[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is believed to be more often multicentric and bilateral compared with invasive ductal cancer (IDC), leading clinicians to pursue a more aggressive local and contralateral approach.
Retrospective review of a consecutive cohort of breast cancer patients operated at one institution from January 2000 to January 2010 was performed. Median follow-up was 4 years.
There were 171 ILC (14.5%) and 1,011 IDC patients in the study period. Median age (63 vs. 65 years) and tumor diameter (1.7 cm) were similar in the two groups. Diagnoses of ILC were more frequent in the second half of the study period (55/465 vs. 116/662, p<0.01). Multicentricity was reported in 108/1,011 (10.6%) IDC and in 31/171 (18.1%) ILC patients (p<0.01). A positive margin of resection at initial surgery was documented in 71/1,011 (7%) IDC and in 21/171 (12.3%) ILC patients (p<0.001). Although the rate of mastectomy decreased over time in both groups, this was more pronounced for ILC patients (p<0.001). Locoregional control, contralateral cancer, overall survival, disease-free survival, and survival according to diameter, nodal status, and type of surgical intervention did not differ between IDC and ILC. On multivariate analysis, stage of disease and hormone receptor status were associated with disease-free survival, but histology was not.
Although ILC is more often multicentric, bilateral, and associated with a positive margin of resection, local control and survival are similar to IDC. ILC can be treated similarly to IDC with good results.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraoperative Frozen Section (IFS) with further tissue resection in case of positive margins has been proposed to decrease positive surgical margins rate during radical prostatectomy. There are a few reports on the benefits of this potential reduction of positive margins (PSM).
The aim of this study is to assess the oncological advantages of PSM rate reduction with the use of IFS and additional tissue excision in case of PSM. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTECIPANTS: 270 patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were included in a prospective study, to evaluate the results of further tissue excision in case of PSM at IFS. Median age was 65 yrs. Median PSA was 7.0 ng/ml.
The prostate was extracted during the operation. IFS was performed in all patients on the prostate surface, at the base, the apex and along the postero-lateral aspect of the gland. In case of PSM additional tissue was excised from the site of the prostatic bed corresponding to the surgical margin.
Endpoint was biochemical recurrence-free survival.
PSM were found in 67 patients (24.8%). With additional tissue resection, PSM rate dropped from 24.8% to 12.6%. Decreased PSM after further resection didn't improve biochemical-free survival. Patients with initial PSM at IFS rendered negative with further resection, had similar results if compared to patients with margins still positive, and worse results if compared to patients with negative margins (NSM). Biochemical recurrence rate was 2.95% at 58 months in 203 patients with NSM, 15.1% at 54 months in 33 patients with PSM at IFS that were rendered negative after further resection, and 11.7% at 67 months in 34 patients with still PSM after additional resection. These results were confirmed also according to: stage, nerve-sparing procedure, Gleason score.
Our data don't support IFS during radical prostatectomy to improve biochemical-free survival.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow (BM) biopsy has been suggested as an independent prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer.
Patients operated for breast cancer from June 2000 to April 2008 were enrolled in this protocol after signing an informed consent. After primary surgery, BM aspirate from the iliac crest was obtained and 5-10 cc of blood collected. Since 2002 a peripheral blood (PB) sample was also obtained. Both carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Mammaglobin-specific nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to examine BM and PB samples. Physicians and patients were blinded to results.
Two hundred seventy-three patients underwent BM and/or PB test. The median age of the patients was 63 years (31-80 years), and the median tumor diameter was 1.5 cm (0.1-6 cm). BM aspirates were unsuccessful in nine patients, and RT-PCR was not technically feasible in 18 women, leaving 246 patients available for analysis of results and follow-up. Among them, 110 patients (45%) had either a BM or a PB test positive for CEA or Mammaglobin (Test+). At median follow-up of 60 months, 31 events (deaths or relapse) occurred (13%). Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly lower in the Test+ group (BP and/or PB) (P<0.001). This effect was independent of nodal status. At 5 years, event-free survival for Node-/Test- patients was 46/49 (94%) and for Node+/Test+ patients was 21/33 (64%), while patients with only one status positive (Node-/Test+ or Node+/Test-) had an intermediate disease-free survival (35/43, 81%) (P=0.005). In a subgroup analysis, RT-PCR results for BM and Mammaglobin retained statistical significance on DFS (P<0.001), while those for PB and CEA did not.
This study confirms that RT-PCR of the BM is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival of breast cancer patients, and may improve their staging, allowing better strategies for therapy and follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical management of breast cancer has improved tremendously in the last 2 decades. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) allows conservation of the axillary lymph nodes in most patients who have breast cancer. Furthermore, it allows identification of occult nodal disease after step sectioning and more detailed staging. Although large breast tumors, multicentric disease, recurrent cancers, and use of neoadjuvant therapy were previously considered contraindications to SNB, a large body of evidence is accumulating to support its use in these cases. The prognostic significance of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells needs clarification in prospective, randomized trials.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy allows enhanced pathology with serial sections and immunohistochemical analysis of the retrieved node. We present our experience with a simple, practical, pathology protocol.
We analysed 416 consecutive breast cancer patient who underwent SLN biopsy. These were studied with six couples of sections at three different levels, each stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H/E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (MNF 116).
With conventional analysis the SLN was positive in 106/416 cases (25%). The addition of serial sections, according to the protocol, allowed diagnoses of micrometastases (MICRO) (n = 22) or isolated tumor cells (ITC) (n = 38) or MICRO (n = 1) in 51/416 patients (14.6%). Specifically, the diagnosis was undertaken at level I (8.9%), level II (4%), or level III (1,6%). The incidence of MICRO or ITC was not different in T1 and T2 cases (13% vs. 15%, P = 0.7). The addition of the third level of analysis added very little both in T1 and T2 cancers (1.3% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.1).
Serial sectioning of the SLN allows diagnosis of MICRO and ITC in a significant percentage of cases. Adoption of our protocol seems practical, as the incidence of level III positivity is extremely low, particularly in T1 cancers, and additional sections would be, therefore, unlikely useful.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemical markers in pancreatic cancer and to determine the association of their expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis.
Thirty pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients were followed-up for an average period of 5 years. FAS, bcl-2, p53 and Ki-67 expression were detected immunohistochemically to determine their prognostic value.
FAS was statistically associated with p53 (p = 0.002), Ki-67 (p = 0.003), higher histological grade (p = 0.001 and recurrence and overall survival (p = 0.001).
The newly found overexpression of FAS in highly aggressive pancreatic carcinomas may help us stratify patients into different prognostic groups and indicate new therapeutic strategies.
Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the additional value of 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopy (3D-MRS) imaging to endorectal MR imaging in the diagnosis of prostrate cancer in the peripheral zone.
MR imaging and MRS imaging were performed in 79 patients with suspicion of prostate cancer on the basis of digital rectal exploration, transrectal ultrasound and PSA level. All the examinations were performed with 1.5 T MR scan using an endorectal coil (transverse and coronal FSE T2-weighted sequences, axial SE T1-weighted and PRESS 3D CSI). MR examinations have been evaluated by two Radiologists blind of the clinical data in a "per patients" analysis. MR imaging and MRS imaging findings were compared with the result of histological data from radical prostatectomy in 53 patients and biopsy in 17 patients.
Nine patients (11.4%) were excluded because of serious artefacts in the MR spectrum. The reported values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for MR imaging alone were respectively 84%, 50%, 76% and 63% (LR+ 1.7; LR- 0.3). Instead the reported values of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the combination of MR imaging to MRS imaging were respectively 89%, 79%, 89% and 79% (LR+ 4.28; LR- 0.14). We found an incremental benefit of MRS imaging to MR imaging for tumour diagnosis although these results did not show statistically significant differences.
The MRS imaging improves the accuracy of the endorectal MR imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Abdominal Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate tumor grading is critical for adequate prostate cancer treatment. Nonetheless, the Gleason score of standard sextant biopsy correctly predicts the Gleason score of the radical prostatectomy specimen in about 50% of cases. We investigated if extended needle biopsy could improve biopsy Gleason score accuracy.
Laparoscopic transperitoneal radical prostatectomy was performed in 135 patients. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 89 cases by standard sextant transrectal (6 to 8 cores) biopsy and in 46 by extended needle (12 core transperineal under transrectal guidance) biopsy. Preoperative evaluation included digital rectal examination, prostatic specific antigen measurement, transrectal ultrasonography and endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging in all patients. All biopsy and prostatectomy specimens were reviewed by a single pathologist.
Clinical characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The concordance between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy Gleason score was 32 of 46 cases (70%) and 44 of 89 (49%) for 12 core and standard transrectal biopsy, respectively (z test p = 0.0127). Biopsy under grading was found in 11 of 46 cases (24%) and 35 of 89 (39%) (z test p = 0.0366), and biopsy over grading was found in 3 of 46 (6%) and 10 of 89 (11%) (z test p = 0.1894) with 12 core and standard transrectal biopsy, respectively. Primary Gleason pattern was predicted exactly by biopsy in 40 of 46 cases (87%) and 56 of 89 (63%) with 12 core and standard sextant biopsy, respectively (z test p = 0.0018).
Extended needle biopsy significantly increases the accuracy of biopsy Gleason score for assessing final prostate cancer grade.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraoperative identification of positive sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer may avoid a return to the operating room.
In a group of 402 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, an intraoperative examination (IE) was obtained in 236 cases either by frozen section (FS; n = 68) or by touch preparation cytology (TP; n = 168).
IE had an accuracy of 89% (209 of 236), but it identified only 52 of 77 positive cases (sensitivity, 68%). There were 25 false-negative cases (13.7%), of which 7 were macrometastases and 18 by micrometastases (P < .001). Six macrometastases were missed by TP and one by FS (P = .9). There were two false-positive cases (3.7%). Overall, 48 (20%) of 236 patients avoided a delayed return to the operating room for a completion lymphadenectomy because of IE findings. This occurred in 10% of patients with tumors <1 cm in diameter, in 20% of those with tumors between 1 and 2 cm, and in 34% of those with tumors >2 cm in diameter (P = .05). The cost savings for the Italian Health System amounted to 198,040 (US$223,794) in these patients.
IE has acceptable sensitivity for lymph node macrometastases, but it is a weak tool for diagnosing micrometastases. FS and TP are roughly equivalent. IE allows management changes, because approximately 20% of all patients are expected to undergo synchronous axillary dissection, and it is particularly helpful in T2 patients. This may allow substantial cost savings for the health-care system.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the additional value of MR Spectroscopy (3D CSI MRS Three-dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) to endorectal MR in the diagnosis and grading of prostate cancer.
MR and 3D CSI MR spectroscopy were performed in 53 patients with suspicion of prostate cancer on the basis of rectal exploration and/or transrectal ultrasound and/or the PSA levels. All the examinations were performed with a 1.5 T imager using an endorectal coil. We acquired axial and coronal T2-weighted FSE sequences, axial T1-weighted SE sequences and PRESS 3D CSI (Point Resolved Spectroscopy 3D Chemical Shift Imaging) sequences localized on the axial T2 images so as to include the prostatic gland while excluding the periprostatic fat. The MR examinations were evaluated by two radiologists unaware of the clinical data, transrectal ultrasound findings, PSA levels and histological findings. The MR and 3D CSI MRS findings were compared with the biopsy findings in 22 cases and with material obtained from laparoscopic prostatectomy in 31 cases.
The histological examination revealed adenocarcinoma in 37 cases, prostatitis in 2 cases and no alterations in the remaining 14 cases. The morphologic MR scan showed a sensitivity of 76%, a specificity of 56%, an accuracy of 70%, a PPV of 80% and a NPV of 50%. By combining MR and 3D CSI MRS we obtained a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 81%, an accuracy of 91%, a PPV of 92% and a NPV of 87%. Elevated choline concentrations were found both in tumours with a low Gleason score (18 cases) and in those with a high Gleason score (19 cases); instead we found markedly reduced (n=9) or absent (n=4) citrate only in the tumours with a high Gleason score, while we found normal citrate levels in the 18 tumours with a low Gleason score.
The 3D CSI MRS improved the reliability of endorectal MR in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostatic cancer. Moreover, the 3D CSI MRS findings demonstrated a linear correlation with tumour grade.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · La radiologia medica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma is given to treat micrometastases and to preserve the bladder. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of bladder preservation in patients with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma who were treated with neoadjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (M-VAC) chemotherapy.
One hundred four consecutive patients with T2-T4,N0,M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated with 3 cycles of neoadjuvant M-VAC chemotherapy. After clinical restaging, 52 patients underwent transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) alone, 13 patients underwent partial cystectomy, and 39 patients underwent radical cystectomy.
The median survival for the entire group was 7.49 years (95% confidence interval, 4.86-10.0 years). Forty-nine patients (49%) were T0 at the time of TURB after receiving M-VAC. Thirty-one of 52 patients (60%) who received chemotherapy and underwent TURB alone were alive at a median follow-up of 56 + months (range, 10-160 + months): Twenty-three patients (44%) in that TURB group maintained an intact bladder. Of 13 responding patients with monofocal lesions who underwent partial cystectomy, only 1 patient required salvage cystectomy, and survival generally was good. The 5-year survival rate for this group was 69%. With a long median follow-up of 88 + months (range, 16-158 months), 4 patients (31%) were alive with a functioning bladder. In the radical cystectomy group, the median follow-up was 45 months (range, 4-172 + months), and 15 of 39 patients (38%) patients remained alive. In 77 patients who had their tumors down-staged to T0 or superficial disease, the median follow-up was 63 months (range, 4-172 + months), and the 5-year rate survival was 69%. This is in contrast to a 5-year survival rate of only 26% in 27 patients who failed to respond and had a status >/= T2 after receiving chemotherapy (median follow-up, 31 months; range, 7-156 + months). The median survival for 27 elderly patients (age >/= 70 years; median age, 73 years; range, 70-82 years) was 90 months (7.5 years). For elderly patients who underwent TURB and partial cystectomy, the 5-year survival rate was 67% with a 109-month (9-year) median survival; 47% of patients preserved their bladders intact. The median follow-up of the living elderly patients was 61 months (range, 20-120 + months).
Bladder sparing in selected patients on the basis of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a feasible approach that should be confirmed in prospective, randomized trials. Selected elderly patients are candidates for this approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe our experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer. 326 consecutive patients with breast cancer operated on from December 1998 to December 2002 were studied. All patients gave their informed consent. Patients were mapped with an intradermal injection of Tc-99 (median dose: 0.5 mCi) and/or Patent Blue. Sentinel lymph nodes were analyzed with serial sections. 333 procedures were performed in the 326 patients. A median of two sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 322 cases (97%). 3165 additional non-sentinel lymph nodes were removed and analyzed to assess the accuracy of the technique. The correlation between sentinel lymph nodes and final pathological status was 97% (314/322). In 66/133 cases with axillary metastases (50%) the sentinel lymph node was the only site of metastasis. Micrometastases were diagnosed in 35/66 cases (26%), while isolated tumour cells were found in 15 cases (11%). At a median follow-up of 21 months one patient presented an axillary relapse (0.3%). Our experience confirms that sentinel lymph node biopsy is accurate and reproducible. Routine axillary dissection is no longer the gold standard in patients with early breast cancer. Prospective studies are under way in an attempt to provide, definitive answers.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Chirurgia italiana
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in patients with breast cancer seen at a community hospital.
Consecutive cases receiving primary treatment for unicentric breast cancer less than 3 cm in diameter were prospectively studied from January 1999 to July 2000. All patients signed a detailed informed consent. The majority of patients (89%) underwent a combined technique of intradermal injection of 0.3-1.2 mCi of (99)Tc and 1-3 cc of Patent Blue at the biopsy site. Intraoperative localization was performed with a hand-held gamma probe. The first 15 patients underwent routine back-up lymphadenectomy. Thereafter, only patients with positive SLN, suspicious findings, or personal preference underwent formal axillary dissection.
One hundred eight cases were included in the study with a median age of 61 years and a median diameter of the breast tumor of 1.5 cm. Success rate for identification of SLN was 94% (101/108 cases). A total of 917 additional lymph nodes were removed after SLN biopsy (median 6.5 lymph nodes/patient). Correlation between SLN and the final axillary status was 98%. In 20/36 patients (61%) with positive axillary status the sentinel lymph node was the only positive one. Ten patients had only microscopic foci of cancer found in the SLN. Sixty-seven patients (62%) could have avoided axillary dissection becouse the SLN was found, it was negative, and there were no other intraoperative suspicious findings.
SLN biopsy is accurate and easily reproduced. Our data confirms that the majority of breast cancer patients may no longer need routine axillary lymphadenectomy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Minerva chirurgica