[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two different studies were carried out in the hospital of a town in Central Italy to evaluate of the genotoxic hazards related to occupational exposure to anesthetics. In the first study 12 operating rooms were monitored for environmental contamination with anesthetics, and 64 subjects from the operating room personnel were studied for the urinary excretion of two biomarkers of exposure to mutagens (thioethers and mutagenicity) and of one biomarker of enzymatic induction (D-glucaric acid). The results showed that thioether excretion increased only in subjects exposed to very high concentrations of anesthetics. As regards the other biomarkers, no changes were found. In the second study, 19 operating rooms were monitored for anesthetics and 46 anesthetists were submitted to a biological monitoring programme for analysis of lymphocytes of sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei, two early effect biomarkers. The environmental monitoring showed that in the operating rooms the anesthetic concentrations decreased in comparison with the first-study data. The biological monitoring elicited an increase of the frequency of micronuclei in lymphocytes, but only for female anesthetists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated in 48 agricultural workers and 50 control subjects living in central Italy. No difference in SCE frequency was found between the control and the exposed populations with respect to age, smoking habits, and duration of exposure, although smokers, both farmers and controls, had a higher SCE frequency than nonsmokers. However, the comparison of proliferative rate index values found in the two groups revealed a significant decrease in the activation capability of lymphocytes in the pesticide-exposed workers, probably related to the toxic properties of chemicals to which the farmers were exposed. On the contrary, the analysis of micronuclei frequency indicated that there were differences between the exposed and control subjects with respect to smoking habits, age, and duration of exposure. Our results indicate that, in the study population occupationally exposed to a complex mixture, including insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides, there is clear, although slight, evidence of clastogenic activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes but no corresponding effects on SCE induction. Moreover, our data show clear evidence of cell proliferation delay relatable to chemical compounds used in agriculture.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Journal of Environmental Pathology Toxicology and Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children who live in contaminated areas or whose cohabitants are occupationally exposed to lead are at a higher risk of lead absorption. The present study examined the blood lead levels of 539 nursery and primary school children living in three towns in the Umbria region (central Italy): Deruta, Corciano and Perugia. Deruta is a small town with a high number of ceramic workshops; Corciano is a mainly agricultural centre; Perugia is the largest town in Umbria. The lead concentrations of house dust, soil, air and water ducts of Deruta and Corciano were also examined. The blood lead levels were significantly increased in children in Deruta (9.7 S.D. = 3.6 micrograms/dL, p < 0.05) and Perugia (9.6 S.D. = 4.0 micrograms/dL, p < 0.05) compared to Corciano (8.3 S.D. = 1.9 micrograms/dL). In Deruta the blood lead levels were higher in children whose cohabitants worked in small ceramic factories or workshops near or in the homes (10.7 S.D. = 4.1 vs 9.0 S.D. = 3.0 micrograms/dL, p < 0.05). The mean concentration of lead in the house dust in Deruta was higher than in Corciano (2.8 S.D. = 2.5 vs 0.8 S.D. = 3.8 micrograms/m2, p < 0.01); the highest values were found in the house dust of the homes of children whose cohabitants worked in small ceramic factories either near or in the same building. There was no significant difference between the concentrations of lead in street dust or tap water of Deruta and Corciano. We conclude that the production of handworked ceramics could lead to an increased risk of lead absorption in children, particularly those who live with workers from this sector.
No preview · Article · Jan 1992 · La Medicina del lavoro
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present report is a research on air samples taken in the operating theatres environment in the hospitals of Umbria to control in order the concentration of anaesthetics in use and to define ambient pollution and to propose changes. The A.A. have divided operating theatres in for groups to analyze the data: 1) operating theatres where there were both systems: air change system and air intake system; 2) operating theatres where there was only the air-change system; 3) operating theatres where there was only the air intake system; 4) operating theatres where there were no systems. These data have been compared with the limit values advised by N.I.O.S.H. The lowest value of pollution have been recorded in those operating theatres with both systems. The A.A. have also compared the ethrane or other alogenated anaesthetics values in the air-change system equipped operating theatres with those (values) found in the intake-air system equipped operating theatres. The lowest values have been recorded in those operating theatres with normal air-change system. Where changes have been made to improve the operating theatres environment, the A.A. have effectuated new controls and found lower values of the anaesthetics levels. The concentration of anaesthetics appeared lower then before.
No preview · Article · Sep 1989 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors carried out biological monitoring of the mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards associated with exposure to bitumen fumes during paving operations, analysing some biological parameters in the urine of a group of exposed workers. The urine samples were studied for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for thioethers concentration. D-Glucaric acid urine excretion was also determined to investigate the enzymatic induction potential of bitumens. Even though, in a previous environmental monitoring phase, a low content of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds was found in bitumen and air samples, urinary mutagenicity data of exposed workers were statistically higher than those of a group of unexposed subjects. The urinary mutagenicity increased further if exposure to bitumens was associated with cigarette smoking. Thioethers were higher only in subjects exposed simultaneously to bitumens and cigarettes. D-Glucaric acid excretion did not increase significantly. The authors think that this type of coupled environmental and biological monitoring is a valid tool for a better evaluation of the mutagenic/carcinogenic exposure to bitumens or similar complex mixtures.
No preview · Article · Feb 1989 · International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors, in view of the continuously changing contagious diseases outline, deal with the problem of a better qualification and reorganization of the direct interventions in the contagious diseases prophylaxis. In this respect, the authors deem that the reporting of the cases must assume a primary importance and that all the locally operating health and social services, where the general medicine practitioners have an integrating part, ought to be redefined in their tasks and reorganized in view of the new outlines. So, it is necessary to found a more flexible reporting system. A bidirectional information flux model is also proposed between the public health-services and the general medicine practitioners.
No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Descriptive data on occupational accidents and diseases in the field of construction and particularly among builders are reported. They derive from publications of the National Insurance Institute for Occupational Accidents (INAIL) and refer to the Italian and Umbrian situation. Data show that the number and the severity of the accidents in this field are of great concern. The characteristics of the building work in our areas are too peculiar as the work is carried out in small building sites and lasts for a short period of time; subcontracting and piecework are widely diffused; health surveillance is nearly absent. One must take into account all of these characteristics when prevention programs are to be planned. Intervention priority must be given to a) information on occupational risks of contractors and workers; b) first level prevention; c) control and inspection activity. In this respect the A.A. report the results of the watch activity in 703 erecting yards by one to health unit's Department for the health security, safety and welfare of persons at work (period May 1985 - May 1988). The A.A. define a type of organization to achieve a continual intervention in the erecting yards.
No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutagenic hazards related to occupational exposure to nitrous oxide and enflurane was studied in the personnel of five operating rooms using a coupled environmental and biological monitoring approach. The environmental monitoring revealed air concentrations of the two anesthetics exceedings the TLVs by 10-15-fold. These values were correlated individually with the concentrations of the two anesthetics in the expired air of the exposed subjects. The biological monitoring was carried out by determining two parameters associated with mutagen exposure (urinary mutagenicity and thioethers) and a parameter associated with the enzymatic induction (D-glucaric acid) in the urine of exposed and unexposed subjects (N = 64 and N = 37, respectively). The results showed no difference in the two groups for urine mutagenicity and D-glucaric acid, but urine thioethers were significantly increased among highly exposed subjects.
No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We carried out a survey on blood lead levels in children living in three different communities in Umbria, Italy: Corciano, a small community (12,500 inhabitants), free of lead-using factories and with light traffic; Perugia, a medium-sized city (146,500 inhabitants); Deruta, a small community (7500 inhabitants) whose economy is based mainly on the production of artistic pottery, mostly in small home-operated factories. The study sample was made up of 539 children (275 boys and 264 girls); 156 of them attended nursery school (aged 3-6) and 383 primary school (aged 6-11). The mean blood lead level was significantly higher in Deruta than in Corciano (9.7 vs 8.3 micrograms/dl); Deruta children whose parents were occupationally exposed to lead had significantly higher blood lead levels than children of lead-unexposed parents (10.7 vs 9.0 micrograms/dl). The mean blood lead level was higher in Perugia than in Corciano children. On the average boys had higher blood lead levels than girls in all of the groups. We conclude that blood lead levels were low in the groups of children studied. Nevertheless children of ceramic workers and children living in a medium-sized city had greater lead absorption than children living in the control area.
No preview · Article · Jan 1989 · Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A group of 28 workers in 4 small factories producing reinforced plastics were studied as regards exposure to styrene and urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (D-GA) as an index of enzymatic activation in the liver. TWA values of styrene in air were below the TLV proposed by the ACGIH. D-GA excretion was determined in exposed workers on Monday at the beginning and end of the shift, and on Friday at the end of the shift. Unexposed subjects, comparable for age, were chosen as a control group. Exposed workers showed statistically higher excretion of D-GA in all the samples tested. The differences were still present after the division of the two groups into two additional sub-groups, according to smoking habits. These data suggest that styrene exposure, even at concentration levels below the TLV, could be responsible for the increased excretion of D-GA.
No preview · Article · Jan 1988 · La Medicina del lavoro
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental monitoring of mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards associated with occupational exposure to bitumen fumes was performed during road paving operations. Bitumen samples were collected and analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content by HPLC and for mutagenicity by the Ames test. The exposure of sixteen road workers to bitumen fumes was studied. Time-weighted average values of bitumen fumes were determined by personal samplers. PAH concentration in the air and the mutagenicity of airborne particulates were also analysed. The results showed that bitumen samples contained low levels of total PAH (microgram/g) and were not mutagenic. Environmental monitoring showed a low level of exposure to bitumen fumes, which were found to contain only trace levels of PAH and not to be mutagenic. The authors suggest that these workers' exposure to mutagenic/carcinogenic agents is low.
No preview · Article · Feb 1987 · International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health