[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocyte death occurs by necrosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in myocardial infarction (MI). In vitro studies suggest caspase activation causes myocardial contractile protein degradation without inducing apoptosis. Thus, caspase activation may evoke left ventricular (LV) remodeling through independent processes post-MI. The effects of caspase activation on LV geometry post-MI remain unclear. This project applied pharmacologic caspase inhibition (CASPI) to a porcine model of MI.
Pigs (34 kg) were instrumented to induce 60 minutes of coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion and a 7-day follow-up period. Upon reperfusion, the pigs were randomized to saline (n = 12) or CASPI (n = 10, IDN6734, 6 mg/kg i.v., then 6 mg/kg/h for 24 hours). Plasma troponin-I values were reduced with CASPI compared with saline at 24 hours post-MI (133 +/- 15 vs. 189 +/- 20 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). LV end-diastolic area (echocardiography) and interregional length (sonomicrometry) increased from baseline in both groups but were attenuated with CASPI by 40% and 90%, respectively (P < 0.05). Myocyte length was reduced with CASPI compared with saline (128 +/- 3 vs. 141 +/- 4 microm, respectively, P < 0.05). Plasma-free pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 values increased from baseline with CASPI (27% +/- 6%, P < 0.05) indicative of reduced conversion to active MMP-2. Separate in vitro studies demonstrated that activated caspase species cleaved pro-MMP-2 yielding active MMP-2 forms and that MMP activity was increased in the presence of activated caspase-3.
CASPI attenuated regional and global LV remodeling post-MI and altered viable myocyte geometry. Caspases increased MMP activity in vitro, whereas CASPI modified conversion of MMP-2 to the active form in vivo. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the elaboration of caspases post-MI likely contribute to LV remodeling through both cellular and extracellular mechanisms.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased myocardial interstitial levels of endothelin (ET) occur during cardioplegic arrest (CA) and may contribute to contractile dysfunction. Endothelin receptor transduction involves the protein kinase-C (PKC) family comprised of multiple isoforms with diverse functions. Which PKC isoforms may be involved in ET-induced contractile dysfunction after CA remains unknown.
Shortening velocity was measured in isolated left ventricular porcine myocytes and randomized (minimum of 30 per group): normothermia (cell culture media for 2 hours at 37 degrees C); CA (2 hours in CA solution [4 degrees C, 24 mEq K+] followed by reperfusion in cell media); ET/CA (100 pM ET incubated during CA and reperfusion). These studies were carried out in the presence and absence of PKC inhibitors (500 nM) and directed against members of the classical PKC subfamily (beta I, beta II, gamma) and the novel subfamily (epsilon, eta).
Cardiac arrest reduced shortening velocity by approximately 50%, which was further reduced in the presence of ET. Inhibition of either the beta II or gamma PKC isoform significantly increased shortening velocity from ET/CA as well as CA only values. In separate studies (n = 3), total beta II and phosphorylated beta II increased by over 150% with ET/CA (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that a predominant intracellular effector for the negative contractile effects mediated by ET in the context of CA is the PKC isoform beta II.
Targeted inhibition of specific PKC isoforms relieves the negative inotropic effects of ET after simulated CA. These findings provide important mechanistic support for the development of targeted inhibitory strategies with respect to ET signaling and myocyte contractile dysfunction in the context of CA and reperfusion.
Preview · Article · Sep 2006 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cause-effect relationship has been established between MMP activation and left ventricular (LV) remodeling following myocardial infarction. The goal of the present study was to examine a selective MMP inhibitor (sMMPi) strategy that effectively spared MMP-1, -3, and -7 with effect to regional and global left ventricular remodeling in a pig model of myocardial infarction.
Pigs instrumented with coronary snares and radiopaque markers within the area at risk were randomized to myocardial infarction-only (n = 10) or sMMPi (PGE-530742, 1 mg/kg TID) begun 3 days prior to myocardial infarction. Ten weight-matched noninstrumented pigs served as reference controls. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume in the myocardial infarction-only group was increased from baseline (81 +/- 3 mL versus 55 +/- 4 mL, respectively, P < 0.05) but was attenuated with sMMPi (67 +/- 3 mL, P < 0.05). Fractional area of shortening of marker area was decreased in the myocardial infarction-only group (change from baseline -63 +/- 10%, P < 0.05) but this effect was attenuated with sMMPi (-28 +/- 14%, P < 0.05), indicative of less dyskinesis of the infarct region with sMMPi. Wall stress was reduced within both the septal and posterior wall regions with sMMPi. Myocardial MMP-2 activity was decreased in both remote and border areas of sMMPi-treated samples compared with myocardial infarction-only values, consistent with pharmacologic MMP inhibition.
Selective MMP inhibition favorably affected regional myocardial geometry and decreased left ventricular dilation post-myocardial infarction. This study suggests that a strategy of selective MMP inhibition of a limited array of MMPs may be an achievable goal in preventing pathologic left ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LV myocardial remodeling is a structural hallmark of hypertensive hypertrophy, but molecular mechanisms driving this process are not well understood. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can cause myocardial remodeling in chronic disease states, but how MMP activity is altered with a mechanical load remains unknown. The present study quantified interstitial MMP activity after a discrete increase in LV load and dissected out the contributory role of the angiotensin II Type 1 receptor (AT1R). Pigs (38 kg) were randomized to undergo (1) increased LV load by insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) triggered at systole for 3 hours, then deactivated (n=11); (2) IABP and AT1R blockade (AT1RB; valsartan, 3 ng/kg/hr; n=6). MMP activity was directly measured in the myocardial interstitium using a validated inline digital fluorogenic microdialysis system. IABP engagement increased LV peak pressure from 92+/-3 to 113+/-5 and 123+/-7 mm Hg in the vehicle and AR1RB group, respectively, and remained elevated throughout the IABP period (P<0.05). With IABP disengagement, segmental shortening (% change from baseline of 0) remained depressed in the vehicle group (-32.2+/-11.8%, P<0.05) but returned to baseline in the AT1RB group (2.3+/-12.5%). MMP activity decreased with IABP in both groups. At IABP disengagement, a surge in MMP activity occurred in the vehicle group that was abrogated with AT1RB (3.03+/-0.85 versus 0.07+/-1.55 MMP units/hr, P<0.05). A transient increase in LV load caused a cyclic variation in interstitial MMP activity that is regulated in part by the AT1R. These temporally dynamic changes in MMP activity likely influence myocardial function and structure with increased LV load.
Preview · Article · May 2005 · Circulation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to regional remodeling after prolonged periods of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), but specific MMP types activated during this process remain poorly understood. A novel class, the membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs), has been identified in the myocardium, but activity of these MMP types has not been assessed in vivo, particularly during I/R.
Pigs (30 kg, n=8) were instrumented with microdialysis catheters to measure MT1-MMP activity in both ischemic and nonischemic (remote) myocardium. A validated MT1-MMP fluorogenic substrate was infused through the microdialysis system, and changes in fluorescence were reflective of MT1-MMP activity at steady state, during ischemia (90 minutes), and during reperfusion (120 minutes). At peak ischemia, MT1-MMP activity was increased by >40% in the ischemic region, with no change in the remote region, which persisted with reperfusion (P<0.05). After I/R, MT1-MMP abundance was increased by >50% (P<0.05). Differential centrifugation revealed that the endosomal fraction (which contains subcellular organelles) within the ischemic myocardium was associated with a >135% increase in MT1-MMP (P<0.05). Furthermore, in an isolated left ventricular myocyte model of I/R, hypoxia (simulated ischemia) induced a >70% increase in MT1-MMP abundance in myocytes, and confocal microscopy revealed MT1-MMP internalization during this time period and reemergence to the membrane with reperfusion.
These unique results demonstrate that a specific MMP type, MT1-MMP, is increased in abundance and activity with I/R and is likely attributed, at least in part, to changes in intracellular trafficking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest (HCA) and rewarming evokes postoperative myocyte contractile dysfunction, a phenomenon of particular importance in settings of preexisting left ventricular (LV) failure. Caspases are intracellular proteolytic enzymes recently demonstrated to degrade myocardial contractile proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that myocyte contractile dysfunction induced by HCA could be ameliorated with caspase inhibition in the setting of compromised myocardial function. LV myocytes were isolated from control pigs (n = 9, 30 kg) or pigs with LV failure induced by rapid pacing (n = 6, 240 bpm for 21 days) and were randomized to the following: (1) normothermia (2003 myocytes), incubation in cell culture medium for 2 hours at 37 degrees C; (2) HCA only (506 myocytes), incubation for 2 hours in hypothermic HCA solution (4 degrees C, 24 mEq K); or (3) HCA + z-VAD, incubation in hypothermic HCA solution supplemented with 10 microM of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD (z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl-ketone, 415 myocytes). Inotropic responsiveness was examined using beta-adrenergic stimulation (25 nM isoproterenol). Ambient normothermic myocyte shortening velocity (microm/s) was reduced with LV failure compared with control values (54 +/- 2 versus 75 +/- 2, respectively, P < 0.05). Following HCA, shortening velocity decreased in the LV failure and control groups (27 +/- 5 and 45 +/- 3, P < 0.05). Institution of z-VAD increased myocyte shortening velocity following HCA in both the LV failure and control groups (49 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 5, P < 0.05). Moreover, HCA supplementation with z-VAD increased beta-adrenergic responsiveness in both groups compared with HCA-only values. This study provides proof of concept that caspase activity contributes to myocyte contractile dysfunction following simulated HCA. Pharmacologic caspase inhibition may hold particular relevance in the execution of cardiac surgical procedures requiring HCA in the context of preexisting LV failure.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of left ventricular (LV) myocytes to simulated hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest (HCA) has been demonstrated to perturb ionic homeostasis and adversely affect myocyte contractility on rewarming. Altered ionic homeostasis can cause cytosolic activation of the caspases. While caspases participate in apoptosis, these proteases can degrade myocyte contractile proteins, and thereby alter myocyte contractility. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that caspase inhibition during HCA would attenuate the degree of myocyte contractile dysfunction upon rewarming, independent of a loss in myocyte viability.
Porcine (n = 8) LV myocytes were isolated and assigned to the following treatment groups: normothermic control: incubation in cell culture media for 2 hours at 37 degrees C; HCA only: incubation for 2 hours in hypothermic HCA solution (4 degrees C, 24 mEq K(+)); or incubation in hypothermic HCA solution supplemented with 10 microM of the caspase inhibitor, z-VAD (z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl-ketone, HCA+zVAD). Myocyte viability, assayed as a function of mitochondrial function, was determined to be similar in the normothermic and both HCA groups.
The HCA caused a significant reduction in myocyte shortening velocity compared with normothermic control values (41 +/- 6 versus 86 +/- 8 microm/s, p < 0.05). The HCA+zVAD group had significantly improved myocyte shortening velocity compared with the HCA only group (63 +/- 7 microm/s, p < 0.05).
Independent of changes in viability, caspase inhibition attenuated myocyte contractile dysfunction after HCA and rewarming. Thus, caspase activation during HCA contributes, at least in part, to impaired myocyte contractility with rewarming. Supplementation of HCA with caspase inhibitors may provide a means to preserve myocyte contractile function after cardioplegic arrest.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury causes myocardial dysfunction in part through intracellular calcium overload. A recently described pharmacologic compound, MCC-135 (5-methyl-2-[1-piperazinyl] benzenesulfonic acid monohydrate, Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation), alters intracellular calcium levels. This project tested the hypothesis that MCC-135 would influence regional myocardial contractility when administered at reperfusion and after a prolonged period of ischemia.
A circumflex snare and sonomicrometry crystals within remote and area-at-risk regions were placed in pigs (n = 18, 32 kg). Coronary occlusion was instituted for 120 minutes followed by 180 minutes of reperfusion. At 105 minutes of ischemia pigs were randomly assigned to IR only (n = 11) or MCC-135 (IR-MCC [300 microg. kg(-1). h(-1), n = 7]) administered intravenously. Regional myocardial contractility was determined by calculation of the regional end-systolic pressure-dimension relation (RESPDR [mm Hg/cm]). Myocardial injury was determined by measurement of plasma levels of myocyte-specific enzymes.
At 90 minutes ischemia, mean troponin-I was 35 +/- 8 ng/mL with no significant difference between groups. At 180 minutes reperfusion, heart rate was increased by 18% +/- 5% in the IR only group (p < 0.05) and was reduced by 11% +/- 4% with IR-MCC (p < 0.05). At 90 minutes ischemia RESPDR was reduced from baseline by 51% +/- 6% (p < 0.05). By 30 minutes reperfusion, reductions in RESPDR were attenuated with IR-MCC compared with IR only values. The CK-MB levels were increased at 180 minutes reperfusion in the IR only group (52 +/- 9 ng/mL) compared with baseline (6 +/- 1 ng/mL, p < 0.05) but were attenuated with IR-MCC (24 +/- 4 ng/mL, p < 0.05) compared with IR only values.
Despite similar degrees of injury at 90 minutes ischemia MCC-135 improved regional contractility and reduced the egress of CK-MB. Moreover MCC-135 was associated with decreased heart rate, a determinant of myocardial oxygen demand. Pharmacologic modulation of calcium transport ameliorates myocardial dysfunction in the acute IR period.
Preview · Article · Jan 2004 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocyte death occurs by necrosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in the setting of myocardial infarction. In vitro studies suggest that caspase activation within myocytes causes contractile protein degradation without inducing cell death. Thus, caspase activation may evoke left ventricular remodeling through 2 independent processes post-myocardial infarction. However, the effects of caspase activation on left ventricular geometry post-myocardial infarction remain unclear. This project applied broad-spectrum caspase inhibition to a chronic porcine model of myocardial infarction.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mechanism for myocardial dysfunction after ischemia and reperfusion is Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activation. Although past in vivo models of limited ischemia and reperfusion intervals demonstrate that Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition confers myocardial protection when administered at the onset of ischemia, the effect of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition on myocardial function after prolonged ischemia and reperfusion remains unknown. This investigation tested the hypothesis that Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition instituted at reperfusion and after prolonged coronary occlusion in pigs would influence myocardial contractility independent of myocardial viability.
A coronary snare and sonomicrometry crystals were placed in pigs (n = 21, 32 kg). Coronary occlusion was instituted for 120 minutes followed by reperfusion for 180 minutes. At 105 minutes of ischemia, pigs were randomized to ischemia and reperfusion only (saline solution, n = 11) or Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition (HOE-642, 3 mg/kg intravenously, n = 10). Myocardial injury was determined by tissue staining and measurement of plasma myocyte-specific enzymes. Myocardial contractility was determined by calculation of the regional end-systolic pressure-dimension relation (millimeters of mercury per centimeter) and by assessment of interregional shortening.
Infarct size was not different between groups (39% +/- 6%, P =.26). Moreover, at 180 minutes of reperfusion, plasma troponin-I and creatine kinase MB values had increased to identical levels in the ischemia and reperfusion-only and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition groups (300 +/- 35 and 50 +/- 6 ng/mL, respectively). At 90 minutes of ischemia, regional end-systolic pressure-dimension relation decreased from baseline (5.7 +/- 0.5 versus 2.7 +/- 0.3, P <.05) in the area at risk. By 30 minutes of reperfusion, regional end-systolic pressure-dimension relation decreased further in the ischemia and reperfusion-only group (1.6 +/- 0.2, P <.05), but improved with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition (4.4 +/- 0.7, P <.05).
Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition instituted at reperfusion improved contractility independent of myocardial viability as assessed by absolute infarct size and myocyte-specific enzyme release. Thus, modulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in the setting of prolonged ischemia and reperfusion may hold therapeutic potential.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cause-and-effect relationship exists between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) induction and left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Whether broad-spectrum MMP inhibition is necessary and the timing at which MMP inhibition should be instituted after MI remain unclear. This study examined the effects of MMP-1 and MMP-7-sparing inhibition (sMMPi) on regional and global LV remodeling when instituted before or after MI.
Pigs instrumented with coronary snares and radiopaque markers within the area at risk were randomized to MI only (n=11) or sMMPi (PGE-530742, 10 mg/kg PO TID) begun 3 days before MI (n=11) or 3 days after MI (n=10). Eleven weight-matched noninstrumented pigs served as reference controls. At 10 days after MI, infarct size was similar between groups (47+/-3% of the area at risk). Marker area increased from baseline in the MI-only group (10+/-3%, P<0.05) but was unchanged with sMMPi. LV end-diastolic volume increased in the MI-only group (82+/-3 mL) compared with controls (56+/-3 mL, P<0.05) but was attenuated with pre-MI and post-MI sMMPi (69+/-3 and 69+/-4 mL, respectively, P<0.05). Collagen content increased in the infarct zone of the MI-only group (34+/-5%) compared with control (2+/-1%, P<0.05) but was reduced with pre-MI and post-MI sMMPi (24+/-1% and 23+/-2%, P<0.05). Collagen content increased in the border zone (12+/-2%) and decreased in the remote zone (3+/-1%) of the pre-MI sMMPi group compared with post-MI sMMPi values (7+/-1% and 5+/-1%, P<0.05).
Inhibition of MMP-1 and -7 is not required to favorably influence LV remodeling after MI. Moreover, a temporal difference exists with respect to the timing of sMMPi and regional and global myocardial remodeling patterns after MI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin has been demonstrated to cause systemic vasodilation, and increased plasma adrenomedullin levels have been observed in cardiovascular disease states such as heart failure. While adrenomedullin receptors have been localized to the myocardium, the effects of adrenomedullin on human myocyte contractility remained unknown.
Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from myocardial biopsies of patients (n = 16) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery with normal left ventricular ejection fractions (51 +/- 1%). A total of 233 left ventricular myocytes were studied by videomicroscopy. Myocyte shortening velocity (microm/s) was measured at baseline and following the addition of either 3 nM, 30 nM, or 60 nM of adrenomedullin. The change in myocyte shortening velocity with increasing concentrations of adrenomedullin was computed. At all concentrations, adrenomedullin reduced myocyte shortening velocity from baseline values (P < 0.05). Next, the potential interaction of adrenomedullin with the beta-adrenergic receptor system was examined using 25 nM isoproterenol. The beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase in the myocyte shortening velocity was blunted with adrenomedullin (29 +/- 7 vs 63 +/- 13 microm/s, P < 0.05).
These unique findings demonstrate that adrenomedullin reduced contractility in isolated human left ventricular myocytes and exhibited a negative interaction with the beta-adrenergic receptor system. Past studies have shown that adrenomedullin induces nitric oxide synthesis and that nitric oxide can uncouple myocyte metabolism. Thus, while adrenomedullin causes systemic vasodilation, this peptide can also exert a negative contractile effect in human left ventricular myocytes.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elaboration of a number of bioactive substances, including adenosine, occurs in heart failure (HF). Adenosine, through the adenosine subtype 1 (A1) receptor, can reduce renal perfusion pressure and glomerular filtration rate and increase tubular sodium reabsorption, which can affect natriuresis and aquaresis. Accordingly, the present study examined the acute effects of selective A1 receptor blockade on hemodynamics and renal function in a model of HF.
HF was induced in adult pigs (n = 19) by chronic pacing (240 beats/min for 3 weeks). The pigs were then instrumented for hemodynamic and renal function measurements. After baseline measurements were taken, pigs received either A1 block [ 1 mg/kg BG9719 (1,3-dipropyl-8-[2(5,6-epoxynorbornyl)]xanthine; n = 9)] or infusion of vehicle (n = 10), and measurements were repeated at intervals for up to 2 hours. Normal controls (n = 7) were included for comparison.
Cardiac output remained unchanged between the A1 block and vehicle groups throughout the study. Pulmonary vascular resistance fell 38% from baseline at 10 minutes post-A1 block in the HF group (p < 0.05) with no change in the vehicle group. At 10 minutes post-A1 block, urine flow increased sixfold and sodium excretion increased over 10-fold (for both, p < 0.05) with no change in the vehicle group. At 10 minutes post-A1 block, creatinine clearance increased with no change in the vehicle group. At 10 minutes post-A1 block, plasma renin activity had increased over threefold (p <0.05), and it returned to baseline levels by 30 minutes post-A1 block.
The unique findings from this study were threefold. First, increased A1 receptor activation contributes to renal mediated fluid retention in HF. Second, selective A1 blockade can induce diuresis without hemodynamic compromise and with possible benefit to pulmonary resistance in a model of HF. A1 blockade transiently increased plasma renin activity with no change in hemodynamics. These unique results suggest that selective A1 blockade can be a useful adjunctive diuretic in the setting of HF.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons