useful in epidemiological research on occupational risks. Therefore, we conclude that a certified Quality Assurance Scheme including scientific peer reviews can be recommended to ensure reliable epidemiological results.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Accreditation and Quality Assurance
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After an inquiry from the employees of an offset printing plant, a historical cohort study was conducted to investigate cancer mortality among these workers. The cohort comprised 262 men, who contributed 2771 person-years of observation. 16 deaths were identified during the follow up period (1980-91). Expected numbers of deaths were derived from age specific regional rates. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. An increased cancer mortality was found after 10 years of employment (SMR 213, 95% CI 98 to 405, based on nine deaths), mainly due to a high mortality from lung cancer (SMR 381, 95% CI 104 to 975, four deaths), and from oesophageal cancer (SMR 1049, 95% CI 216 to 3065, three deaths). For workers with at least 20 years since the start of employment, the SMR was 262 (95% CI 105 to 540) for all cancer sites, 447 (95% CI 92 to 1306) for lung cancer, and 1094 (95% CI 132 to 3952) for oesophageal cancer. The increased cancer mortality was concentrated among pressmen. Although based on small numbers, the findings suggest an increased risk of cancer among these workers, which should be further investigated.
    Preview · Article · May 1997 · Occupational and Environmental Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mortality study was carried out in two factories producing stainless steel in order to assess lung cancer risk among workers employed in coke oven, blast and open hearth furnaces, foundry, electric furnace, hot and cold rolling mills and pickling areas. Occupational exposures of interest were chromium compounds, nickel compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), silica and asbestos. All male workers having at least one year of employment between 01.01.1960 and 31.12.1990 were followed up for mortality. The vital status was assessed from birth place registries. Complete job histories since date of first employment were abstracted from the company files. The smoking habits of 50% of the cohort members were known from medical records. The observed number of deaths (obs) were compared with the expected ones based on regional rates with adjustment for age, sex and calendar time (Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMR). The cohorts included 6324 (factory 1) and 5270 (factory 2) workers. The overall mortality did not differ markedly from that expected in both factories: SMR = 0.95 (obs = 1540, p = 0.05) in factory 1 and SMR = 1.06 (obs = 916, non-significant) in factory 2. SMRs for lung cancer did not differ from unity, respectively 0.99 (obs = 105) and 1.00 (obs = 54), in whole cohorts. Non-significant lung cancer excesses were observed among workers of some workshops where exposures of interest might have occurred: coke oven (SMR = 2.04), blast furnace (SMR = 1.36), open hearth furnace (SMR = 1.75), hot rolling mills (SMR = 1.29). These processes, however, are no longer involved in the study factories. Furthermore, no lung cancer excess was observed among workers employed in current workshops: electric furnaces and cold rolling mills.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique